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A Rathole: Foucault, Freud, and the Problem of Isolation / Logos. 2021. № 2 (141). P. 1-28
annotation:  The article discusses the problem of isolation and draws a parallel between two different approaches to it - Michel Foucault’s archeology of power and Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis. Foucault’s perspective is exemplified by his critique of the strategies of power as they were applied to the epidemics of leprosy and bubonic plague. For leprosy there was an undifferentiated exclusionary space, while the the plague brought about a segmented space for confinement. The passage from the one strategy to the other marks the development of the disciplinary model of power: leper colonies are transformed into prisons and psychiatric wards. Freud’s approach is examined in his treatment of the Rat Man, the patient whose analysis prompted Freud to formulate his theory of obsessional neurosis, or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The article emphasizes the relevance of the problem of OCD to the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020. The traditional strategy of power applied to leprosy was isolation by means of exile from towns, while for the plague isolation meant shutting towns down with their inhabitants each in their own place as if imprisoned. COVID-19 brought about a new strategy of self-isolation which entails creating physical and psychological barriers together with social distancing. Obsessional neurosis is evolving from an individual pathology into a kind of collective one: epidemiology influences mentality. In conclusion, the article takes up two literary examples - Roman Mikhailov’s text “The Wrong Side of a Rat,” and Varlam Shalamov’s story “Lepers,” from the Kolyma Stories collection - in which breaking out of isolation, disease and infection are presented as alternative affective experiences.
Keywords:  Michel Foucault; Sigmund Freud; isolation; plague; leprosy; exclusion; obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD); rats.
Becoming a Virus: Self-Organization of the Masses in Recent Decades / Logos. 2021. № 2 (141). P. 29-42
annotation:  According to our usual understanding of a virus, it is a parasite that spreads by forcing the host to make copies it. Cultural analogies to that concept have already given us the notion of a computer virus, a media virus or meme, and ideas as viruses infecting and propagating within the human brain, etc. But could the concept of a virus provide a useful analogy to political and social phenomena? The authors show how such an analogy illuminates the features of modern mass politics that remain obscure as long as political action is thought of in terms of identity, ideology, or private interest. The theoretical basis for regarding social and political phenomena as viruses is that the class of viruses is by nature analogous rather than homologous. This means that scientists can come to different conclusions about the origin of viruses and that several different theories may all be correct. Nevertheless, the term “virus” is meaningful precisely because of the analogy between all the entities called viruses. The core of this analogy is that all viruses use the same set of tricks (artificuim) to realize their essence (potentia). Viruses are parasitic on the organic machinery of other living beings, turning their malfunctions into their own reproductive system. That process also has a cognitive dimension because viruses learn only over succeeding generations. Viruses then live and act not as individual carriers, but only as procreating, mutating, learning multitudes. Their potentia is precisely analogous to the power of the multitudes, which Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri have discussed. It is a power which constitutes a new political order and simultaneously impoverishes the present one. The article explains the meaning of this analogy as it applies to the fate of the political and social institutions of late modernity.
Keywords:  potentia; artificium; multitude; analogy ; virus; meme; mass politics; institutions of modernity.
Contagiousness as a Problem in Social Epistemology / Logos. 2021. № 2 (141). P. 43-62
annotation:  The theory of infection, although it arose in parallel with the advance of positive knowledge, has never embodied only the logic of the laboratory, in which a “clean” experiment can be devised in order to expose the true causes or symptoms of a disease. To the contrary, both the advent of laboratories and the way they work have come about as the result of a clash between the old paradigm for infection (miasma) and the new one (particular forms of life). The structure of an infection is primarily a structure of social relations, in which the history of an infection and the factors that contributed to its spread are reconstructed. The uncertainty about how an epidemic spreads led to the vindication of the autonomous knowledge which arrived at original ways of representing itself and could prove the soundness of its approach. Any discursive accuracy was regarded as questionable and unable to result in a treatment that would be superior to letting the infection run its course. The efforts of such leading epidemiologists in the modern era as Justus von Liebig, Carlos Juan Finlay, Patrick Manson, and the staff of the Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine in Hamburg brought about a reconstruction by professionalizing the stages in handling epidemics. It is argued that laboratories asserted their autonomy from universities not because of anything distinctive in their nature, but more because of a general understanding of cause and effect relationships in matters of need and famine. That counted for much more than any shortcomings in the previously established logistics and expansion of production. In addition, the development of forms of colonial, industrial and scientific expansion coupled with new types of enterprise, such as the Panama Canal or Germany’s trade with its colonies, fostered a new vision of epidemics not as natural disasters, but as a complex situations that can be managed and neutralized.
Keywords:  contagiousness; infection; institutionalization of medicine; history of laboratories; medical discourses; public consciousness.
The Will Not to Know / Logos. 2021. № 2 (141). P. 63-78
annotation:  COVID-19 has been gradually fading from the headlines since summer’s end, and other news has moved into the lead. However, the pandemic has not gone away, nor have expectations of a second wave. Famous philosopher and psychoanalyst Slavoj Žižek refers to this tendency as “the will not to know” in opposition to the title of Michel Foucault’s Lectures on the Will to Know. Behind this phenomenon Žižek sees a tripartite structure at work along the lines of Freudian dream-work: there is “triangulation” between latent dream-thought, manifest dream-content, and the unconscious wish. The coronavirus itself corresponds to the “manifest dream text,” the focal point of our media, and is what we all talk (and dream) about. It is not merely an actual phenomenon, but also the object of fantasized connections, of dreams and fears. For that reason Žižek regards the switch to other news as fake, while the pandemic remains the true Master-Signifier. This Master-Signifier is overdetermined by a whole series of interconnected real-life facts and processes that form its dream-content, consisting not only of the reality of the health crisis, but also of ecological troubles and more. The hypothesis Žižek defends is that this interplay between the COVID-19 pandemic and the social causes that overdetermine it is not the whole story. There is a third level at work here (which corresponds to the true trauma, the unconscious wish of a dream), and this is the ontological catastrophe triggered by the pandemic, the undermining of the coordinates of our basic access to reality, which reaches far beyond a usual “mental crisis.”
Keywords:  COVID-19; new normality ; Johann Gottlieb Fichte; Michel Foucault; Sigmund Freud; psychoanalysis.
The Prevailing Disease: Foucault on the Institutional Meaning of Epidemics and Compact Models of Power Relations / Logos. 2021. № 2 (141). P. 79-104
annotation:  The article focuses on Michel Foucault’s work with the social history of medicine and evaluates its potential for analyzing the political impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Foucault reveals the bond between quarantine measures in European cities and the gradual perfection of techniques of power. He uses organized anti-epidemic activities applied to leprosy and plague as examples of “compact models” of power relations that he discusses in terms of exclusion and discipline. He reveals complex relationships between the physical body of an individual and what he calls the “social body” of a state. Foucault describes how “health policy” was formed during the second half of 18th century when it drastically changed urban space and became one of the key techniques of government. In Foucault’s lectures published as Security, Territory, Population, he turns to the concept of a “prevailing” or literally “reigning” disease. The countermeasures against the disease enable the development of special techniques applicable to the population in a given historical period. He uses the statistical description of patients suffering from smallpox as an example of how a regime of power and government of the population develops by invoking security and risk assessment. In the concluding section, the author estimates the potential of Foucauldian historical analysis as a tool for anticipating the tendencies inherent in the techniques of power mobilized to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.
Keywords:  Michel Foucault; social history of medicine; plague epidemics; disciplinary society ; quarantine; techniques of power ; social body ; COVID-19.
Biopower and Plasma: How COVID-19 Made an ANT Theorist Stop Worrying and Love Foucault / Logos. 2021. № 2 (141). P. 105-126
annotation:  The article deals with some problems in the works of Bruno Latour and Michel Foucault as they considered the body and biopower. To dispose of the Foucauldian concept of biopower, Latour proposed his theory of the body as a dynamic object constantly learning to be open to new articulations. The author points out the gaps in Latour’s solution and develops her own in order to return biopower into the realm of actor network theory. The body is to be understood as the privileged object in actor network theory, while both biopower and resistance to it are two fundamental and interrelated groups of articulations that allow the body to support the unlimited expansion of the network. This theory is validated by succeeding in three tasks. The first is to show that Latour’s definition of the human body has implications that are important both for his work with biopower and for actor network theory as a whole. The body in the actor network theory has a special status compared to any other objects, and this is the very reason that the control of biopower over the body plays such an important role. Only the body possesses the necessary “bandwidth” - the ability to bring into the network what is not in it. The second task is to compare the concepts of body and biopower in Latour and Foucault and partially translate them into each other’s terms. The third and last task involves deciding whether the body resists biopower through the logic of actor network theory, or whether the acquisition of a body is the only possible act of power. The article concludes with a demonstration of how the available theoretical resources can be used to describe the current coronavirus situation.
Keywords:  actor-network theory ; biopower ; COVID-19; body ; discipline; affectedness; articulateness; corporeality.
The First Quarantine: How the Plague Became a Political Disease / Logos. 2021. № 2 (141). P. 127-142
annotation:  The great plague of 1665-1666 is one of the starting points for the birth of biopolitics in its modern form. The quarantine measures introduced by the government have been considered effective from the medical point of view since the middle of the 18th century. However, many of those contemporary with the plague were convinced that the state was only worsening matters for London’s inhabitants. The author examines why the plague elicited such an ambivalent response in England and how the disease stopped being a composite object and turned into a “comfortable, domesticated” concept. The article investigates why the moral assessment of those measures has become so different over the past hundred years and shows how the quarantine in London influenced the “hygienic revolution.” Apart from its historical interest, this case is a suitable topic for the use of STS methodology because it illustrates the impossibility providing a complete description of the quarantine process and subsequent medical treatment in terms of a conflict between different actors. In order to understand why these measures have subsequently been perceived in this fashion, the author applies the concept of Lovecraftian horror, which offers a way to describe the situation of “collisions” with the plague. By describing how biopolitics released the moral tension built up by the co-existence of different interpretations of the causes of the epidemic, the author reconstructs the retrospective creation of the myth about the success of the quarantine. He contrasts the logic of “multiplicity” with the unifying descriptions and shows the kind of problems a “blurred” ontology can bring on during a crisis in everyday life. This leads to a discussion of the difficulty of holding onto unstable objects that have the potential for liberation from the logic of paternalistic care.
Keywords:  plague; quarantine; London; Roberto Esposito; Ernst Gilman; medicine; biopolitics; Michel Foucault; power; control; panopticon; theater; immunity ; state; England.
The Decameron: On the Possibility of Love During Self-Isolation / Logos. 2021. № 2 (141). P. 143-178
annotation:  This article in the genre of the consolation of philosophy deals with the COVID-19 pandemic as a new superphenomenal experience marked by an extremely intense experience of one’s vulnerability and finiteness as well as by problematization of our previous ideas of a human being. The author offers a way to understand our situation and find solace by starting with the performative paradox of Giovanni Boccaccio’s Decameron, which contains one of the most famous descriptions of the plague and remains one of the most cheerful and life-enhancing texts in European literature. The article shows that, contrary to the common belief, the consolation offered in the The Decameron is not reduced merely to telling stories that entertain and distract us from tales of grief. Nor is it reduced to the invention of social practices for building a new and more perfect society, although all this, as the author shows, is undoubtedly there in the text and has a beneficial effect. The Decameron’s consolation ultimately consists of the assumption that man himself has metaphysical depths in his incomprehensible (although it is fully embodied in the Decameron) and impossible potential for lovingly accepting the reality of the world as a blessed Gift, to think of eventfulness itself as a gift. The article argues that the anthropology on which Boccaccio’s utopia is based is that of the feast or symposium understood in the spirit of the Platonic-Christian tradition. The author hopes that Boccaccio’s anthropological optics, designed to overcome the pessimism of reason and affirm the optimism of will and faith, can help the reader find meaning and joy in the midst of the suffering and death which are the irrevocable framework of life. This consolation can be heard in the cheerful voice of Boccaccio, which comes to us from faraway plague-ridden Florence and offers us his prescription for healing the “wounds of being.”
Keywords:  Giovanni Boccaccio; Decameron; pandemic; COVID-19; saturated phenomenon; optimism of will; fear of death; gift; anthropology of the feast.
Praise Be to the Plague? / Logos. 2021. № 2 (141). P. 179-194
annotation:  Among the various human attitudes toward a pandemic, along with fear, despair and anger, there is also an urge to praise the catastrophe or imbue it with some sort of hope. In 2020 such hopes were voiced in the stream of all the other COVID-19 reactions and interpretations in the form of predictions of imminent social, political or economic changes that may or must be brought on by the pandemic, or as calls to “rise above” the common human sentiment and see the pandemic as some sort of cruel-but-necessary bitter pill to cure human depravity or social disorganization. Is it really possible for a plague of any kind to be considered a relief? Or perhaps a just punishment? In order to assess the validity of such interpretations, this paper considers the artistic reactions to the pandemics of the past, specifically the images of the plague from Alexander Pushkin’s play Feast During the Plague, Antonin Artaud’s essay “The Theatre and the Plague” and Albert Camus’s novel The Plague. These works in different ways explore an attitude in which a plague can be praised in some respect. The plague can be a means of self-overcoming and purification for both an individual and for society. At the same time, Pushkin and Camus, each in his own way and by different means, show the illusory nature of that attitude. A mass catastrophe can reveal the resources already present in humankind, but it does not help either the individual or the society to progress.
Keywords:  plaguе; death; self-overcoming; purification; theodicy.
Epidemics as Leisure Killers: The Transformation of Japan’s Entertainment Industry in the Second Half of the 19th Century / Logos. 2021. № 2 (141). P. 195-217
annotation:  Among the various human attitudes toward a pandemic, along with fear, despair and anger, there is also an urge to praise the catastrophe or imbue it with some sort of hope. In 2020 such hopes were voiced in the stream of all the other COVID-19 reactions and interpretations in the form of predictions of imminent social, political or economic changes that may or must be brought on by the pandemic, or as calls to “rise above” the common human sentiment and see the pandemic as some sort of cruel-but-necessary bitter pill to cure human depravity or social disorganization. Is it really possible for a plague of any kind to be considered a relief? Or perhaps a just punishment? In order to assess the validity of such interpretations, this paper considers the artistic reactions to the pandemics of the past, specifically the images of the plague from Alexander Pushkin’s play Feast During the Plague, Antonin Artaud’s essay “The Theatre and the Plague” and Albert Camus’s novel The Plague. These works in different ways explore an attitude in which a plague can be praised in some respect. The plague can be a means of self-overcoming and purification for both an individual and for society. At the same time, Pushkin and Camus, each in his own way and by different means, show the illusory nature of that attitude. A mass catastrophe can reveal the resources already present in humankind, but it does not help either the individual or the society to progress.
Keywords:  Japan; urban culture; ukiyo-e prints; social history of medicine; entertainment culture; measles epidemic, cholera epidemic, modernization of theaters.
Why Talk About AIDS in 2020? / Logos. 2021. № 1 (140). P. 1-2
annotation:  Editorial
Keywords:  AIDS; pandemic; COVID-19
Beyond Bare Life: AIDS, (Bio)Politics, and the Neoliberal Order / Logos. 2021. № 1 (140). P. 35-52
annotation:  The emergence of AIDS/HIV marked an epochal shift away from the almost omnipotent status accorded medical knowledge and its sanitized language for suffering even in relation to death, which had been long banished from the concerns of those preoccupied with life and their seemingly limitless capacity to control it. AIDS also cast a premodern pall over emancipated pleasures, the amoral, free-wheeling desires that animated advanced consumer societies. The disease was later deflected onto Africa as the primal other, Africa as a symbol of dangerous desire, as the projection of a self never properly tamed. The author calls attention to a whole series of undemocratic values, attitudes and institutional practices, both cultural and governmental, which have systematically suppressed and undermined AIDS treatment in states of the Global South like South Africa. She dwells on how various AIDS action groups are fighting back against those undemocratic values and practices and how in doing so they are deepening the moral content of a democratic project held hostage by the sinister rhetoric of “bare life and the states of exception” that is invoked whenever convenient by a liberal polity in order to ward off the victims of a pandemic. Even as the author recounts the creativity and efficacy of these counter-hegemonic practices directed at negligent authorities, avaricious pharmaceutical companies and opportunistic NGOs, she reminds the reader to reckon with the pitfalls and contradictions that accompany a struggle waged under the darkening horizon of global capital.
Keywords:  AIDS; South Africa; Giorgio Agamben; homo sacer ; bare life; biopolitics.
AIDS as a Metaphor / Logos. 2021. № 1 (140). P. 35-52
annotation:  In this excerpt from the essay AIDS and Its Metaphors Susan Sontag considers how the AIDS epidemic has affected lifestyles and morality. When epidemics persist for many years, the precautions that had started out as briefly enforced precautions become a part of social morality. Until 1981 the successes of medicine in treating sexually transmitted diseases encouraged emancipation from sexual morals. Sontag uses economic metaphors to designate those decades as a period of sexual spending, speculation and inflation, after which the early stages of a sexual depression set in. AIDS caused fear of sexuality to return. If cancer has taught us to fear environmental pollution, AIDS triggered a fear of pollution through people. The AIDS epidemic led to the disappearance of many secular ideals, which Sontag regards as closely linked to freedom. AIDS provided an incentive for a resurgence of conservatism in many areas. Its effect on the arts in particular was to force a rejection of modernist discoveries and a return to tonality, melody, plot, character, etc. AIDS then becomes a new realism. Sontag also addresses post-colonial issues related to the AIDS epidemic. If AIDS had been a purely African disease, notwithstanding the scale of the epidemic, it would have been considered a “natural” cataclysm similar to famine. But once the epidemic affected the West, it was no longer perceived as a natural disaster. In First World countries, disasters are understood as historical events which bring about important social change, while in Asian and African countries they are viewed as one part of a general cycle of nature and as something closer to natural phenomena. The new disease has changed very little in the operation of that logic.
Keywords:  AIDS; metaphor ; sexual norms; disaster ; Africa.
AIDS Without Metaphor: Sontag and Her Struggle With Disease / Logos. 2021. № 1 (140). P. 53-64
annotation:  The article considers the demetaphorization strategy which Susan Sontag used in her essay AIDS and Its Metaphors. The program that Sontag put forward in Against Interpretation is readily applicable to diseases such as cancer or AIDS, which inevitably become entangled in metaphorical descriptions that encourage sermonizing and moralism. The modernist ideal of avoiding interpretation that Sontag proposed would enable thinking about a disease as a distinct etiological entity brought into sharp focus by the very process of stripping away its cloak of metaphorical layers, myths and imaginings. The article suggests that Sontag’s strategy, which is both practical and semiological, can be understood as a critique of the tradition of holistic medicine usually called “alternative” as well as a countermeasure to it. Medicine of that kind in the West harks back to ancient paradigms and in particular to Stoicism by presupposing that moral errors can be equated with diseases and sins with symptoms. Sontag believes that metaphors are not only useless but also harmful in that they impose a mistaken therapeutic program for both disease and patient, for example, by prescribing exercise or a healthy lifestyle when they are irrelevant. The article analyzes some problems in Sontag’s demetaphorization and argues in particular that the isolation and detection of a disease as such are not somehow antecedent to metaphor, even if the nature of the disease is well understood. Diseases whose nature or treatment are unknown, at least at a given point in history, are an additional problem. Sontag assumes a correlation between a disease as an isolated entity and a drug of choice or a precise therapeutic method, but that correlation cannot always be made.
Keywords:  Susan Sontag; illness; AIDS; metaphor ; demetaphorization.
COVID-19, HIV/AIDS, and the “Spanish Flu”: Historical Moments and Social Transformations / Logos. 2021. № 1 (140). P. 65-82
annotation:  The author of this article maintains that it is not certain that COVID-19 will reach a magnitude that would justify the social significance that it has in fact been attributed to it by published opinion and government reactions in many countries. It is the lockdown, and not the virus or the infection itself, which is forcing us to imagine that there is a difference between the world before and the world after. This is what changed with the lockdown: “another world,” perhaps only temporarily, became not only possible but immediately real. The nature of the world after lockdown is the main question in the conflict between interpretations of COVID-19’s social significance. The current government discourse about a “new normal” in our future is part of that struggle. After comparing the COVID-19 pandemic with the spread of HIV/AIDS, Wagner concludes that the world is on the verge of a historical moment of the kind that opens up the possibility of large-scale social transformations comparable to the “great transformation” in the first decades of the 20th century. The virus and infection by themselves cannot reach that kind of significance. But perhaps they arrived at a moment when their emergence in combination with the lockdown as the political reaction to them will prompt a re-evaluation of our situation. The experience of lockdown has broadened social imagination and has increased the potential for positive social transformation. But we are clearly still far from any decisive collective action for solving urgent problems through free expression and democratic deliberation.
Keywords:  COVID-19; HIV/AIDS; Spanish flu; social imagination; lockdown; new normality ; great transformation.
Media Genealogy of the Contagion: Syphilis — AIDS — COVID-19 / Logos. 2021. № 1 (140). P. 83-112
annotation:  The article is devoted to a genealogy of the attitude toward viruses in social and political practice in light of the new coronavirus pandemic. The disciplinary society and the society of control have taken on a completely new configuration since the HIV crisis in the 1980s. AIDS and now COVID-19 as phenomena of social crisis have had a great impact on (sexual) relationships and have also caused a significant change in the social and political order. Epidemics and pandemics mobilize political structures and constitute power relations, thus changing the way bodies are controlled, establishing new differentiations and redefining what disease is. The authors trace the development of discourses about syphilis, AIDS and COVID-19 to describe how knowledge about the disease is being generated today; it has origins in myth and would be unthinkable without aesthetic visualization and mass media technologies. Syphilis was an exact fit for the paradigm of the disciplinary society, which stigmatized bodily pleasure and abstracted pathology by activating projection mechanisms as a sign of the Other. However, AIDS already differed significantly from that paradigm because other medical technologies are used to define HIV, and that has affected the epistemology of the disease and epidemic. The article considers HIV/AIDS as a transitional model that forms a bridge between the epidemics of the past (leprosy, plague, smallpox, syphilis) and the COVID-19 pandemic. Above all there is a change in the biopolitical regime so that bodies are no longer controlled and regulated through sexuality. COVID-19 is a new form of sociality which is not based on the exclusion of “pathological” forms of sexuality or on “deviant” or “perverted” bodies, but involves the object-based, microlevel of relations between viruses, the immune system, and the human genome, which are then mapped with distortions and substitutions onto social relationships and practices. The authors use the term “delegated control” in a new context and introduce the original term “omniopticum” to describe the new regime of biopolitics and the “control society” in the post-COVID era.
Keywords:  HIV; AIDS; syphilis; COVID-19; biopolitics; social exclusion; Donna Haraway.
Hidden Fissures and Epidemics in Plain Sight: The Common Paths of Syphilis and HIV in Russia / Logos. 2021. № 1 (140). P. 113-142
annotation:  The paper examines and compares two epidemics in Russia: syphilis in the first quarter of 20th century and HIV in the early 21st century. The author considers both epidemics from the standpoint of the social sciences by applying the concept of vulnerability to underline the social and cultural factors that cause one social group to be more susceptible to a disease than another. The article focuses on gender-based vulnerability and maintains that both epidemics follow a single, structurally similar scenario. The author shows that the vulnerability of women during both the syphilis and HIV epidemics depends upon the clear continuity in the way gender roles and expectations and the relationships between men and women were structured during the early days of the USSR and in present-day Russia. The article analyzes how stigma arises and how in both eras inequality of power and expectations for men and women formed the main channel for transmission of disease. The paths along which modern epidemics spread have been mostly inherited from the epidemics of past centuries, and in particular the HIV epidemic is following a pattern derived from the syphilis epidemic. More precisely, the current epidemics exploit the same vulnerability of certain groups, vulnerability rooted in the past and still manifest in the norms and relations in contemporary culture and society where one group is much more exposed than the other. The article relies on historical sources, in particular Lev Friedland"s book Behind a Closed Door: Observations of a Venereologist published in 1927, for its account of the syphilis epidemic in the early 20th century and on the author"s own research into the experience of women living with HIV in contemporary Russia.
Keywords:  syphilis; HIV; gender ; social epidemiology ; Russia.
Data, Principles and Strategies: How Do Global Control Mechanisms on the HIV Epidemic Work? / Logos. 2021. № 1 (140). P. 143-176
annotation:  The article discusses the activities of two United Nations bodies - the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS(UNAIDS) - which are engaged in developing measures to counteract the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. An important component of this activity is gathering information and producing strategic documents. Their almost unclassifiable diversity, however, can be managed by a rigorous algorithm that incorporates data collection, formulation of principles and development of strategies. An analysis of materials such as “reports,” “fact sheets,” and “global strategies” reveals how the main global mechanisms work as they coordinate the efforts of national governments and attempt to control the epidemic globally; analysis also indicates what kind of language is used and what goals are set. In 2020 the ambitious goal of eliminating the HIV/AIDS epidemic by 2030 that is declared in WHO and UNAIDS documents unexpectedly became problematic once more due to the spread of another global epidemic - COVID-19. The publication of new materials on how to continue the fight against HIV/AIDS in the context of the coronavirus pandemic suggests that WHO and UNAIDS are already losing faith in the effectiveness of the measures so far developed in order to eliminate HIV/AIDS. The ongoing crisis caused by the COVID pandemic has also revealed a new trend by converting these UN bodies mostly into tools for producing global information while making other aspects of their activities less visible.
Keywords:  HIV/AIDS; WHO; UNAIDS; data; principles; strategies; COVID-19; information production.
HIV Infection as a Bio-Psycho-Social Phenomenon: Constraints and Opportunities for an Effective Response to the Epidemic / Logos. 2021. № 1 (140). P. 177-193
annotation:  The article analyzes modern approaches to combatting the HIV epidemic including the potential and shortcomings of the nosocentric model, as well as the basic tools that encourage desirable behavior for the prevention and treatment of disease. Study of pre-contact prevention of HIV and COVID-19 infection among patients already infected with HIV shows that there is no direct relationship between awareness and patterns of preventive behavior. Potential ways to update the information available about the disease by making individuals aware of the risk of infection due to communication are examined. The author points out a lack of differentiation in communication strategies and underemphas is on informing people. The ideas of specialists about a direct relationship between information and the formation of desirable behavior are analyzed with regard to HIV infection. The opportunity to correct these ideas in the process of training specialists is explored, and the potential for attracting specialists by applying technologies that prevent emotional burnout is shown. The feasibility of an interdisciplinary patient-centered approach to providing medical care for HIV infection is confirmed. Factors that prevent the introduction of communication-based technologies in actual clinical practice are analyzed as are the trend toward a simplified guardianship approach to solving problems in the prevention of infection and the predominant use of monologue-based directive forms of communication. The formation of desirable behavior for prevention of HIV infection, commitment to maintaining health, and compliance with a dispensary’s regime for observation and treatment of HIV infection are considered as a two-way process of interaction in a system that embraces both the specialist and the patient.
Keywords:  HIV infection; communication; patient-oriented approach.
Why Do We Keep Coming Back to Institutions? / Logos. 2020. № 6 (139). P. 1-22
annotation:  The article examines contemporary philosophical and theoretical trends that lead to the dispersion and fragmentation of theories and research methodologies and even of the subject of inquiry. This process is dismantling the basic ontological distinctions that have long determined both the epistemological and the cultural characteristics of European society and science. These theoretical leanings have their own social and cultural roots in the rapidly increasing complexity of modern civilization. That civilization is relinquishing what Max Weber saw as a crucial distinguishing feature of modern society: its ability to comprehend the structure and functioning of the surrounding world. The author finds that one result is the emergence of a “new naivety” in which insurmountable difficulties in attaining rational understanding justify postulation of the ontological independence of actors, objects, etc., as well as the resurgence of various forms of metaphysics. The importance of an emotional relationship toward the world, which increasingly manifests itself as a universe of singularities, is expanding in step with the loss of a rational horizon for subjectivity in modern society. The historical perspective of the institutional approach has several epistemological advantages for dealing with these tendencies. The institutional approach maintains continuity with the project of modern historiography as such by concentrating on phenomena that have a comparable duration and sustainability and by facilitating examination of problems in the sociology of knowledge, for which a wide range of analytical techniques has been developed in order to analyze the interaction of institutions with different scales (for instance, within the framework of organizational institutionalism) among others. The historical analysis of institutions also has a significant practical value by disabusing us of a naive view of the world (including the natural world) as some kind of natural and unmediated given and by making us aware of the contingency of our historical existence. The institutional approach and modern historiography share a common mission as an emancipatory exercise in self-knowledge.
Keywords:  institutional theory; organizational institutionalism; emancipatory function of historiography ; new ontologies; new sentimentalism; society of singularities; nature and culture.
An Institutional Approach to Ancient Philosophical Texts: Plato’s Ion / Logos. 2020. № 6 (139). P. 23-40
annotation:  The institutional approach to interpreting philosophical texts, which is a valuable supplement to the traditional historical, philological, and philosophical methods of analysis, requires from the reader a reflective technique and an understanding of the kind of statements it can validate. Factors such as the author’s self-esteem and its effect on the process of creating the text, as well as the intended genre and audience are all brought into the material studied (a philosophical text) through the institutional approach. Meeting all these requirements results in a delineation of an institution that permits objectification of the author’s stance and manner of inquiry. An analysis of the Plato’s Ion, which is usually considered one of the earliest of his dialogues, offers an example the institutional approach to philosophical texts. The article calls into question an early date for Ion because Plato’s earlier dialogues are typically retellings of previous conversations. The Ion, however, consists of direct dialogue in a dramatic format - a style proper to the late dialogues, which reflect the technique developed for the arguments and disputations between schools; these debates were conducted according to certain rules and referred to summaries of material previously selected (as Aristotle’s Topics and Sophistical Refutations demonstrate). Furthermore, the Ion echoes Plato’s Republic (just as Homer in the Republic is not versed in the arts and crafts, the rhapsodist in the Ion who recites Homer’s depictions of those skills likewise has not mastered any of them) and with the Phaedrus (which like the Ion explores the concept of divine madness). These parallels strongly suggest that the Ion is among the later dialogues and consequently call its attribution to Plato into question.
Keywords:  philosophical text; institutional approach; Plato; Corpus Platonicum; Ion dialogue.
An Institutional Theory of Modernity: Johann Gustav Droysen / Logos. 2020. № 6 (139). P. 41-96
annotation:  The article analyzes several crucial aspects of Johann Gustav Droysen"s theory of historiography (as presented in the collection of his lectures published under the title Historik ). The significance and reception of Droysen"s legacy in contemporary historiography are examined primarily in the American and Russian contexts. The fundamental features of Droysen"s theory of historiography are then identified with emphasis on: validation of the autonomy of history as a science; radical constructivism; moderate relativism; presentism; and the extension of the subject matter of hermeneutics to existential and anthropological issues. The main part of the article is devoted to Droysen"s institutional theory and maintains that Historik provides more than a theory and methodology of historiography by also advancing an original institutional theory which serves as a direct link between Hegel"s philosophy and current social and political concepts. Droysen"s position on Hegel"s philosophy is considered, and the derivation of “the ethical world,” Droysen"s the principal category for institutional analysisis traced back to Hegel. Droysen"s theory of the state, which identifies it as the only source of legitimate violence and a mechanism for neutralizing conflicts in civil society and distinguishes between the notions of “power” and “violence,” is treated in detail. Three main aspects of Droysen"s institutional theory are discussed. First, there is an analysis of his formal theoretical understanding of the concept of an “institution” as it compares to the basic modern philosophical and theoretical definitions of that concept. Then, the main substantive features of his institutional theory are examined. These include the three types of institutions (natural, ideal and practical), and the distinction between them will later play a prominent role in modern social theory and sociology. Finally, Droysen"s account of the institutional dynamics of modernity is explicated as a taut equilibrium between the puruist of stability by institutions and the disruption of their stability by normative reflection and criticism.
Keywords:  Johann Gustav Droysen; theory of historiography; methodology of historiography; theory of state; institutional theory ; theory of modern society; institutional dynamics of modernity.
The Political Education and Enlightenment of Thomas Hobbes / Logos. 2020. № 6 (139). P. 97-144
annotation:  As one of the first political thinkers of the modern era, Thomas Hobbes relied on his analysis of the Civil War in England to reach the conclusion that the sovereign should empower its delegates to implement a special educational policy designed to inculcate the nobility and lower classes with allegiance to the state. One of the main features of Hobbes’s program was that the sovereign power should oversee the institutions of knowledge to make sure they would not disseminate ideas that might subvert the authority of the sovereign. An equally important aspect of Hobbes’s educational design was the control of secular sovereignty over ecclesiastical institutions to ensure their loyalty to the sovereign. Hobbes assigns a special role to the English universities in his recommendations. In his historical treatise Behemoth or the Long Parliament, Hobbes places the lion’s share of the blame for the English Civil War on the universities, which he said “have been to this nation, as the wooden horse was to the Trojans.” That is why the new sovereign power after winning the Civil War needed to encourage civil peace by reforming the universities, which were “the core of rebellion.” Hobbes regarded the political doctrine of the secular sovereign’s unlimited power that he expounded in detail in Leviathan as the absolutely necessary foundation for reform. According to Hobbes, this educational policy was indispensable for indoctrinating citizens so that they would be loyal to the sovereign power in order to preserve peace in England.
Keywords:  history of political philosophy ; political education; political enlightenment; classical republicanism; university; politics and religion; the civil war in England.
The Institutionalization of Philosophy: Victor Cousin and Hegel’s Legacy in France / Logos. 2020. № 6 (139). P. 145-172
annotation:  The article points out patterns in the institutionalization of philosophy during the first half of 19th century when French education was revamped by Victor Cousin and the school of eclecticism as part of the educational policy of the doctrinaire political faction. Cousin’s public statements and correspondence stating his views about how to properly conduct education in philosophy and what obligations that education had toward the political forces of the 1830s and 1840s are interpreted in the context of the structure of the French educational system, changes in the socio-political situation, the lingering influence of Jesuit colleges after they had been banned in the 18th century, the continuity of the administrative and personnel structure of secondary and higher schools, and the Napoleonic reforms. The main focus of the article is on how institutionalization influenced the spread of Hegelian studies and Hegelianism in France and on the inertia in the system that was introduced to maintain the canon of works and figures selected for France’s philosophers to study. The features of the French system of philosophical education that Cousin devised are analyzed, the role of the competitive agrégation in philosophy from the 19th to the 21st century is examined, and the advantages and problematic aspects of institutionalized philosophy are explained. The immediate conclusion reached is that Cousin’s educational policy had a direct and long-lasting impact on the development of Hegel studies and Hegelianism in France from the middle of the 19th century through the first third of the 20th century. That impact came in the form of a wide-ranging abandonment of translating, studying and teaching certain material, and the German idealist’s legacy was the most affected by it. The author also argues that this example reveals more than the role played by a person who pursued well-intentioned goals under particular circumstances with considerable success, although that success came at a cost for the study of the history of philosophy. The example illustrates how the outcome of philosophical studies depends on the institutional arrangement for training and selecting qualified consumers and producers of philosophical knowledge, and this brings up the question of the meta-position of philosophy.
Keywords:  institutionalization; government regulation; aggregation in philosophy; history of France; education philosophy; Victor Cousin; Hegel studies; Hegelianism.
Dominants, Subdominants, and Recedents: A Formal Analysis of Transformations in the Canonical Representation of 19th Century German Philosophy / Logos. 2020. № 6 (139). P. 173-206
annotation:  The history of philosophy was a persistent interest in 19th century Germany. Ulrich Schneider lists 148 original works in the history of philosophy by 114 authors published from 1810 through 1899. The scale of this historiographic tradition makes it suitable for analysis through digital humanities techniques (“distant reading,” formal analysis, and innovative visualizations). This paper uses that body of publications to show how the canon of the history of German philosophy in the 19th century was formed and how it evolved. In order to uncover patterns in the attention devoted to particular 19th century philosophers, the authors undertook a formal analysis of 77 tables of contents from German textbooks in the history of philosophy. They used the results of their analysis to classify philosophers into three groups with metaphorical labels drawn from ecology: dominant, subdominant, and recedent. In addition to confirming the dominance of the “Big Four” (Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel), the analysis provides a more nuanced picture of the period under consideration. For example, during the 1830s and 1840s, opinions about the significance of certain philosophers became highly polarized. In some textbooks Johann Friedrich Herbart was completely ignored, while in others his ideas were explored in more pages than those of Hegel. Kant’s writings attracted increasing attention after 1860. His share of pages increased as the number devoted to most other philosophers was dwindling. Fichte, Schelling and Hegel lose nearly half of their pages and fall closer to the subdominant category that included Herbart, Schleiermacher, and Schopenhauer. Original visualization techniques provide a graphical representation of the changes in the canon of 19th century German philosophy.
Keywords:  German classical philosophy ; great philosophers; history of academic disciplines; distant reading; digital humanities.
Was There a Ritter School? A Chapter in the History of Philosophy in Germany / Logos. 2020. № 6 (139). P. 207-238
annotation:  In recent years the so-called Ritter School has received increasing attention in debates on the history of philosophy and political ideas in postwar Germany. Indeed, some of the country’s most important scholars and public intellectuals emerged from the circle around the philosopher Joachim Ritter in Münster, including philosophers such as Hermann Lübbe, Odo Marquard and Robert Spaemann, lawyers such as Ernst-Wolfgang Böckenförde and Martin Kriele, theologian Trutz Rendtorff, historian Rudolf Vierhaus, and art historian Max Imdahl. Many of Ritter’s disciples later held professorships at German universities and helped shape the academic landscape of the Federal Republic. Some of them also worked as publicists and consultants, held public office, served on university policy committees or in the legal and ecclesiastical systems and thus had a far-reaching influence on Germany’s public life and political culture. On closer inspection, however, classifying Ritter and his disciples as a philosophical school appears extremely questionable. Members of the presumed school itself as well as contemporary researchers question the label and prefer to regard the circle as a “forum for open thinking.” The article takes a closer look at the Ritter School and investigates to what extent the personal, theoretical and institutional connections between Joachim Ritter and his disciples can be adequately understood as a philosophical school. The author first provides an overview of the origins and development of the circle as it emerged from Ritter’s Collegium Philosophicum. Ritter’s own philosophical approach is then outlined, and its reception among his disciples is traced. Finally, a more detailed exposition of the principal characteristics of a philosophical school is the basis for a differentiated examination of the customary label “Ritter School” and an assessment of its significance for the philosophical discourse of West Germany.
Keywords:  German philosophy; German intellectual history; history of political ideas; political philosophy ; philosophical school.
The Corrupted “Wheel of Life”: An Essay on the Ouroboros / Logos. 2020. № 6 (139). P. 239-282
annotation:  The focus of this article is a symbolic image often found in world mythology - a giant snake or a dragon biting its own tail. This image is usually denoted by the Greek word “ouroboros” ( οὐροβόρος ), which means literally “eating its own tail.” This essay is devoted to an interpretation of this symbol, which the author sees as leading to the much broader topic of human unfreedom and the forms that this unfreedom takes. The first section deals with the unique features of Gnosticism which have made it appealing in extremely varied times and situations. Theauthor’s reflections start from understanding the Gnostic worldview as an expression of apprehensiveness about the radical otherworldliness of the human spirit and its alienation from the universe. The second section deals with the symbolism of the ouroboros and its place in Gnostic conceptual schemes as a reference to the closed cycle of nature that enslaves the human spirit. The third section attempts to decipher layer by layer the Gnostic conceptions associated with the ouroboros. Various levels of interpretation are identified: literal, mythological-magical, psychological-ascetic and socio-political. In the fourth section, the author connects Gnostic ideas with Christianity by interpreting St. Paul’s Epistles, particularly his ideas concerning rulers and authorities. The place occupied by the ouroboros in the Christian universe is analyzed. The last section relies on the ideas of René Girard, Jacques Lacan and Alain Badiou to illustrate the manifestations of the ouroboros in different dimensions of human existence, both individual and collective, with special emphasis on human desire and its futile circlings.
Keywords:  Gnosticism; Christianity; ouroboros; religious symbolism; Jacques L psychoanalysis; Carl Gustav Jung; Saint Paul; René Girard; Christus Victor.
An Introduction to the Calculus of Environments / Logos. 2020. № 5 (138). P. 1-22
annotation:  The paper deals with the modern appropriation of Lucretius’ atomistic philosophy as presented in Louis Althusser’s late writings. The aleatory materialism that Althusser elaborated in some fragments from the 1980s argues for the total contingency of any world, which is nothing but an accidental clutch of atoms resulting from a Lucretian clinamen. Althusser interprets “world” in a broad sense as referring both to cosmological and ontological global arrangements and also to particular political and practical states of affairs. By claiming that thought and necessity are always determined by a certain connection among atoms, Althusser touches upon the problem of the “principles of cohesion” — the sub-semantic field which determines the semantic but is not itself semantic. However, these principles are described by Althusser only metaphorically and without further elaboration. The paper proposes a further development of these principles derived from aleatory materialism. Althusser’s late writings are placed in the context of Leibniz and Kant’s thought in order to clarify the importance of Althusser’s problematics for time dj-ing, or TJ-ing — the immanent protocols for intercutting between and stitching together possible worlds and time-series. Building upon Kant’s concept of transcendental schematism, the paper proposes a system of quaternary gestural code and twelve basic environmental types which provide an immanent answer to the question of what e principles govern the clutching of atoms. This in turn forms the basis for the operation of a new kind of computer as an alternative to the two basic New Age kinds of machinery based either on carbon-energy or silicon-information.
Keywords:  Louis Althusser; Immanuel Kant; Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz; Lucre- tius; Matteo Pasquinelli; aleatory materialism; atomism; gesture; transcendental schematism; TJing.
From Anti-Oedipus to Anti-Hype: A Critique of Hyperstition / Logos. 2020. № 5 (138). P. 23-36
annotation:  The article describes the current state of left-wing post-Deleuzian philosophy, which is going through a period of obsession with the production of fictions. The authors argue that science fiction is today often mobilized as a tool for imagining a future that is incommensurable with the current late capitalist order. However, when trying to imagine a post-capitalist future, contemporary left-wing philosophers tend to look to the past for inspiration, a maneuver which only exacerbates the “exhaustion of the future,” that has retrofuturism as its cultural correlate. Based on this, the authors suggest that philosophical instrumentalization of science fiction may result in a distinct form of intellectual escapism. The article argues that in this context, special attention should be paid to the concept of hyperstition, which has arisen under the influence of science fiction narratives and is embedded in current popular rhetoric about hacking the future. The authors point out that the way hyperstition functions has a resemblance to marketing mechanisms, and they suggest that it corresponds to what Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari called an unconscious representation or fake image. The article subjects hyperstition to a critical analysis in which the authors show that the genealogy of hyperstition as a practice of programming reality through fictions stems from the ideas of William S. Burroughs. Burroughs set out to develop new ways of linguistic infection and modeling human behavior by means of his cutup technique. This approach blurs the distinction between reality and fiction. Some members of the CCRU transplanted Burroughs’ ideas to the theoretical soil that Deleuze and Guattari had tilled. Hyperstition has been reborn in the CCRU’s legacy project of left-wing accelerationism, which redirects the idea of self-fulfilling fiction toward developing a non-deterministic concept of progress. Pointing to the ineffectiveness of hyperstition as a tool for socio-political change, the authors propose abandoning Anti-Oedipus in favor of Anti-Hype.
Keywords:  hyperstition; science fiction; hype; virus; accelerationism; future.
“We Can Hate This World With Love”. An Interview / Logos. 2020. № 5 (138). P. 37-56
annotation:  Philosopher Andrew Culp in this interview explains the main aspects of his dark Deleuzianism. Culp notes that his work owes much to the theories of Alexander Galloway and Eugene Thucker. He develops their ideas further, first among them the concept of asymmetry, which means that radical politics arises from a formal dissimilarity between the sides involved in a conflict. From Culp’s point of view, it was the idea of dissimilarity that made poststructuralist thinking attractive to many political philosophers because it allowed them to conceive of political power beyond the categories of power, hegemony, and domination. The philosopher explicates the main concepts that he has introduced, in particular productivism and connectivism. Culp characterizes the form as a specific consequence of cold war dynamics accompanied by maximization of productivity. He claims that the rejection of labor will allow us to pay attention to alternative aspects of social life. By connectivism Culp means the belief that communication can solve any socio-political problems. Culp criticizes this approach, which is associated especially with Bruno Latour, and argues that there is now no lack of information or communication. However, this has not facilitated solving urgent problems, most of which are political rather than technological or informational. Culp comments on the differences between his project and accelerationism. From his point of view, left-wing accelerationists try to retain the good aspects of technology and discard the harmful ones, which makes their approach similar to Proudhon’s. In discussing universal basic income, Culp points to the dangerous intersection of left-wing accelerationism and libertarianism. The philosopher also notes the fundamental divergences between his position and the techno-futurism of Nick Land. Culp goes on to clarify the political model of conspiratorial communism that he proposed in Dark Deleuze and also comments on the idea of hatred for this world as a form of utopian thinking.
Keywords:  dark Deleuzianism; asymmetry; connectivism; productivism; hatred; utopia.
The Chemistry of Darkness / Logos. 2020. № 5 (138). P. 57-78
annotation:  The article attempts to elucidate the connection between Deleuze and idealism partly by answering an apparently futile question: What kind of idealist was Deleuze? The author answers it by resorting to a deep (geo)chemistry, which allows him first to discern a parallel between Hegel’s pleas for a new world and Deleuze’s summons to a new earth and then to recognize that Schelling’s Ungrund concept influenced Deleuze’s version of those ambitions as the indifference preceding all difference and hence prior to all synthesis. However, Deleuze’s idealism is also Kantian - Grant sees Kantian “ethico-teleology” in Deleuze and Guattari’s call for a new people. Grant rejects this shared element in their thinking and replaces it with a less anthropocentric approach derived from chemistry through which he arrives at the absolute empiricism of Schelling’s nature-philosophy, which explains the ideal through the real. Schelling maintains that ubiquitous chemical processes explain all sensation and that all chemical processes contain sensation as a component. With the help of this empiricism devoid of things, Grant concludes that the new earth is nothing more than a blind chemical synthesis in which evil is the will of the ungrounded ground. In this chemical philosophy, evil itself - Schelling’s movement towards particularization - becomes material, and the ontology of absolute empiricism becomes the chemistry of darkness.
Keywords:  Gilles Deleuze; Schelling; idealism; philosophy of nature; chemistry; empiricism; Ungrund.
Materials for a Non-Philosophy of Nature as Introduction to the Study of This Utopia / Logos. 2020. № 5 (138). P. 79-102
annotation:  This article examines François Laruelle’s (non-)materialism construed as a philosophy of nature in terms of its own methodology and applies Iain Hamilton Grant’s reading of Schelling’s work as a reference point for Naturphilosophie. Despite the evident divergences between Schelling’s and Grant’s philosophical aims and Laruelle’s, all these thinkers oppose binary constructions in philosophy in which one of the terms inevitably is pejorative and in some fashion subordinate to the other. To avoid that outcome, Schelling employs a depotentiating generative abstraction which in Presentation of My System (1801) reduces the philosopher to the immanent level of nature - a kind of “non-place” or utopia of identity. Laruelle, however, uses Schelling’s methods of abstraction to produce a methodological “impoverishment” of the philosophical concepts he began from and to start “thinking from” the non-place of matter. He also arrives at a utopia that he understands as a certain movement combining within itself subject and method. It is deterritorializing, but this deterritorialization is distinct from that which takes place within philosophy because here the agent of deterritorialization is Real, and philosophy is to be overcome (brought into utopia). Here the article makes critical use of Deleuze to clarify the contrast with Laruelle’s non-philosophy inasmuch as Deleuze often smuggles idealism and the transcendence into his thinking. Laruelle relies on Deleuze’s critique to eventually reject the entire materialism-idealism duality because it subordinates materialism to idealism as is typical for such binary categories. Instead of the materialism-idealism duality, Laruelle offers materialism and idealism correlated with matter (which is foreclosed from thought), and identical (but only in the last instance) with Real.
Keywords:  non-philosophy; materialism; utopia; subjectivity; philosophy of nature; German Idealism; François Laruelle; Gilles Deleuze; Iain Hamilton Grant.
How Does a Thought Scream? The Possibility of the New as a Condition of Political Ontology in Gilles Deleuze’s The Time-Image / Logos. 2020. № 5 (138). P. 103-130
annotation:  The paper deals with Gilles Deleuze’s The Time-Image not as an essay on the philosophy of cinema but as a theory of political ontology. The meaning of the concept of “scream” must first be clarified. This concept appears in Deleuze’s lectures from 1980 in the context of the sequence of cinema, thought and shock from the second volume of his book Cinema. To indicate the immanent political significance of Deleuze’s cinema studies, the article clarifies the conceptual difference between two types of cinema. The distinction between “the movement-image” and “the time-image” is examined as ontological rather than aesthetic. In particular, the paper shows the conservative effects of “classic” cinema in the context of Henri Bergson’s ontology. The critical potential of modern cinema, which Deleuze considers in The Time-Image, is a condition for undermining the logic of “habit,” which is reproduced by the cinema of “the movement-image.” The condition for a break with this logic is the effect of shock, which is produced by the distinctive characteristics of modern cinema. Deleuze finds the political significance of modern cinema in the context of the possibility of the New which is not predetermined by previous conditions. The rupture with the status quo is ensured by contrasting two concepts of the Whole viewed either as the Open or as the Outside. The difference between them is examined in connection with the critical distance from the ontology of Henri Bergson, which is an imaginary solution of the problem of the New and therefore the problem of conservatism in the universe of “classic” cinema. In order to identify the political significance of “the image-time,” it is necessary to indicate the constitutive role of temporal rupture in modern cinema. It is this logic that provides the effect of shock for thought and allows it to break away from permanent repetition.
Keywords:  Gilles Deleuze; political ontology; conservatism of cinema; thought as scream; cinema of “the time-image”.
What’s Wrong With the Assemblage Theory? / Logos. 2020. № 5 (138). P. 131-164
annotation:  The paper examines Manuel DeLanda’s assemblage theory in order to show that two of its key concepts - flat ontology and the idea of emergence - are incompatible with each other. The philosophical context of assemblage theory is outlined with a brief consideration of different interpretations of Deleuze’s ideas and an examination of DeLanda’s reconstruction of Deleuze’s ontology, which served as the conceptual foundation for assemblage theory. The author then exposes key flaws in this reconstruction, in particular the conversion of the scientific ontology of dynamic systems theory into a univocal philosophical ontology and metaphysics of assemblages. When coupled with the universalization of relations of exteriority, this leads to numerous conceptual deficiencies ranging from infinite reductionist regress and mereological atomism to overlooking the relations of necessity between assemblages. The lack of such a relation is a key to evaluating assemblage theory. DeLanda interprets the concept of emergence as a product of exclusively exterior relations while ignoring interior (internal) relations. Consequently, he refuses to regard assemblages as ontologically dependent on each other. The existence of interior relations between parts of assemblages suggests that causal interactions between those parts precede assemblages with emergent properties not only, or not merely, as a matter of logic or chronology. They precede assemblages transcendentally as conditions of their possibility. This presupposes that there is ontological dependence between an assemblage and its elements, and this dependence itself presupposes a hierarchical structure in the world such that, for an assemblage to exist as a whole, its parts must also exist. This structure is incompatible with the main tenet of assemblage theory, which is the concept of flat ontology. In closing, the implications of the epistemological problems in assemblage theory are discussed, and a position that follows logically from solving these problems is considered. This position is the ontic structural realism of James Ladyman and Don Ross, and its main thrust is that mathematical structures are all that really exists.
Keywords:  Manuel DeLanda; assemblage; flat ontology; emergence; ontological dependence; system; structural realism.
On Democratic Fetishism / Logos. 2020. № 5 (138). P. 165-225
annotation:  A sizeable section of American public opinion along with that of many political scientists have interpreted Donald Trump’s victory in 2016 as a token of a profound crisis in democracy, or of an ongoing and dangerous deepening of that crisis. The urge to fathom the nature of this (supposed) crisis and to find ways to overcome it has resulted in a substantial rethinking of some of the mainstays of the conventional democratic theory that has been dominant until recently. This article scrutinizes and assesses these recent and ongoing metamorphoses in mainstream democratic theory by focusing primarily on How Democracies Die by Steven Levitsky and Daniel Ziblatt, which has been much praised by Trump’s opponents. The paper argues that these theoretical metamorphoses are still taking place within the ambit of the elitist political culture and are perhaps even augmenting its characteristic features.The nature and the logic of this avowedly elitist response to Trump’s populist challenge call for a thorough investigation, but theories of political culture are inadequate to grapple with this problem. Instead, the author suggests turning to the fundamental categories of fetish and fetishism and constructing the concepts of political fetishism and democratic fetishism as derivatives from them. The author borrows certain elements of the concept of democratic fetishism from Alain Badiou, who has recently elaborated and popularized it. There are, however, at least two departures from Badiou’s account. First, although Badiou sees democratic fetishism as an apolitical degeneration of politics, it is not here interpreted as a completely negative factor in current politics. Second, the author makes a distinction between popular democratic fetishism and its elite version and finds that the “fate of democracy” now depends heavily (especially in the West) upon the nature and dynamics the interactions between them.
Keywords:  democracy; crisis; political culture; elitism; fetishism.
The Underground Current of the Idealism of Problems / Logos. 2020. № 4 (137). P. 1-12
annotation:  The article deals with the fundamental influence on Deleuze of the little-studied strain of French philosophy and epistemology from the 20th century that deals with such concepts as question, theme and problem. Some figures adjoining this lineage are known outside France (Bergson, Bachelard, Canguilhem, Althusser, Foucault), and others are just beginning to arouse intense interest (Lautman, Ruyer, Simondon); but they have rarely been seen as part of a single tradition of theorizing about problematics. And in spite of the fact (or thanks to it) that thinking about problematics has nominally entered the mainstream of the contemporary academy as a principal methodological basis, its actual current remains unknown and underground. The author offers a brief analysis of Martial Gueroult’s dianoematics. Dianoematics is a structuralist approach to the history of philosophy which consists of two parts: the history of the history of philosophy and the philosophy of the history of philosophy. Gueroult regards the latter as a transcendental science, one which takes philosophy (or, more precisely, the multiplicity of philosophies or problematics) and the conditions of its possibility as its subject. When philosophies lay claim to timeless truth about Real, this inoculates them against any reduction to the pure subjectivity of thinkers or the social circumstances of their thinking. And so Gueroult postulates that the philosophical choices which ground philosophies have their own unitary ahistorical logic. That unity of logic, however, does not reduce the multitude of philosophies to one. Therefore, in place of a single Real there is a multiplicity of Reals which are internal to philosophies — that is the so-called “radical idealism” of Gueroult. The author points out the interplay between Gueroult’s approach not only with the history of philosophy from What Is Philosophy? but also with Laruelle’s non-philosophy, with which Deleuze carries on a dialogue in his book. While Deleuze tries to “sublate” Gueroult’s idealism by taking it as a positive basis for materialist thought regarding immanence, Laruelle takes it as the clearest expression of the idealism inherent in all philosophies and uses it negatively as a building material for non-philosophy.
Keywords:  idealism; materialism; problem; non-philosophy; Martial Gueroult; Gilles Deleuze; François Laruelle; French epistemology.
From Christ to the Bourgeoisie / Logos. 2020. № 4 (137). P. 13-24
annotation:  In this early article (one of his first, written when he was twenty-one), Deleuze
responds to the Romantic fear of losing “interiority” — the fear that the technological
world will gut a person like a chicken and deprive them of any interior life. Many
of the political examples, metaphysical concepts and affective descriptions that are
cited and mostly criticized by Deleuze are traceable to the central figure in French
philosophy at that time, Jean-Paul Sartre, and to Jacques Maritain as the chief proponents
of dividing human life into the exterior and interior. The article criticizes the
claims of Sartre’s existentialist philosophy to atheistic, materialist and humanist selfsufficiency and reconstructs the genealogy of the division between the exterior and interior. It should properly be traced back to the Gospel — to the Christian revelation of the exterior world and our interior connection with it.
Deleuze finds examples of the secularization of this division in politics and science,
in public and private life, in jaywalking and in the willingness to fight for the
fatherland, in the bourgeois love of interpreting everything and of wearing a bowler
hat. It has been suggested that bourgeois nature is a naturalized spiritual life, and
the State is a naturalized Spirit. A person can no longer merely be an atheist — even
in becoming an atheist they will nevertheless remain Christian by maintaining the
opposition between the private individual and the State. To recreate one lost unity or
another, mankind will require the figure of Christ, the Leader who offers friendship.

Keywords:  Christianity; bourgeoisie; exteriority; interiority; nature; spirit; possible worlds; revolution
Deleuze in utero: Deleuze — Sartre and the Essence of Woman / Logos. 2020. № 4 (137). P. 25-62
annotation:  The article is devoted to a detailed analysis of Deleuze’s early essay “Description of Woman” (1945). The author demonstrates that this text contains both the rudiments of the Deleuzian problems of immanence and abundance of desire and also reveals Sartre’s influence on Deleuze’s thought because what Deleuze found in Sartre prompted him to develop his own philosophy. Dissatisfied with Sartre’s concepts of love and desire, Deleuze pushes Sartre toward immanence, for which purpose he pares away those aspects of Sartre’s thought that he sees as problematic.
The author shows how Deleuze in this early essay abandons Sartre’s intersubjectivity to discover a specific relationship with woman-as-object-of-desire. Rejecting Sartre’s model of the Other-as-subject, Deleuze arrives at what he calls the a priori Other. The article describes how Deleuze challenged Sartre’s understanding of sexual difference in order to find the ontological and bodily foundations of desire through a rejection of subjective desire in favor of a more fundamental desire. Deleuze hoped to develop a model of desire that would make it something immanent instead of a lack.
The article shows that Deleuze’s attempt to discern this immanence in woman fails but that he subsequently provides an aesthetic method for realizing the immanence of desire and thus counteracts Sartre. One of the main points of Deleuze’s early text is rejection of Sartre’s masculine point of view, which makes male desire the foundation of female sexual difference. In conclusion, the author claims that the encounter with Sartre was a watershed event for Deleuze because it was Sartre’s philosophy that Deleuze tried to recast to allow for immanence. In this sense, Deleuze’s first essay is a mirror image of his last essay because both of them seek immanence.

Keywords:  Gilles Deleuze; Jean-Paul Sartre; woman; Other; essence; desire
The Shock of a Radical Novelty: The Early Deleuze and the Gaps of Sense / Logos. 2020. № 4 (137). P. 63-88
annotation:  The article analyzes the evolution of Gilles Deleuze’s early philosophy by bringing into focus his recently republished journalistic articles from the late 1940s, which
are unfamiliar to the Russian reader, as well as his first studies during the 1950s of
the history of philosophy. The paper provides a context for his philosophy within
the political and aesthetic debates of the post-War period and also alongside the
academic philosophy of the time. Particular attention is devoted to the influence of
Jean-Paul Sartre and Deleuze’s rupture with existentialism, which the young Deleuze
wanted to replace with a new version of philosophical anti-humanism.
During those years Deleuze was delving into the history of philosophy through
such thinkers as David Hume and Henri Bergson, who were unusual choices at
that time. In them Deleuze saw the potential for an extensive project, the “higher
empiricism” which would play an important role in Deleuze’s mature work over the
next three decades. In his analysis of this hypothetical empiricism, Deleuze found
common traits between both of those philosophers that led him to propose a new
reading. That interpretation ran counter to the critical consensus of the day that
pigeon-holed Hume as a radical sceptic and Bergson as a spiritualist. The author
concludes that Deleuze in his early work on the history of European thought had
already elaborated his own particular way of working with classical philosophical
texts and concepts by turning their creators into conceptual characters who were
part of his own philosophical undertaking.

Keywords:  Gilles Deleuze; antihumanism; Jean-Paul Sartre; higher empiricism; transversality; Henri Bergson; David Hume; conceptual characters.
Grounding Deleuze / Logos. 2020. № 4 (137). P. 89-108
annotation:  The article discusses the significance of What Is Grounding?, a text based on a lecture
course given by Deleuze at the Lycée Louis le Grand. This course is crucial for
understanding Deleuze’s thought, as it presents his ideas in a focused manner and
also establishes the differences between various approaches to the philosophical task
of (self)grounding and the beginning of philosophy as a whole. Deleuze begins with
mythology: mythological thinking accompanied by the endless task of ritual repetition
forms the first step towards attaining reason as infinite. With Hume, Kant
and post-Kantianism we arrive at the grounding of reason, and Deleuze’s text itself
is also concerned with the capacity of finite creatures to “realize reason”. Knowledge
after Hume, however, is grounded on subjective principles and in it the subject
begins to assert its right to grounding through “questioning”.
The structures of questioning are three: the existential, the logical-rational and
the critical, and they are not opposed, but rather form a triple function of grounding.
They could also have a relation either to knowledge or to expressing things as
they are in themselves. Deleuze calls the first relation “method” and the second “system,”
and takes a positive view of post-Kantian philosophers and even Hegel because
they had moved towards system after Kant could not choose between it and method
and yet had emphasized the constitutive character of human finitude. The deepest
aspect of grounding, however, remains “groundlessness/ungrounding” — in these
lectures Deleuze is already turning toward an encounter with the dark ground of the
unconscious, an idea he borrowed from Schelling and related to individuation. Thus,
grounding brings difference into ground, and this is what the immanent realization
of reason consists of.

Keywords:  Gilles Deleuze; Immanuel Kant; Martin Heidegger; grounding; questioning; method; system.
Deleuze’s Theory of Dialectical Ideas: The Influence of Lautman and Heidegger / Logos. 2020. № 4 (137). P. 109-154
annotation:  In Différence et répétition Deleuze’s overall ontology is structured by his theory of dialectical Ideas or problems. This theory draws features from Plato, Kant, and classical calculus. However, Deleuze bring those features together by fitting them into a theory of Ideas/problems developed by the mathematician and philosopher Albert Lautman. Lautman sought to explain the nature of the problems or dialectical Ideas with which mathematics engages and the solutions or mathematical theories which attempt to comprehend them. Lautman drew heavily upon Martin Heidegger’s early ontology to develop his theory of Ideas/problems. Although Deleuze seldom cited Heidegger, understanding how Lautman serves as a mediator between the two shows that certain elements in Heidegger’s ontology indirectly shaped Deleuze’s. This line of Heidegger’s influence has been largely unrecognized and unexplored in Deleuze scholarship.
In this article the author seeks (1) to clarify Deleuze’s theory of dialectical Ideas or problems through an analysis of its debts to Lautman and Heidegger and (2) to demonstrate Heidegger’s crucial influence via Lautman on Deleuze’s ontology. In order to do this he focuses on five core claims that Deleuze’s theory of dialectical Ideas adopts from Lautman’s. The article provides an extensive reconstruction of what those claims mean in Lautman’s theory and discusses Lautman’s use of Heidegger to explain key parts of his position. The five core claims of Deleuze/Lautman that the author outlines are: (1) Ideas/problems are different in kind from solutions and do not disappear with solutions; (2) Ideas/problems are dialectical; (3) Ideas/problems are transcendent in relation to solutions; (4) Ideas/problems are simultaneously immanent in those solutions; (5) the relation between Ideas/problems and solutions is genetic, that is, solutions are generated on the basis of the determining conditions of Ideas/problems.

Keywords:  Gilles Deleuze; Albert Lautman; Martin Heidegger; ontology; metaphysics; metamathematics; dialectical Idea; problem.
Mechanica finalis and Raymond Ruyer’s Philosophy of Neofinalism / Logos. 2020. № 4 (137). P. 155-184
annotation:  The article discusses Raymond Ruyer’s philosophy of neofinalism, which offers an
original reading of the theory of final cause consistent with the data of the natural
sciences. In contrast to the classical version of causa finalis, neofinalism accentuates
not the object in its finished form, but rather the goal-oriented process of searching
for the forms of its realization. Final cause opens out as unsubjected consciousness
that is realized as qualitative evaluation which influences the object’s behavior.
Ruyer calls this primary consciousness an “absolute survey” or external contour of
consciousness. Its secondary version is an internal contour or the consciousness
of intentional objects. The finalist process is realized through a mechanical consequence,
and the result of finalism is a being, while the result of the mechanics is an
aggregate. Mechanics and finality converge at the meta-level in the operations of
trans-spatial and trans-subjective forms that assemble the structural solutions for
local processes. Consciousness ceases to be “conscious about something” and on the
contrary, becomes “something” itself, a thing that in precritical philosophy would
have called a “mental entity.”
Ruyer’s works exerted great influence on Gilles Deleuze’s philosophy and fit into
the ongoing tradition of exegesis of the multiple and complex nature of reality alongside
the oeuvre of Gabriel Tarde, Alfred North Whitehead, Henri Bergson and Gilbert
Simondon. Ruyer proposed and developed such terms in Deleuze’s vocabulary
as molar and molecular, assemblage, virtuality, transversality, trans-individuality
and trans-spatiality. The article provides an outline of Ruyer’s writings and gives an
account of his main work Neofinalism together with commentaries and comparisons
with the views of Plato, Bergson, Simondon, Deleuze, Felix Guattari, Daniel Dennett
and Antonio Damasio.

Keywords:  neofinalism; a being; aggregate; absolute survey; value; mechanics; consciousness.
The Order of Reasons: Martial Gueroult and the Structural Genesis of Philosophical Systems / Logos. 2020. № 4 (137). P. 185-207
annotation:  In his review of Martial Gueroult’s book on Spinoza, Deleuze claims that it is a perfect
example of his own methodology and furthermore that Spinoza’s theories are
the most suitable and definitive object for such a method. Gueroult’s method then
should not be regarded as a straightforward tool for providing a historical account
of past philosophies, but instead as pertinent to a definite philosophy of the history
of philosophy whose conditions can be found in the same sort of “genetic rationalism”
as is employed within philosophical systems like Spinoza’s. The coherence that
Deleuze detects is between the method employed by Gueroult and the objects to
which it is applied; and those objects appear as realizations of the historical conditions
of philosophy.
The article argues that Gueroult’s monographs had introduced Deleuze to the
“genetic or constructive philosophy” of Spinoza, Descartes or Fichte in which those
philosophers had employed the same kind of transcendental method to address the
historical structural changes of the philosophical problems, From this Deleuze came
to understood the possibility that becoming applies to philosophy. In order to support
this thesis, the article first introduces Martial Gueroult’s notion of the philosophy
of the history of philosophy; then it shows how this can be applied as a method
to the study of past philosophical systems; and it deals finally with Deleuze’s personal
and original application of this method to produce a creative becoming of philosophy.

Keywords:  Gilles Deleuze; Martial Gueroult; Benedict Spinoza; dianoematics; genetic method; construction; problem; rationalism.
Two Histories of Bioinformatics: Data Science vs Life Science / Logos. 2020. № 3 (136). P. 1-20
annotation:  This paper focuses on two attempts to reconstruct the history of bioinformatics as a scientific discipline. Paulien Hogeweg who coined the term “bioinformatics,” presents one of them, while Hallam Stevens, who is both a historian and sociologist of science, offers the other. Although both of them can speak authoritatively about bioinformatics inasmuch as Hogeweg was personally involved in creating the field while Stevens has amassed a substantial amount of microsociological, scientometric and other evidence, they tell two fundamentally different stories. According to Hogeweg, bioinformatics came about as a response to new epistemic demands on the life sciences that arose from several key discoveries in molecular biology in the middle of 20th century. For Stevens, the new discipline was the result of transplanting computational methods and technologies into biology. This difference stems from divergent interpretations of what bioinformatics is, and these in turn depend upon different ontological claims about the nature of living things. The link between the concepts of life and information is explained by Hogeweg through a systems approach. Stevens discounts that link and concentrates instead on the transposition of scientific practices from other disciplines and on the new ways of understanding the living which are generated by this transposition.
The attempt to define bioinformatics as a scientific discipline ends for both of these theorists a tautology: the discipline is defined by something defined by this same discipline, that is, by a certain idea about information and/or data. The effect of this tautology is that a normative criterion for delimitation of disciplines (a set of requirements which are necessary and sufficient for considering a field of research as a scientific discipline) does not allow us to explain how each of them occurs individually. Instead, a descriptive criterion is proposed, which is to be understood as the study of the conditions which make possible the differentiations in scientific practices which have already taken place. A distinct understanding of information or data and the ontology associated with it should be the outcome of a study of this kind and not presupposed by it.

Keywords:  bioinformatics; Paulien Hogeweg; Hallam Stevens; information; history of science; scientific discipline.
Naturalizing the Subject of Economics: From Following the Norms of Natural Science to Owning the Laws of Nature / Logos. 2020. № 3 (136). P. 21-54
annotation:  One of the central threads in the historical development of economic science since the 18th century is the search for ways to turn the economy into a discipline resembling natural science, to put it on a solid empirical foundation expressed in mathematical language completely devoid of subjectivity while it apprehends the laws of nature. The article reviews the epistemological history of economics as a discipline through confrontations between epistemic virtues (“moral certainty” and “mechanical objectivity”), research strategies (empiricism and mathematical rationality) and institutional status (science or art). In this regard, the authors analyze the transitions from understanding economics as a “moral science” through the marginalist and formalist revolutions to taking economics as a field for formal ontologies and abstract mathematical models and tools. They then focus on tracing economic theory’s consistent adherence to the epistemological standard of scientific knowledge which was set by classical mechanics — the historical core of science in the modern era — together with the costs incurred by mathematical presentation and rejection of the ideal of “moral certainty”. The authors show how the loss of the empirical component and the growing issue of the substantive component of formal models have resulted in the “empirical turn” in economics. Using the example of neuroeconomics as the most radical attempt to naturalize the subject matter of economics, they outline the modern attempts to saturate economic research with empirical content and return to the project of a “physicalist” economics that will discover the laws of nature as the natural sciences have done. The authors argue from the ambivalent nature of the purposes and results of neuroeconomics to show that the empirical path of neuroeconomics, which was adopted in order to link the formal concepts of neoclassical economic theory with the experimental data and material models of neuroscience, leads instead to further degradation of the subject matter of economics as social objects are replaced with their presumed material infrastructure (neurophysiological correlates of social facts) without solving the problem of the empirical foundation for economic theory.
Keywords:  mathematical natural science; mechanical objectivity; moral sciences; subjectivism; empiricism; economic science; marginalist revolution; neoclassical theory; neuroeconomics.
Funny Numbers / Logos. 2020. № 3 (136). P. 55-76
annotation:  The difficulties associated with evaluating the efficiency of treatment in mental hospitals in the 19th century provide a vivid example of how numbers become a stumbling block when used for official evaluation of institutions. The evasion of assessment due to private interests or because of corruption tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dishonest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The article focuses on the various ways in which medical clinics and government agencies as well as large companies manipulate numbers for the sake of improving performance and finding objective facts. The author examines and analyzes the practices of classification, standardization and ordering of the parameters by which the performance of a particular structure is assessed, while also questioning the relevance of these number-based practices as an assessment tool. The article cites as an example the various tricks resorted to by directors of treatment centers for the mentally ill in order to improve performance and claim that most of their patients are healthy when discharged. The hidden ambivalence of numbers, their deceptiveness and their unsuitability for resolving contradictions and unifying experience based on statistical data are demonstrated. The concept of a thin description is also introduced, which implies an unambiguous interpretation of funny numbers and using them as an argument for evaluating efficiency. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations by using incentives based on quantified targets.
Keywords:  technicality; psychiatry; history of statistics; thin description; history of social science.
The Cybernetics Movement From the Perspective of the Analog/Digital Distinction / Logos. 2020. № 3 (136). P. 77-98
annotation:  The heterogeneity of the cybernetics movement, its blurred boundaries, its deep penetration into the scientific, cultural, political and religious institutions of different national communities — all these provide an opening for broadly different approaches to describing the cybernetics movement. Cybernetics was equally attractive to irreconcilable opponents — atheists and clerics, scientists and mystics, Communists and Liberals, cultural figures and counterculture activists. Any study, social or intellectual, of such heterogeneous movements requires simplification of that complexity. The main goal of the article is to find a basic unity that runs through the cultural, social, doctrinal, and institutional diversity of the cybernetics movement. The unifying feature had to meet three requirements: first, the starting point of the analysis should be the original problem that cybernetics addresses throughout its history to date; second, this problem must have a certain degree of universality, that is, its significance must be more than theoretical or applied so that it somehow resonates with philosophy, psychology, and with cultural, political or ideological forms of thought; third, the problem must be relevant in the context of current polemics.
The distinction between analog and digital proved to be a convenient conceptual tool for drawing a sharp outline around cybernetics. The article does not attempt to provide a coherent treatment of its history but instead consists of several fragmentary ideas that are relevant to the history of cybernetics. It is also an experiment to show the potential of that approach. The main thesis presented is that an understanding of the history of the cybernetics movement can be systematic and productive when based on the analysis of the key cybernetic distinction between analog and digital. This approach reveals important shared problematics and genetic kinship in seemingly incompatible doctrines that make use of cybernetics (Wiener, Shannon) and poststructuralism (Foucault, Derrida, Lacan, Deleuze).

Keywords:  cybernetic movement; analog; digital; information; symbolic; poststructuralism; culture; science.
Philosophy of Mathematics: Perennial and Fluctuating / Logos. 2020. № 3 (136). P. 99-109
annotation:  Book review
Keywords:  Philosophy of Mathematics, Ian Hacking
Antireductionism and the Emancipation of Microbes / Logos. 2020. № 3 (136). P. 110-119
Keywords:  Stanford School; John Dupre; philosophy of biology
How the Historу of Scientific Observation Is Written / Logos. 2020. № 3 (136). P. 110-119
Keywords:  scientific observation
“We Are All Post-Kuhnian”: Episodes in the Remarkable Story of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions / Logos. 2020. № 3 (136). P. 135-177
annotation:  Book Review
Keywords:  scientific revolutions; history of science
In Search of an Epistemology of Assent: On the 35th Anniversary of Leviathan and the Air-Pump / Logos. 2020. № 3 (136). P. 178-201
annotation:  Book review
Keywords:  history of science
On the Value of Collective Work and Studying Practices: An Interview / Logos. 2020. № 2 (135). P. 1-14
annotation:  A conversation with historian of science Lorraine Daston covers the current state of the discipline and Dr. Daston’s own projects. She argues that a history of science is indispensable for understanding contemporary science. She believes that the history of science has the potential to be liberating. By studying the historical variability of science, the discipline shows how science has become what it is — with certain subjects, standards and methods — and points to alternative ways for it to develop. The conversation also turns to whether “big pictures” of the development of science are possible. Although the discipline is trending toward localization with a focus on concrete material practices, historicism, and avoiding generalizations, those big pictures are still possible through collective research projects. Daston cites the efforts of the Working Group at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin as one example.
The question of the relation between the history of science and philosophy is also discussed. Daston briefly outlines the status of the current interactions between these disciplines and singles out Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Bachelard, Canguilhem, Foucault, and Hadot as some of the key, at least on the European tradition. Speaking about the difference between histories of the natural sciences and the humanities, she suggests that the more interesting optics in their study may be practice-oriented rather than disciplinary. An example of research built around particular practices is her joint research project with Peter Galison on objectivity as a history of the practices for creating and reading scientific images. Daston briefly describes the history and features of their collaboration. In conclusion, she shares her immediate research plans.

Keywords:  history of science; objectivity; observation; collective authorship.
Astronomers and Surveyors in the Struggle for Central Asia. Notes on the Epistemology of Colonization / Logos. 2020. № 2 (135). P. 15-40
annotation:  Central Asia was mainly desert land that contained just a few small, densely populated oases when it was forcibly occupied by Imperial Russia between 1865 and 1885. What reason was there to gain control of it? It did not serve any military purpose because the Russian Empire was already well protected on its southern frontier by Central Asia’s notorious deserts and dry steppes. Nor was there much economic advantage to be gained. To present it merely as an opportunity for the thievish embezzlement of public money — and theft there was — is somewhat beside the point. The advance of Great Britain into the same region from the opposite side reflected the same trend. What kind of reasoning was behind these incursions? The counterintuitive answer is that the only rational reason to move into the region was a scientific one. At that time the Central Asia was still a blank spot on European maps and it was the only region on Earth in which the great empires had not yet confronted each other. The frontier lines of both empires were bound to move in on each other, although neither empire gained much advantage from the expansion.
The article analyzes the way in which the struggle for the territory eventually turned into a symposium about the territory. The main agents in that war — and also its beneficiaries — were the British and Russian military geodesists and surveyors who used the latest astronomical methods. Systematic mapping of the desert region was important not only for the geographical knowledge it produced, but also for advancing the surveyors’ careers and improving their social status and personal prosperity. The so-called Afghan Demarcation between the Russian Empire and Great Britain in 1885 seemed to them more like an enjoyable conference for sharing topographical and geographical information than a hostile confrontation. After the outer and inner demarcations had been fixed, the result was that this region — “Created by the Lord in Anger” — was surveyed and studied not only in terms of geography, but also geologically, ethnically and historically.

Keywords:  Central Asia; colonization; the Great Game; mapping; surveying; astronomy; imperial epistemology.
Geophysical Datascapes of the Cold War: Politics and Practices of International Data Centers / Logos. 2020. № 2 (135). P. 41-92
annotation:  The International Geophysical Year or IGY (1957–1958) was conceived against a background of nuclear secrecy intensified by Cold War political tensions, but the IGY provided the impulse for constructing the distinct data regime which took hold in Soviet and American World Data Centers in the 1950s and 1960s — a regime that turned data into a form of currency traded by the political players in the Cold War. This essay examines that data regime in detail by taking up the issues of secrecy and access, sharing and exchange, accumulation and archiving, and finally the handling and use of the IGY data. Features of the IGY’s data centers, such as the notion of centralized storage of open data freely accessible to users from around the world, played an important role in establishing the practices of data governance that continue today in the form of Big Data. These practices, however, were outcomes of the politics, visions, and accompanying technologies that were embedded in and supported by the political culture of the Cold War. By revisiting the drawbacks and challenges that accompanied that Big Data moment in the early Cold War, this essay explores the multiple meanings of data and the ways in which data circulated in a veiled Cold War political economy that ran parallel to their use (or neglect) in the pursuit of knowledge.
Keywords:  International Geophysical Year; Cold War; World Data Centers; Big Data; information technologies; data exchange.
“Mathematical Paradise”: The Parallel Social Infrastructure of Post-war Soviet Mathematics / Logos. 2020. № 2 (135). P. 93-128
annotation:  This article examines the response of the Soviet mathematical community to the geographical restrictions, physical barriers, political and administrative pressures, and conceptual constraints that they faced from the 1950s through the 1980s. Many talented mathematicians with “undesirable” ethnic or political backgrounds encountered discrimination in admission to universities, employment, travel to conferences abroad, etc. The mathematical community in response created a parallel social infrastructure, which attracted young talent and provided support and motivation for researchers excluded from official institutions. That infrastructure included a network of study groups (“math circles”), correspondence courses, math competitions, specialized mathematical schools, free evening courses for students barred from top universities, pure math departments within applied mathematics institutions, and a network of open research seminars. A community emerged in which mathematics became a way of life, work and leisure converged, and research activity migrated from restrictive official institutions to the private spaces of family apartments or dachas. In the informal community of Soviet mathematicians, a specific “moral economy” operated, which relied on a network of friendly connections and on an exchange of favors. The various external constraints further strengthened personal ties, encouraged mutual help, and fostered close friendships in the community. Although excluded from elite privileges, the “parallel world” of Soviet mathematics cultivated an ethos of noble rejection of career ambitions, material rewards and official recognition in order to pursue the highest ideals of mathematical truth. This way of life, which opposed the bureaucratic spirit of official institutions, was often perceived by its participants as a “mathematical paradise.”
Keywords:  history of mathematics; moral economy; ethos; scientific community; discrimination; antisemitism.
From Top-Down Control to Self-Organisation: The “Thaw” and Motor Action Theory / Logos. 2020. № 2 (135). P. 129-156
annotation:  The period from the late 1950s to the mid-1960s in the Soviet Union was known as the “Thaw,” a political era that fostered hopes of restoring the rule of law and democracy to the country. In that period cybernetics came to symbolize both scientific progress and social change. The Soviet intelligentsia had survived the hardship of Stalinist repression and now regarded the new discipline, which brought together the natural sciences and the human sciences, as a pathway to building a freer and more equal society. After decades of domination by Pavlovian doctrine, a paradigm shift was under way in physiology and psychology. Cybernetics reinforced the new paradigm, which put forward ideas of purposive behavior and self-organization in living and non-living systems. The conditioned reflex and a simplistic one-to-one view of connections in the nervous system gave way to more sophisticated and complex models, which could be formalized mathematically. Previous models of control in living organisms were mostly hierarchical and included top-down control of peripheral movement by the motor centers. The new models supplemented this picture with feedback commands from the periphery to the center. By the time cybernetics had made its appearance in the Soviet Union, new models of control had already been formulated in physiology by Nikolay Bernstein (1896– 1966). He termed the feedback from afferent signals “sensorial corrections,” meaning that they play an important part in adapting central control to the changing situation at the periphery of movement. The new paradigm emphasized horizontal connections over vertical ones, and new models took hold based on less “totalitarian” and more “democratic” principles, such as the idea of automatic or autonomous functioning of intermediate centers, the mathematical concept of well-organized functions, the theory of “the collective behavior of automata,” etc. This line of research was carried out in the USSR as well as abroad by Bernstein’s students and followers who formed the Moscow School of Motor Control. The author argues that this preference for less hierarchical models was one expression of the Thaw’s trend toward liberalization of life within the USSR and greater involvement in international politics.
Keywords:  motor action theory; Nikolay Bernstein; top-down control; self-organization; cybernetics; Moscow Motor School.
Phenomenology vs Symbolic AI: Hubert Dreyfus’s Philosophy of Skill Acquisition / Logos. 2020. № 2 (135). P. 157-193
annotation:  A conflict between artificial intelligence (AI) researchers and phenomenologist Hubert Dreyfus arose in the 1960s and continued until the 2000s. The creators of the first AI programs believed that skill acquisition is a matter of solving problems by using particular mental representations,or heuristics. Dreyfus set out to prove that heuristics are not needed for skill acquisition because the human mind and body are capable of reacting to problematic situations in a flexible way without any mental representations. By clarifying the backstory of the conflict and analyzing the fundamental contradictions between the two theories of skill, the article shows how the phenomenology of skill acquisition originated from a critique of symbolic AI. Dreyfus developed his understanding of interconnections between mind and body in opposition to the associationism in the theories of Herbert Simon, Allen Newell and Edward Feigenbaum. He maintained that human beings have fringe consciousness, insight and tolerance of ambiguity and that they have a specific body structure and needs which make it possible to discriminate between relevant and irrelevant features in the environment and get a maximum grip of it. The author analyzes how theories of learning created within symbolic AI influenced Dreyfus’s five-stage model of skill acquisition. That model explained why programs by Simon and his colleagues achieved initial success, but it also exposed their limitations. To clarify the teleology of skill, Dreyfus explored how the idea of motor intentionality is connected with neural network modelling. Two perspectives on the role of Dreyfus in the history of AI are outlined together with the reasons why his philosophy had almost no effect on the AI community even though it was influential in the social sciences and humanities. Finally, current challenges facing the phenomenology of skill acquisition are explored.
Keywords:  artificial intelligence; phenomenology; skill acquisition; mental represantations; motor intentionality.
In Search of an Evanescent Object: Science and Its History / Logos. 2020. № 1 (134). P. 1-28
annotation:  The authors start from the premise that science is an empirical manifold and then
examine different ways of dealing with it. The traditional essentialist approach
would construct a single “essence,” a unique and normative set of distinctive qualities
that is to be found with minor variations in any branch of science. The usual
elements in such a set are the concepts of fact, method, theory, experiment, verification
and falsification, while any social, political and cultural processes or factors
are discounted as external and collateral. This approach would provide a
relatively straightforward account of what science is and reliably distinguish science
from everything that is not science so that its claim to autonomy would be
supported by a normative “strong” image of science. The history of science would
then be reduced to a selection of illustrations of how that essence was formed and
implemented. The most well-known versions of this essence and strong image are
derived from a logical positivist philosophy of science and from the self-descriptions
of many scientists, which are usually considered the authoritative explanation
of science and often referred to when science is popularized. The authors point
out some considerations that cast doubt on this privilege of self-description. Furthermore,
scientificity requires that science itself become an object of specialized research.
Studying the activities of scientists and scientific communities using the empirical
methods of sociology, history and anthropology has exposed a divergence between
the normative “strong” image and the actually observed variety of sciences, methodologies,
ways to be scientists, etc. When those empirical disciplines are applied to science, they do not provide an alternative “strong” image of it, but instead construct a relativized and pluralistic “weak” one. The authors locate the crux of the dilemma of choosing between these images of science at the point where the desire to study science meets the urge to defend its autonomy. The article closes by briefly describing the current state of the history of science and outlining the possible advantages of choosing the “weak” image.

Keywords:  science; science studies; history of science; strong image of science; weak image of science.
What Is the History of Science the History of? Early Modern Roots of the Ideology of Modern Science / Logos. 2020. № 1 (134). P. 29-62
annotation:  The title of the article prompts at least two questions: (1) how to determine that any particular research topic or problem belongs to the history of science and (2) the effect of the history of science and other research in problematizing the very idea that science is a natural category. The category of “science” itself has become so historicized and slippery that it calls into question the integrity of what historians of science are engaged in. The thesis of the article is that the integrity of the history of science as a distinct field of scholarship may lie in understanding the antecedents to modern science as well as its ongoing development. The evident mismatch between the common representations of “science” and the miscellany of materials typically studied by a historian of science comes from a systematic ambiguity that may itself be traced back to early modern Europe. In that cultural setting, natural philosophy was held (most famously by Francis Bacon) to involve both contemplative and practical knowledge. The resulting tension and ambiguity are typified in the 18th century by Buffon’s views. The new enterprise that was called science in the 19th century arrived at an unstable ideology of natural knowledge that was heavily indebted to those early modern developments. The two complementary and competing elements in the ideology of modern science may be described as “natural philosophy” (a discourse of contemplative knowledge) and “instrumentality” (a discourse of practical or useful knowledge). The history of science in large part deals with the interrelations — always shifting and often repudiating each other — between those two poles.
Keywords:  science; history of science; natural philosophy; instrumentality
The History of Science and the History of Knowledge / Logos. 2020. № 1 (134). P. 63-90
annotation:  The article examines the state of the history of science as a discipline and its objectives in the context of its origins and current transformations. The establishment of this discipline and its assumptions about the nature of science together with its goals and structure are briefly discussed. The history of science became a discipline only at the beginning of the second half of the 20th century, and its start is associated with the work of chemist James Conant, a high-level administrator in Manhattan project who was also president of Harvard University and a high-ranking bureaucrat. It was based also on the narrative developed by Alfred North Whitehead, Edwin Burtt, Alexandre Koyré and other historians of science, which claimed modern science was the creator of modernity and a necessary condition for the geopolitical domination of the West. In that understanding, modern science meant science since the time of Galileo and Newton.
The author provides a critical analysis of this foundation narrative for the discipline and of its consequences while showing how contemporary history of science has overcome it. The contradiction between modernism and historicism has been resolved in favor of the latter. A key role in this was played by the book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas Kuhn, which held the potential to undo the presumed monolithic unity of science by rejecting teleology and introducing incommensurability and discontinuities into the historical process. By rejecting explanation of the knowledge of other times and places in terms of modern science, the discipline faced a radical multiplication of independent types of knowledge. This was facilitated by the reorientation to the study of knowledge practices that took place in the 1980s. As a result, the subject matter of the history of science began to erode, and this launched discussion of the prospects for a transition to a history of knowledge based on the study of practices. The sweep of this change of vision is illustrated by the example of classifying sciences according to both their subject matter and the similarities in their research practices. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the new discipline along with its prospects and the challenges it faces are discussed.

Keywords:  history of science; modernity; Thomas Kuhn; history of knowledge; practice.
How Science Became Technical / Logos. 2020. № 1 (134). P. 91-130
annotation:  Not until the 20th century was science regarded as fundamentally technical in nature. In that sense, a “technical field” refers not so much to a field capable of producing technology and not only to one difficult to master, but also to a field based on concepts and vocabulary that matter only to its specialists. That understanding implies unequal access to the contents of science, as the predominantly technical parts of it are given over to the specialists. In addition, it serves as a defense against interference from politics and religion. A historical review of the technicality of science is taken up in the second part of the article.
An alternative understanding, which identified science with an ideal of public reason, attained its peak of influence in the late 19th century. Until the 1920s and ‘30s, the most prominent advocates of science emphasized its contribution to the moral, economic and intellectual order, sometimes abetting tradition but more often (and more naturally) challenging old authorities or established religion and promising grounds for moral and intellectual progress. While the scale and applicability of science advanced enormously after 1900, scientists have usually preferred a pose of detached objectivity in service to bureaucratic experts rather than cultivating engagement with the public. This reshaping of science, which has been both celebrated and condemned, provided a stimulus to the nascent field of history of science, and it remains a key historical problem. The article traces the vicissitudes in the development of this problem and the solutions to it proposed by scientists and historians of science from different generations.

Keywords:  science; technicality; modernity; history of science; expertise; engineering; public reason; state.
The Origin of a New Kind of Science From the Life Sciences / Logos. 2020. № 1 (134). P. 131-158
annotation:  Science in the modern era began with a process of synthesis; the natural sciences in particular emerged through a coalescence of several cultural traditions. Scientific knowledge arose in a series of several separate events as mathematics, philology, physics and biology emerged independently. Scientific ideas about natural life developed via a synthesis of three types of knowledge. (1) There was the tradition of herbalism as a type of knowledge of nature, and this approach remained close to the Aristotelian tradition of describing nature with a bookish method centered on descriptive practice. (2) The scholastic tradition clarified existing concepts and formed new ones. Its role was crucial in supplying nascent science with its set of cognitive tools. (3) The alchemical tradition provided experimental knowledge of nature as applied to human life. It was particularly important in building the skills needed to connect theoretical systems with reality. This synthesis in natural philosophy was the basis of Linnaean reforms. However, theoretical morphology was central to Linnaeus’ thinking and, its features were responsible for the success of his system.
Theoretical morphology offered ways to decide how a natural phenomenon should be reduced and divided into parts in order to serve as an object of scientific cognition. Essential theoretical precepts for this morphology were formulated by Andrea Cesalpino in De plantis libri XVI (1583). Hence, the origin of the natural sciences as a study of living nature should properly be traced to the 16th century. This strand in the development of the new scientific approach in Europe through studying living things should also be connected with earlier (medieval) efforts of the Dominican Order (promoting purer versions of Aristotelianism), while another strand which led to the appearance of physics and other more mathematically expressed branches of the natural sciences belongs to the Franciscan orders (more influenced by Neoplatonism). Science emerged then as profound and experimentally verifiable theoretical knowledge based on ideation through the construction of the objects of experimental research.

Keywords:  scientific revolution; Linnaeus reform; theoretical morphology; Andrea Cesalpino; ideation; mathematization
How to Be Antiscientific / Logos. 2020. № 1 (134). P. 159-191
annotation:  This article is a response to the science wars that broke out in the mid-1990s. It focuses on an analysis of pragmatics and the nature of the use of statements about science by scientists. What triggered the science wars were the relativistic and constructivist claims of sociologists and historians of science about their field, but the author demonstrates that scientists themselves indulge in similar judgments. As an interested observer, he shows through a series of examples that the metascientific claims of scientists about the nature of science and the scientific method are diverse and often contradict each other. Possible conclusions to be drawn from this variability are then analyzed. The first one is that some metascientific statements by scientists are true and others are false. The second one suggests that all metascientific statements made by working scientists should be ignored. The author shows that both these conclusions are unsatisfactory.
The main thrust of the article pertains to the variability of metascientific statements and their relationship with science itself. According to the author, metascientific statements, which often oppose each other, do not describe a single essence of science or a universal scientific method, but they highlight instead specific aspects of scientific practices localized in space, time and cultural context. This makes the relationship between metascience and science contingent, and the question of how to be antiscientific becomes problematic. The author outlines invalid ways to be antiscientific and shows how a relativistic position could be not antiscientific. One can have confidence in the sciences and yet be skeptical about the metascientific statements which offer a single essence of science. The author finds that being for or against a certain essence of science in general means being against nothing very much in particular. What matters is local criticism within a science itself or in the separate parts of it which are associated with specific research or institutional issues.

Keywords:  science; science wars; scientific method; sociology of science; history of science; philosophy of science
Scholasticism for Instagram: On the Digital Anthropology of Modernity / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 1-19
annotation:  Applying the general view of theories of systems and social action, the article shows how the images and patterns of the digital world revolve around the idea of an individualized subject. Embodying the idea of a unique “self ” - the basis of our cultural model of personality - paradoxically requires replicating, selecting and reproducing the atomistic images of the virtual world. This is a cultural model as well as a psychological one: it is manifested in institutionalized practices, has symbolic structure, imagery, ideology and is entrenched in praxis. However, the logic of operating with the alienated and integrated, replicated and authentic, external and internal - when the source of internal vital forces is assigned from the outside - directs us to anthropology, which reveals a similar pattern in a wide range of ethnographic material. The author therefore favors anthropological models over a more conventional structuralist analysis. The article shows how the basic cultural model of the Western concept of the self is manifested in the modern practice of replicating the virtual. Therefore a contradictio in contrarium is exposed through an illustrative sociological description of the way an impersonal system of social action produces its own environment and structures behavior inside and outside of the online communication as a positive feedback mechanism. However, if an authentic subject is composed entirely of replicated elements, then what position does the subject occupy in it? No answer to the question is available from inside the schema. The author’s solution is that the implementation of the schema itself through a system of actions embodies the basic concepts for locating the source of individual uniqueness outside of the subject itself. Hence, copying and replicating is the logical embodiment of our model of the self, and not at all a dissolution into the virtual and replacement of the authentic version by a digital one.
Keywords:  digital ethnography; subjectivity; models of personality; social media; virtualization of the self.
The Future According to Marx / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 20-22
Keywords:  Marx, international conference "The Future According to Marx"
150 Years of Das Kapital and No End in Sight. Unsystematic Remarks on a Never-Ending Story / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 23-46
annotation:  Michael Heinrich, one of the leading Marx scholars, provides a general introduction into Das Kapital with emphasis on the latest interpretations of it. The circumstances surrounding its writing and publication are shown to have interfered with an adequate appreciation of it. The formal structure and organization of the first volume are obstacles to readers and demand much from their education and intellect. The article summarizes the basic trajectories of Marx’s criticisms of political economy, including the critique of naturalizing social forms arising under capitalism and Marx’s original monetary theory of value. The author disentangles Marx’s Das Kapital from views mistakenly ascribed to it, such as the idea that value is determined solely by labor and the prediction of pauperization of the masses. First, Marx’s theory of value goes well beyond explaining prices under capitalism. Second, his main prophecy concerned the inevitable growth of inequality between the masters of capital and the employed classes and did not forecast impoverishment. The paper also points out that the sequence of publication of different volumes of Das Kapital caused lacunae in interpreting Marx’s oeuvre. For instance Engels’ efforts made the third volume more accessible to readers but also obscured the overall pattern of Marx’s thinking. the article shows that Das Kapital was a dynamic and fluctuating project to such an extent that Marx himself several times revisited his views of the causes of economic crises and falling profits and also intended to deal extensively with ecological issues. Reaching an adequate understanding of the theory contained in Das Kapital cannot depend on the manuscripts of those volumes alone. Marx’s notebooks, which have only recently published, are an indispensable aid to understanding it.
Keywords:  Karl Marx; Das Kapital; political economy; labor theory of value; pauperization
Saving the Absolute: Schelling and an Alternative Onset of Dialectical Materialism / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 47-72
annotation:  The article attempts to renew materialist dialectics by turning to the thought of Friedrich Schelling. His Philosophical Letters on Dogmatism and Criticism are used as a framework text to show that both Friedrich Engels’ Dialectics of Nature and Soviet philosophy have promoted a dogmatic version of Marxism, while György Lukács and the Frankfurt School provide a critical version. The task of materialist dialectics is then to resist Marxist dogmatism while addressing those criticisms. In his theory of overdetermination Louis Althusser proposes an origin for materialist dialectic that is an alternative to Engels’ dialectical materialism and Lukács’ critical theory. However, because of his polemical constraints, Althusser fails to complement it with a non-ideological theory of the subject. It is at this point that his endeavors are picked up by Slavoj Žižek and Alain Badiou. Each of them rethinks Hegel’s dialectics in his own way: the former with the help of Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalysis, and the latter by using mathematical formalization. The outcome of this rethinking is a dualism between Žižek’s death drive and Badiou’s truth procedure - in other words, between substantive negativity and affirmative decisionism. If this dualism is not to cause another dissolution of materialist dialectics (of which speculative realism is one symptom), it is important to return to Schelling’s philosophy of freedom, in which substantive negativity and subjective decision have equal ontological weight.
Keywords:  Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling; materialist dialectics; dialectical materialism; absolute; dogmaticism; criticism
Money, Debt and War / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 73-84
annotation:  The article analyzes how the flows of power that derive from war determine the relationship between capital and money, which is capital’s most important institution. As soon as the dollar was no longer convertible into gold, money became detached from its economic and commercial foundations and from its essential role in labor. Marx suggested two different views of money - one in Das Kapital and another in the Grundrisse. The paper elaborates the latter to argue that money assumes a directly political function.Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze provide the concepts of money on which the paper relies. Foucault finds the origin of money in debt, war and the state; Deleuze and Félix Guattari maintain that money is debt that derives from a new political relationship between debtor and creditor. Money as debt is functional only due to a flux of power and a flux of war. Money is the continuation of civil war by other, more political means; and it inscribes “the truth” into the play of power. Money as credit is a sign of power because it represents the possibility of choice, decision and command, that is to say the power of destruction or creation. Money as a means of payment, on the other hand, is a sign of powerlessness. Following Deleuze, the paper affirms that the economic functions of money (indication of value, store of value, unit of account, medium of exchange) depend on the dynamics of some other power. If money is not supported by a flow of power that is in essence a flow of war, it collapses, and the economic functions of indicating value and being the medium of exchange collapse with it.
Keywords:  money; debt; war; power; Karl Marx; Michel Foucault; Gilles Deleuze.
Communism or Neo-Feudalism? / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 85-116
annotation:  In her article, Jodi Dean formulates the hypothesis that we are witnesses to a regressive transformation of the capitalistic historical formation into something new, which can be tentatively called neo-feudalism. Capitalism is no longer valorizing itself, that is, reproducing its social conditions and fostering certain new conditions; it is becoming less oriented toward the organization of labor and more inclined to coercion and direct domination. A reflexivization of capitalism is taking place in its attitudes toward supremacy, and the latter is becoming more explicit. Dean indicates the four main tendencies of neo-feudalization: parcellation (fragmentation but reinforcement) of sovereignty; a new quasi-class hierarchy (an exponential increase in inequality); geographic polarization between megalopolises and the provinces or hinterlands (not only along the postcolonial North-South axis, but between hub cities and small cities within the developed countries); and increasing insecurity and apocalyptic fantasies (from which citizens shield themselves with drugs). This quartet of tendencies strikingly resembles the central features of the European Middle Ages, but this time they are taking quite different social and technological forms. Communicative capitalism makes citizens entirely dependent on the platforms where they are not merely free workers but also passive providers of data. If Dean’s hypothesis is correct, then such palliative means of struggle against inequality as democracy and free elections will not work any longer. The author for-mulates the alternative between communism and feudalism and claims that, in a neo-feudal situation, the struggle for communism would by familiar stages become easier as oppression and the prerequisites for communism become more evident.
Keywords:  capitalism; feudalism; reflexivization; parcellation; apocalypticism.
A Leftist Theory of the Authoritarian Social-Democratic State / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 117-146
annotation:  The article explores the notion of the State: first, as a philosophical concept; second, as a topic in the current socio-political discussion of democratization and globalization; and third, as a possible element of a left wing ideological program. In the prevailing understanding, the State is a regrettable technical necessity that should be kept to a minimum and that will gradually expire by itself. Both the orthodox and the Althusserian Marxists agree with liberals and neo-liberals on this. Their value preferences fuse with their diagnosis of actual tendencies. However, the article claims that, from the current leftist, social-democratic and post-Marxist point of view, the State is becoming stronger but there is nothing bad in that.This post-Marxist point of view coincides with the position of Karl Marx himself when he was a young man planning to write a critique of the State. That project was never completed, but what we have of it, A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, shows that a truly democratic state itself constitutes democratic society and thus forms a circle of mutual establishment and mutual authorization. The democratic form becomes the content; and everyone takes part in self-government, while socio-economic institutions in turn acquire a political nature. The article concludes with a brief account of the principles for the constitutional structure of such a state.
Keywords:  state; democracy; social-democracy; Karl Marx; Miguel Abensour.
The Price of Truth: Reciprocity, Giving, and Generosity in the Philosophy of René Descartes / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 147-170
annotation:  The article provides a comparison of the concept of homo œconomicus with the core theses of René Descartes’ moral philosophy. The first section draws on the work of the contemporary Western philosopher Anselm Jappe in which Descartes’ philosophy is held to be the cornerstone of the established view and current scientific definitions of homo œconomicus as the fundamental and indispensable agent of capitalistic relations. As opposed to this “common sense” position in the modern social sciences, the second section of the article builds upon Pierre Bourdieu’s Anthropologie économique (2017) to demystify the notion of homo œconomicus. The article then examines some aspects of modern philosophical anthropology that show odd traces of Descartes’ thinking and that are regularly applied in economic science as well as in the critique of economic thinking as such. These are the concepts of mutuality, giving, exchange and generosity, and they are regarded as central to the philosopher’s moral doctrine.The author concludes that the philosophical doctrine of generosity has very little in common with the bourgeois ideology of utility which implies an instrumental relationship between subjects: in Caretesian moral philosophy the Other is neither an object of influence nor a means to achieve someone’s personal goals nor a windowless monad. Generosity certainly has its economic aspects, but these do not include accumulating wealth in the bourgeois sense. It is more in the realm of the aristocratic practice of making dispensations. All throughout his life Decartes may be viewed as exhibiting a peculiar kind of nobility in which the desire to give, endow and sacrifice outweighs any selfish interest. The vigorous pursuit of well-being gives way to a quest for the leisure required to pursue intellectual activity, and care for oneself does not preclude attending to and loving the Other, whatever form it may take.
Keywords:  René Descartes; Pierre Bourdieu; Anselm Jappe; homo oeconomicus; bourgeois morale; exchange; gift; nobility; generosity.
Licentia Poetica: The Mystery of Economics and the Power of Inversion / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 171-198
annotation:  The article compares the views of Giorgio Agamben and Karl Marx on what both interpret as a mystery inherent in the nature of economic relations. While Marx connects this feature with the formation of capitalism, Agamben traces its source to early Christian thought. Both however regard the mystery as a historically determined particular form of an economy (in a broad sense), and both see it as the result of a process of inversion. Although Agamben rejects Marx’s interpretation of labor as a “generic essence” of mankind that is understood as mostly biological, and a constantly active volitional impulse, the author shows that their concepts have a number of important correspondences. This pertains primarily to the heterogeneity in the very phenomena of work and life. Although that heterogeneity has a biological and asocial character, it is less the result of natural processes than it is a product of the economic structure itself (a dispositif in Agamben’s terminology). Marx ironically remarked that the term “labor-commodity” is merely licentia poetica, which in fact refers to a terrible reality in which the exploitation of labor takes on the appearance of a fair exchange between its seller and buyer; and this can be read as an indication of an inverted form of that dream of happiness, which according to Agamben supports the dispositifs that man-age people’s lives for the sake of what is called their salvation.
Keywords:  economy; inversion; form of life; commodity; labor; labor force; value.
Kazimir Malevich: Economy as the Fifth Dimension / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 215-228
annotation:  This paper deals with the impact that Karl Marx"s Das Kapital (and especially its fourth volume, the theory of Surplus Value) had on the category of economy in Kazimir Malevich"s output. In a series of texts, Malevich proclaims economy the new criterion of art and the Black Square its embodiment in contemporary painting. While the author was analyzing Marx"s views on labor and human nature, echoes of them turned up in Malevich"s manifestos and philosophical essays where the artist pondered the idea of the liberation of creative exaltation. The article others an interpretation of the creative process itself from the standpoint of economy, which for Malevich provided an opportunity to lay down the foundation for a new kind of art that was consistent with the prevailing ideology. The author points out that while Malevich was in Vitebsk he studied Marx"s works with idea of incorporating economic studies into art: his speculations on the relationships between the ideological superstructure and the practical, economic base were written in the manner of Marxist philosophy and provided the basis for his main essays, The World as Non-Objectivity (1923) and Suprematism: Thee World as Non-Objectivity or Eternal Rest (1923-1924). They defined the new art as an independent ideological superstructure positioned “outside of other contents and ideologies.” Parallel to that, the author examines the correspondence between Malevich"s theory of the surplus element and Marxist doctrines on surplus value. It is also shown that Malevich hoped to prove that, as in dialectical materialism, his new surplus element opens the way to a new artistic structure that is emerging from the womb of the old system in the same way that communism comes about as a kind of heterogeneous body from within the underpinnings of bourgeois society.
Keywords:  suprematism; economy; surplus element; Kazimir Malevich; Karl Marx.
Gift Exchange as Narrative and Metaphor / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 229-252
annotation:  The article deals with characteristic features of economic anthropology"s rhetoric of reciprocity and analyzes the factors that affected its formation. The authors consider two principal interpretations of reciprocity in economic anthropology that were formed under the influence of its two main founders - Malinowski and Mauss. The characteristic features of their two types of rhetoric are discussed together with the purposes for which they were used. Two different intentions were pivotal for the work of these researchers and their followers: first, to establish economic anthropology as a positivistic science; and second, to use the analysis of archaic societies as evidence for their critique of a capitalistic economy.To achieve the first task they actively used rhetoric borrowed from the natural sciences, and especially from biology as well as from economic theories that were another social science also striving for a more rigorous positivism. For the second task they turned to the rhetoric of political economy and used arguments based on a dialectical opposition between commodity exchange and gift exchange. The most prominent example of such dialectical rhetoric is in the works of Chris Gregory and Karl Polanyi in which gift exchange was interpreted as a metaphor for a utopian alternative to capitalistic commodity exchange. Because the rhetoric of economic anthropology from its inception to the present has been profoundly influenced by the language of general economic theory, the article examines the genesis of the rhetoric of economics as a science. This leads to an analysis of how the language of economics was affected by the rhetoric of the natural sciences, then of psychology and finally of law.
Keywords:  rhetoric of economic science; economic anthropology; reciprocity; gift exchange.
Ivan Turgenev and Alexis de Tocqueville on the Economic Consequences of Serfdom and Forced Labor / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 199-214
annotation:  The initial paragraph of Turgenev"s “Khor and Kalinych” (the opening story of A Sportsman"s Sketches) contrasts the society and economy of two neighboring regions. The key difference between their two ways of life hinges on the use of forced labor in one region and its absence in the other. Although Turgenev"s description is certainly based on firsthand knowledge, it can be argued that the literary device he uses was inspired by a passage in De la démocratie en Amérique by Alexis de Tocqueville, who also contrasts the ways of life in two American states separated by a river with slave labour in one versus free labour in the other. Nor was Tocqueville the first to make use of a river separating economically divergent worlds: that device appears in Arthur Young"s Travels in France. Although Tocqueville and Turgenev have much in common on this topic, Tocqueville was an inquirer who concentrated on the destructive influence of slavery on the slave owners themselves and their society, while Turgenev in A Sportsman"s Sketches was a short story writer who showed how the institution of serfdom brutalized the serfs.
Keywords:  Ivan Turgenev; Alexis de Tocqueville; Arthur Young; serfdom; slavery; intertextuality.
The Rhetoric of Institutionalism: Thorstein Veblen’s Irony / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 253-274
annotation:  The article centers on the rhetoric of Thorstein Veblen, who combined economic, sociological and anthropological approaches in an organic way. The paper emphasizes the importance and heuristic significance of Veblen’s use of the trope of irony. An ironic stance buttresses his critique of the status quo and promotes an understanding of the socio-economic structure as complex, controversial and sometimes absurd. The article highlights the examples and themes that Veblen described with recourse to irony. Irony accompanies his criticism of the status quo, and it appears in his account of such phenomena as the leisure class, business culture, higher education, modern Western civilization as epitomized by America, and in his exposure of the postulates and hidden ideologies of mainstream economics.The author shows that Veblen’s followers took his irony as an idiosyncrasy typical for someone descended from Norwegian farmers, while the tropes themselves were usually unfavorably contrasted with serious research, i.e. that side of his heritage was regarded as a caprice that interfered with later recognition of Veblen’s merit. The article intends to demonstrate exactly the opposite by calling attention to irony in the social sciences and showing its significance for them. Irony as a negative and multifaceted characterization of reality better reflects the phenomena themselves with their inherent paradoxes and complexity. Irony assists us in keeping a proper distance from the intensity of a description and in revealing socio-economic processes with all their dynamics and contradictions. It is the ironic that makes Veblen’s heritage relevant after all.
Keywords:  rhetoric; Thorstein Veblen; irony; institutionalism; leisure class.
Leftist Critique in the Era of Platform Capitalism / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 275-308
annotation:  The article discusses the canon of the Marxist critique of capitalism, its methods and means for analyzing economic institutions and the information technologies that affect them. The authors postulate that the Anglo-American academics who remain faithful to this canon are quite leftist in a way that derives from concerns about corporate culture and leads to oversimplifications and distortions of the phenomena in question. For example, economics has turned into an empty concept of capitalism studied through secondary texts and their interpretations in a presentation mode. As the latest failure to link Marxist and managerial discourses in the digital era, the authors cite Platform Capitalism by Nick Srnicek, one of the founders of the accelerationist movement and author of essays on the future of capitalism. The most controversial ideas in Srnicek’s book include the rhizomaticity of the platform model of economics, which he did not himself elaborate but proposed as the typology and genealogy of platforms in recent economic cycles (from the 1970s until the mortgage crisis of 2007 in the USA) when the foundations of the infrastructure and business strategy of the modern digital economy were shaped. The article focuses in particular on the enduring topics of leftist discourse under the new conditions of the digital economy: falling profit margins, deficit, crises of overproduction, exploitation, control, profit-seeking and market competition as explicit motives that supposedly guide the capitalists and managers in addressing new technologies together with the specter of an inevitable apocalypse. The authors question the most popular leftist approaches to critique of digital technologies and of the business models of platform companies and propose a more constructive appreciation of their role in modern society and economic liberalization by taking into account their public benefit and their cultural significance for users.
Keywords:  platform capitalism; sharing economy; canon of leftist critique; presentation mode; crisis logic; exploitation; control; economic apocalypse.
The Animal That Therefore I Am (Not): Marx as Subjectivity Theorist / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 309-330
annotation:  The article centers on a discussion of Frank Ruda’s chapter in the anthology Reading Marx, in which he argues that the history of emancipatory thought is a series of footnotes to Plato’s Cave. In considering emancipation to be a way out of the non- or pre-human state, Marx becomes the thinker closest to Plato. According to Ruda, a critique of capitalism must be based on the refutation of the myth of the (unconditional) given, which he identifies with the ideological operation of naturalization. Capitalist naturalization dependent on abstraction and abstraction from abstraction ends by reducing the worker to the state of an animal. However, this is a strange animal that has nothing to do with real animals, and therefore should be called a non-animal. The way out of the Cave turns out to be the realization that the figure of the non-animal does not conceal within itself an unalienated substance and that no positive utopia lies beyond the Cave - on the contrary, the path to liberation leads to the Real of the shadows themselves, to a kind of negative utopia. Accepting Ruda’s general line of reasoning, the author of the article nevertheless wonders whether this interpretation that Ruda has put forward is the kind of new way to read Marx to which Reading Marx aspires. The author compares this interpretation with one from the Marxist legacy proposed by Michel Henry and with François Laruelle’s non-Marxism (which is an extension of Henry’s thought). Their example shows that naturalization could be not only a target in the criticism of capitalism but also a method for that criticism. The myth of the unconditional given has been countered by Henry with a myth about the given which coincides with its condition. Then according to non-Marxism, the myth of the givenness conditions is what is be overcome instead of the myth about the given. That argument is illustrated by Katerina Kolozova’s denunciation of the anthropocentric orientation of the critique of capitalism, which holds that the animal has been reduced to the non-animal in capitalism in exactly the same way as human beings have been and draws the conclusion that in the last instance both animal and human are generically identical.
Keywords:  Marxism; non-philosophy; animal; subjectivity; givenness; utopia; Michel Henry; François Laruelle; Katerina Kolozova.
Post-Operaist Attack by an Assembly Against Sovereignty / Logos. 2019. № 6 (133). P. 331-337
A Dark Intellectual: Jordan Peterson and Conservatism / Logos. 2019. № 4 (131). P. 1-30
annotation:  The article reconstructs the ideological project of the Canadian clinical psychologist Jordan Peterson, whose popularity as a public intellectual peaked in 2018. His project is a response to the Cold War and the ideas of economic equality as well as to doctrines that promote both economic and gender equality. Egalitarianism in all its manifestations is perceived as a threat to Western civilization because it contradicts natural laws and order. Peterson justifies inequality and meritocratic dominance hierarchies as natural by invoking Price’s law, the Pareto principle, and the “Matthew effect.” The article gives a brief overview of the history, content and the field of application of these laws and analyzes the structure and internal contradictions of the arguments from evolutionary biology and evolutionary psychology which Peterson uses to prove the necessity and inevitability of patriarchal dominance hierarchies in human societies. The author concludes that Peterson’s ideological project is conservative, places it in the context of the culture wars in North America during the 2010s, and compares it to the ideology of the alt-right: they have similar views on the issues of “natural order” and “sex realism” but differ on the issue of “race realism.” The popularity of this project is due mainly to its advocacy of sex realism, which gives a quasi-scientific rationale for its public’s entrenched sexism.
Keywords:  Jordan Peterson; conservatism; inequality; dominance hierarchy; patriarchy; culture wars
Why Look for a Dark Logos in a Dark Room (Especially When It Isn’t There)? / Logos. 2019. № 4 (131). P. 31-47
annotation:  The article provides a critical analysis of the Russian philosopher, sociologist and political scientist Alexander Dugin. According to Dugin, there are no universal (rational) principles on which philosophy may rely; however, every culture has its own rationality and its particular “Logos.” Therefore, the task of Russian philosophers is to create a special “Russian philosophy of chaos,” also termed a “dark Logos,” as an alternative to the Western Logos and its pretentions to universality. The uncritical acceptance of this Western Logos by Russian society has given it a distinctive attribute called “archaeomodern,” which is an incomplete and superficial modernization of Russian society even though it remains deeply archaic in its essence. The article finds several critical flaws in Dugin’s project to (re)create a “Russian philosophy of chaos.” First, Dugin’s ideas about the essence of Western European modernity (and consequently about the constituent elements of the Russian archaeomodern) are drawn mainly from the writings of Western such critics of moder nity as René Guénon and Martin Heidegger that are themselves an integral part of the Western Logos and that paint a distorted picture of Western modernity by starting from a polemical opposition to it. The author notes also that Dugin’s ideas about the radically archaic nature of the Russian nation, which he believes has not reached even the stage of Europe’s Middle Ages, are based primarily on the speculations of Western thinkers about “underdeveloped non-Western nations.” Thus, instead of the nuanced study of the extent and depth of modernization in Russian society and analysis of its elements promised by Dugin, he offers a series of caricatured images borrowed from Western philosophy and makes recommendations that are too superficial to be of much interest to Russian society or its government.
Keywords:  Alexander Dugin; Russian philosophy; archaeomodern; philosophy of modernity; Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz; Neoplatonism
Enlightenment: How Does It Work? [In-lightenment] / Logos. 2019. № 4 (131). P. 48-66
Keywords:  Another Enlightenment; In-lightenment
The Curse of the Sun / Logos. 2019. № 4 (131). P. 67-80
annotation:  The paper deals with Georges Bataille’s theory of a general or solar economy through a step-by-step exploration of the myth of Plato’s Cave. The Myth of the Cave brings the sun center stage in philosophy by combining the questions of existence and knowledge with the domain proper to light and the eye. That combination suggests that to grasp the ontology of all things is primarily to see it, to be abandon the vision of a weak eye - an eye which fixes only on shadows (and shadows of shadows) - for that of a powerful (performative) eye whose gaze coincides with the Good (as the main principle of all being). Plato’s myth is a narrative about illuminations of the Good (the Sun) that was the first to comprehend the solar economy. The author finds, however, that it misinterprets the key feature of turning to the Sun by regarding it through the logic of a pure unpolluted gaze. The solar economy does not coincide with the process of illumination but instead detaches from it. It demonstrates that the eye is melted at the point where the true sun begins. The sun then is primarily a black sun, a sun of incandescence rather than of (en)lightenment. Author attempts to conceive a black solar economy that treats illumination as a mere epiphenomenal loop that cannot cancel the inexorable unilaterality of the sun. The solar is the sole and inevitable History which is told by nonhuman mouths (and one which eludes the all-too-human distinction between the facts of the history and counterfactual stories). This History has a single ultimate and catastrophic finale brought on by the culmination and excess of global waste which annihilates all existing things because it is nothing more than the ontological version of accumulation.
Keywords:  Georges Bataille; solar economy; illumination; black sun; useless waste; incandescence; radiation; solar complicity
The Thanatosis of Enlightenment / Logos. 2019. № 4 (131). P. 81-106
annotation:  The article analyzes methodological errors Theodore Adorno and Max Horkheimer’s Dialectic of Enlightenment, particularly their incorrect use of the concepts of mimicry and mimesis. The author of the article maintains that the leaders of the Frankfurt School made a mistake that threatens to undermine their argument when they juxtaposed mimesis and the attraction to death, which has led philosophers to trace back to mimesis the desire for destruction that is found in a civilization constructed by instrumental reasoning. The author reviews the arguments of the Dialectic of Enlightenment and emphasizes the unsuccessful attempt to fuse Freudian and Hegelian methods, which exposes the instability of opposing scientific reasoning to “living” nature. Some amusing quotations from Roger Caillois, who refused to think of mimesis as something entirely rational, are also brought to bear. As Brassier gradually unfolds Adorno and Horkheimer’s thesis, he indicates the consequences of their mistake, which confined thinkers to the bucolic dungeon of “remembering” the authentic nature that they cannot abandon because they have denied themselves access to both reductionist psychological models and to phenomenological theory as such. Brassier delineates the boundaries of this trap and notes the excessive attachment of the Dialectic of Enlightenment to the human. Brassier goes on to describe the prospects for a civilization of enlightenment: a mimesis of death in both senses (death imitates and is imitated) finds its highest expression in the technological automation of the intellect, which for Adorno and Horkheimer means the final implementation of the self-destructive mind. However, for Brassier it means the rewriting of the history of reason in space. This topological rewriting of history, carried out through an enlightenment, reestablishes the dynamics of horror more than mythical temporality: it will become clear that the human mind appears as the dream of a mimetic insect.
Keywords:  disenchantment; thanatropic mimicry; negativity; non-identical; power of concept; identitarism; naturalism
Fictio Audaciae: Beyond the Self-Preservation of the Enlightenment [En<…>ment] / Logos. 2019. № 4 (131). P. 107-128
annotation:  The article is devoted to tracing out the operations of the Enlightenment’s self-preservation mechanism in the realm of imagination and to a search for ways to problematize that mechanism. The Enlightenment blocks imagination by subordinating it to self-preservation, which cloaks the utopian impulse. This cloaking is found in both science fiction and extro-science fiction (Quentin Meillassoux’s term). Extroscience fiction reveals the limits of self-preservation and self-restraint placed on the Enlightenment: an agreement to a rational despotism of knowledge liberated from nature (and from its laws). What remains outside the area accessible to the enlightened imagination may be referred to as “non-Kantian worlds of the third type.” Access to these worlds is closed, as the main issue for the enlightened imagination remains the infernological question of return and narration. This limitation predetermines the instrumentalization of the non-Kantian worlds of the third type, which become the means of supporting life and knowledge. Fictio Audaciae is a regime of imagination that has not been produced by the Enlightenment, but from which the Enlightenment derives its energy, while struggling always to keep it under control. However, the mechanism of self-preservation is vanquished by a utopian anarchism in which the imagination gains access to the nonKantian worlds of the third type by means of the “terror of obliteration.” According to Fredric Jameson, the terror of obliteration circumvents self-preservation. Nature understood as rebellion and reason that has abandoned the pursuit of self-preservation converge in the Gordin Brothers’ world of “noncorrelation” in which the key role belongs to anarchic technology rather than to the “magic of the Enlightenment.” The Gordin Brothers’ utopian Anarchy Land is neither science fiction nor extro-scientific fiction, but a techno-fiction in which the laws of nature are not even contingent but have been declared never to have existed This non-existence is explained by the principle of noncorrelation (nature as a set of laws does not exist, laws and the world are not correlated). Based on the principle of noncorrelation and guided by the utopian impulse (Fictio Audaciae), the Gordin Brothers not only postulate the existence of non-Kantian worlds of the third type, but also offer a utopian description of them.
Keywords:  Enlightenment; imagination; science fiction; anarchism; the Gordin Brothers; utopian impulse
Seven Compact Essays on Color / Logos. 2019. № 4 (131). P. 129-209
annotation:  The article is a group effort consisting of an introduction and seven compact essays. It is focused on the problem of color from the perspective of current philosophi cal discussions on the role of the Enlightenment and the relationship between light and dark. The introduction by Michael Kurtov presents a roadmap for navigating through the seven essays by referring to a schema of “color knowledge” which has four dimensions: luminosity, resolution, saturation, and hue. Each of the texts in the article (the introduction and seven essays) deals mostly with one of “color knowledge”, which are formed by combining three color dimensions. Roman Mikhailov explores the plastic-dynamic correlates of colors and the chromaticity of the text understood broadly both as the text of nature and as an abstract symbolic complex. Eugene Kuchinov offers a “haptic criticism of the Enlightenment,” which is an analysis of color phenomena from the point of view of the skin (not the eye): on the basis of the logic of sensation, color is “viewed” beyond the light, beyond the optics. Yoel Regev develops a hermeneutics of color applied to the Torah: color is interpreted as a deception which is opposed to another deception belong ing to a “true enlightenment.” Michael Kurtov addresses a revision of Goethe’s theory of color based on new physical experiments and on the logical geometry of color and then arrives at a critique of contemporary chromo-ideology. Nataliya Tyshkevich reveals the modern political meaning of coloring in the context of the recent “renaissance of modernist aesthetics” in which dealing with form is replaced by dealing with surfaces. Gray Violet describes color and darkness as political functions that turn into each other in the middle of a non-place in the “smart city.” The final piece by Nikita Sazonov elaborates the procedure of colorization by examining noncolor - a resource beyond the colored and the uncolored, most readily manifested in the printed character as well as in modern hip-hop culture.
Keywords:  Enlightenment; color; lightness; definition; saturation
Analytical Noise / Logos. 2019. № 4 (131). P. 210-219
The Economy of Darkness: Self-Devouring vs Parasitism / Logos. 2019. № 4 (131). P. 220-228
Voices of Pain and Hope in a Community of Remission / Logos. 2019. № 4 (131). P. 229-236
Anti-Narcissus: Necro- Perspectivism and Anthropophagy / Logos. 2019. № 4 (131). P. 237-251
Psychoanalysis as Casework / Logos. 2019. № 4 (131). P. 252-258
From Dark Ecology to the Philosophy of a Blurred World / Logos. 2019. № 5 (132). P. 1-6
Keywords:  Timothy Morton; dark ecology; Philosophy of a Blurred World; weirdness
Condense, Authorize, Destabilize: Multiperspectivism and Stratigraphy / Logos. 2019. № 5 (132). P. 7-32
annotation:  The paper is both an exercise in multiperspectivist analysis of metaphors and an attempt to find a theoretical foundation for the possibility of such a procedure. The concept of speculative realist “decentered thought,” which is most clearly encapsultated in Morton’s dark ecology project, implicitly presupposes a thematization and problematization of the “center” of the conceptual system - a mesh that makes the order reproduced by it a solid and stable picture of a possible world. Appealing to the theory of metaphor allows one to fix on this tension, which arises not between philosophical theory and some “external world” but between the conceptual system and the possible existence of way of ordering its instances. This also solves two problems: first, via reconfiguration of the concept of the “center” of the conceptual system by inscribing a metaphor into it; and second, by invoking and reinterpreting the Ankersmit problem to endow metaphor with the ability to act while highlighting the basic modes of its agency. This interpretation diverges from the classical - perspectivist - conceptualization of metaphor as an operator of unambiguous order in a theory and turns the systems of concepts themselves into clots of multiple and ambiguous interpretations of metaphors that always reserve the right to be something else and not the same as before. The article tests and illustrates this multiperspectivism with the conflict of metaphors involved in the transfer of the concept of Ian Bogost’s alien phenomenology to Levi Bryant’s onto-cartography system. The final part of the article elaborates a multiperspectivist stratigraphy project (an as yet non-existent branch of theory that would turn a metaphor into both an object and instrument of description and explanation) and also maps out points of uncertainty that, once overcome and clarified, would make such a stratigraphy possible. Why does the Other defeat Technology? Where has perspectivism failed? How is a history of metaphors possible if temporal regimes themselves turn out to be an effect of metaphorical operations? How can metaphors act? The article clarifies and details some answers to these and other questions.
Keywords:  metaphor; perspectivism; multiperspectivism; onto-cartography; stratigraphy; concept; system of concepts; dark ecology; agency; irreducibility.
Dark Ecology Between Discourse and Otherness / Logos. 2019. № 5 (132). P. 33-56
annotation:  In contrast to the more popular interpretations of Timothy Morton’s dark ecology as one more example of speculative realism, the article suggests regarding it argue as a special case of Jacques Derrida’s deconstruction. By examining Morton’s earlier writing, the author demonstrates that it extends the deconstructionist structure of argumentation by criticizing ecological discourse in order to justify dark ecology. Derrida revealed the violent structure of writing as the basis of the logocentric myth, and Morton has similarly shown that the Romantic idea of a harmonious Nature came about as a result of the consumerism of the privileged classes in modern industrial society. Explication of this connection exposes limitations that are significant for dark ecology in Morton’s interpretation of Derrida, which ignores Derrida’s criticism of various attempts to emancipate otherness. Examination of Derrida’s texts shows that they do not deconstruct logocentrism but argue against the alternatives offered by Michel Foucault and Emmanuel Levinas. Deconstruction therefore continues to operate symmetrically on them. From a similar viewpoint, Morton’s use of dark metaphors appears unjustified because it does not recognize the possibility of deconstructing darkness rather than light. However, Derrida’s solution - his concept of the democracy to come - is incompatible with Morton’s resort to the concept of a hyperobject. Morton’s ecology should instead be read as a theoretical language, indifferent to the dichotomy between light and darkness and descriptive of a new democracy, the distinctive feature of which is the inevitable proximity of the Other.
Keywords:  hyperobject; democracy to come; dark ecology; deconstruction; the Other.
Humankind: Solidarity with Non-Human People / Logos. 2019. № 5 (132). P. 57-70
annotation:  The paper deals with the question of how exactly Marxism and the theory of communism that derives from it should be reworked to accommodate acceptance of the non-human. The author criticizes the binary opposition of action (which is inventive and future-oriented) and behavior (which is algorithmic and past) because blind acceptance of that oppostion makes human beings the only agents and excludes non-human beings from agency; and the human beings in question are capitalists rather than proletarians. However, instead of sublating this opposition into a third, synthetic term, the author emphasizes that its relata always accompany or “haunt” each other, resulting in the radical uncertainty which underlies every comparison, opposition and ultimately the very existence of any object. Solidarity is found not in the past or the future taken in isolation from each other, but in their nowness, that is, in their relative movement. At the same time, the uncertainty, which constitutes the spectrality of things, does not imply indeterminacy. The author illustrates his point with the example of quantum behavior - the superposition of states does not imply their mixing. Even though the states are imposed on each other, they still retain boundaries, although it would be very hard to localize them; and the “uncertainty” of the superposition is a mark of the “accuracy” of its physical description. This feature is inherent in all objects, and not only in human beings or in quantum phenomena; nevertheless, Marx relegates it to the category of “species being.” The author defends his approach against potential accusations of anthropomorphism by finding that any such charge would rely heavily on implicit anthropomorphic presuppositions. Marxism must include non-human beings in its structure if it is to survive as a doctrine or begin to function properly.
Keywords:  Marxism; non-humans; action; openness; solidarity; spectrality; uncertainty; beauty.
Dark Cities: Dark Ecology and Urban Studies / Logos. 2019. № 5 (132). P. 71-86
annotation:  Timothy Morton’s dark ecology is driven by objects as examples or sources of inspiration without offering a full-fledged theoretical methodology. The article highlights possible approaches to designing an independent set of tools suitable for dark ecology and applies them to other topics. In its complexity the city may be considered a hyperobject, which is both a product of and a permanent environment for human beings. The author analyzes the classic texts of urban researchers to show the “dark” aspects of writings by Nigel Thrift, Scott McQuire, Henri Lefebvre, Walter Benjamin, Henry Thoreau, Gaston Bachelard and others. This analysis reveals that even the most pastoral descriptions of urbanized space contain a very different image of the city: dark, unstable and strange, and a summary of those features may be incorporated into a comprehensive theoretical progam. A proposed alternative to the classical methodology centered on a modern visual analysis of the environment may be called “dark urbanism” by analogy with “dark ecology.” The author refers to Dylan Trigg on the feeling of “topophobia” as well as to the fictional images of an urban background in the works of Neil Gaiman, Max Frei and China Miéville to locate several reference points for studying the city as a multifaceted, complex object without merely declaring it as such; but those reference points form the basis for changing investigative optics. The article offers a methodological prolegomenon to “dark urbanism” by proposing analysis of the audible, sensual, tactile and other elements of the urban environment that have not been emphasized by the urbanist mainstream.
Keywords:  urban studies; dark ecology; Timothy Morton; horror; the city; darkness.
Climate Uncertainty and Illuminating Dark Ecology / Logos. 2019. № 5 (132). P. 87-102
annotation:  One of the most discussed problems regarding climate science is that the knowledge it claims to have is plagued by uncertainty. Timothy Morton’s dark ecology regards uncertainty as inextricable from any knowledge and also from any relation in general. This approach reveals that a rejection of uncertainty motivates both climate change deniers and their critics who would treat the conclusions of climate science as indisputable facts. Instead of treating uncertainty as a problem, dark ecology proposes that we learn how to live with it. But in order to do so, it recommends not only becoming attuned to the weird, “dark” side of things, but also tacitly suggests that the dark side is the only real one. Dark ecology is therefore bound to disregard those realms of human existence which are dependent upon transparency, such as public and political life. However, the article shows that particular processes in those realms have contributed significantly to the way the weird reality described by dark ecology became perceptible. Many of the features of global warming that dark ecology emphasizes - the impossibility of distancing oneself from it or of defining it completely and controlling it - become apparent only when a broad public controversy about its reality emerges and that controversy can never be resolved by citing allegedly certain facts The participants in such a controversy find that is impossible to convert the knowledge they have into a consensus. The article recommends taking that experience as a step toward attuning oneself to weird reality in which knowledge is more impotence than power.
Keywords:  dark ecology; hyperobjects; climate science; uncertainty; climate change denial; public space; differend; Timothy Morton; François Lyotard.
The World Is Not Enough: A Political Dark Ecology / Logos. 2019. № 5 (132). P. 103-116
annotation:  Timothy Morton’s dark ecology is positioned as an aesthetic and ethical study which is far removed from political theory. Although Morton touches upon actual political crises connected with global warming and on climate change skepticism and also deploys such fundamental concepts of political philosophy as territory, space, action and solidarity, he describes his approach as ontological rather than political. The author finds that dark ecology’s own foundations have been inherited from political theory. However, that does not make it inconsistent; on the contrary, under the right conditions it enables a different apprehension of both ecology and political philosophy. The author asks how politics would proceed in a world of uncertainty and proposes viewing Morton’s theory as a treatise on a political theory that addresses the problem of collective action. This is the main concept of any political philosophy out of which its description of the social order is constructed. Dark ecology denies any possibility of action by emphasizing uncertainty and the impossibility of predicting an action’s consequences, and this opens up new possibilities for conceptualizing action. It is precisely uncertainty that permits segregating action from the guilt that motivated Morton to divorce dark ecology from political philosophy. This is a narrative about the transformation of Morton the emancipator into a law-giver, about how political theory has evolved in parallel with the onset of the Anthropocene, about what will happen to the Leviathan in the age of global warming, and how to change the perception of the political from ontological categories to ethical ones.
Keywords:  dark ecology; Timothy Morton; political philosophy; ethics; climate theory; Henri Lefebvre; politics of space; global warming; morality; theory of action; grounding
The Speculative Hopper: Toward a Geology of a Toxic Absolute / Logos. 2019. № 5 (132). P. 117-134
annotation:  The paper examines the overall course of the so-called “speculative turn” in contemporary Continental philosophy with regard to the ecology of the Absolute. Following the radical redefinition of the mechanics of speculation that has been proposed by theorists of the speculative turn (especially Quentin Meillassoux) as rejection of the absolute essence of classical metaphysics, the author concentrates on the tension between speculative rejection and the problem of grounds which arises from putting the question this way. By rejecting the Absolute as sufficient reason and therefore undermining the grounds of thought, speculative philosophy expands the field of grounds. The logic of sufficient reason is augmented by insufficient reason, sufficient unreason, and insufficient unreason. This field of grounds encompasses the whole “kinesis” of the speculative turn, including the current attempts to turn away from speculation and move beyond the grounds and absolute relied upon in the “new geophilosophy.” The author notes that the shift from the question of “what?” to the question of “where?” indicates that the new geophilosophy is a “territorial geophilosophy.” Even though it ifies the problem of grounds, it remains subject to grounds as insufficient reason, and thereby exemplifies the vulgar understanding of speculative thought as mere speculation. At the same time, the speculative turn replaces territorial geophilosophy with a resource-based geophilosophy which is more concerned with the question of “when?”. The author maintains that precisely this kind of questioning forces speculative philosophy both to the edge of the field of the Absolute and to a solution for the problem of rejecting grounds as insufficient unreason, Insufficient unreason unlocks a vertical dimension to strata of the Absolute, through which speculation turns into a trowel that unearths the absolutus and discards the Absolutes.
Keywords:  surviv(ere)alism; geospeculation; subtraction; absolutus; resource.
Delving into Horror / Logos. 2019. № 5 (132). P. 135-150
annotation:  The springboard for this essay is the author’s encounter with the feeling of horror and her attempts to understand what place horror has in philosophy. The inquiry relies upon Leonid Lipavsky’s “Investigation of Horror” and on various textual plunges into the fanged and clawed (and possibly noumenal) abyss of Nick Land’s work. Various experiences of horror are examined in order to build something of a typology, while also distilling the elements characteristic of the experience of horror in general. The essay’s overall hypothesis is that horror arises from a disruption of the usual ways of determining the boundaries between external things and the self, and this leads to a distinction between three subtypes of horror. In the first subtype, horror begins with the indeterminacy at the boundaries of things, a confrontation with something that defeats attempts to define it and thereby calls into question the definition of the self. In the second subtype, horror springs from the inability to determine one’s own boundaries, a process opposed by the crushing determinacy of the world. In the third subtype, horror unfolds by means of a substitution of one determinacy by another which is unexpected and ungrounded. In all three subtypes of horror, the disturbance of determinacy deprives the subject, the thinking entity, of its customary foundation for thought, and even of an explanation of how that foundation was lost; at times this can lead to impairment of the perception of time and space. Understood this way, horror comes within a hair’s breadth of madness - and may well cross over into it.
Keywords:  horror; Nick Land; Leonid Lipavsky; determination; the sublime; psychosis.
From the Phenomenology of Horror to the Phenomenology of Anxiety: Bibikhin, Heidegger and Overcoming of Correlationism / Logos. 2019. № 5 (132). P. 151-176
annotation:  This paper is an attempt to construct a new phenomenology that will be able to bring us back to things themselves, as Edmund Husserl had promised to his students. Such a phenomenology seeks to reveal and describe phenomena and the conditions of givenness which presuppose a failure of the subject’s capacity for representation and therefore permits an apprehension of something that exists as radically external to the subject. Description of such phenomena paves the way to undermining correlationism from the inside, and a phenomenology of this kind therefore feeds into what is termed speculative realism. Thе paper takes as a starting point Dylan Trigg’s phenomenology of horror, although it lacks a conceptual analysis of horrifying phenomena,and brings Jean-Luc Marion’s concept of a saturated phenomenon to bear on the conceptual analysis of horrifying phenomena. In addition to a phenomenology of horror, the paper also argues for an escape from correlationism by analyzing the feeling of anxiety. By means of a critical analysis of Vladimir Bibikhin’s translation of Martin Heidegger’s Being and Time, the paper establishes a phenomenological distinction between anxiety and horror. The phenomenon of one’s own death is analyzed as a fundamental phenomenon of anxiety. The analysis of the phenomenon of one’s own death introduces the new concept of a perverse phenomenon, which complements Marion’s classification of all possible phenomena. The paper erects a conceptual scheme to describe feelings of horror and anxiety, further analysis of which will enable phenomenology to transition from the life of consciousness to reality-as-it-is. The paper’s concludes with an indication of the phenomena of contemporary culture that should become primary objects of a realistic phenomenology of horror and anxiety.
Keywords:  phenomenology; speculative realism; correlationism; horror; anxiety; saturated phenomenon; perverse phenomenon.
On the Horror of Phenomenology: Lovecraft and Husserl / Logos. 2019. № 5 (132). P. 177-202
annotation:  Philosophy has never been particularly far from fiction; it has always involved elements of storytelling, fantasy and even horror. By exploring several passages from horror fiction authors, Graham Harman proposes a new path for philosophy guided by the concept of the weird, or the “weirding of philosophy.” The concept of weirdness is somewhat akin to the Freudian Unheimliche or uncanny, but it emphasizes the gap between the sensual surface of the object and the continual elusiveness of its profound “objectness”. Speech about such objects is possible only through metaphor, ellipsis, circumlocution, “productive parody” or literary devices. The forerunners of this new mode of philosophical writing are Martin Heidegger and Edmund Husserl along with Edgar Allan Poe and Howard Lovecraft; and the Owl of Minerva on its coat of arms is replaced by the Great Cthulhu. Lovecraft’s descriptions of objects are intentionally vague and often refer to dimensions inaccessible to the limited range of human perception. His monsters are more than just mysterious - they are often literally invisible; they surpass our spectrum of emotional reactions and zoological classifications. But this invisibility, Harman argues, should not be understood in Kantian terms. Lovecraftian horror is not a noumenal horror, it is phenomenological horror: a realization that something immensely more powerful than we are and quite material may intrude upon our world of well-ordered categories and utterly disrupt it at any moment. Contrary to the prevailing tendency to reduce objects to a mere fantasy that human beings construct out of the surface contents of experience, Harman claims that reality is object-oriented: it consists of weird substances irreducible to either properties or effects.
Keywords:  weird; horror; phenomenology; materialism; Howard Lovecraft; Edmund Husserl; Martin Heidegger; object-oriented ontology.
Mad Speculation and Absolute Inhumanism: Lovecraft, Ligotti, and the Weirding of Philosophy / Logos. 2019. № 5 (132). P. 203-228
annotation:  How does one redefine the boundary between madness and rationality? This is the question that launches Ben Woodard on a discussion of the methods for accessing the Absolute or what he refers to as the Great Outdoors. Immanuel Kant’s theoretical framework with its “legalistic” norms is the first target of his criticism, which argues that Kant’s bulwark shielding rationality from madness is untenable. Kant had “circled his wagons” against madness in order to clearly distinguish philosophical speculation from the ravings of a madman, but that defense deprived philosophy of the capacity to describe reality as it is. Speculative realism positions itself as an alternative to Kant that holds out the promise of access to the Great Outdoors; therefore it must somehow distinguish philosophy from madness. Rather than indulging in the “mad speculation” or theoretical permissiveness of some followers of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in order to leave the narrow limits of reason behind, Woodard applies the thinking of Thomas Ligotti and Howard Lovecraft to make a two-pronged attack on anthropocentrism. Lovecraft represents a “shoggothic materialism” that energizes the horror of formless matter, while Ligotti represents a “ventriloquist idealism” highlighting the inherent horror of having a consciousness. Weird fiction then is no longer a literary excuse for madness that justifies pursuit of after stunning imagery at the expense of meaning, but is instead an important theoretical tool for grounding the external as such. What is ultimate is not attainable through altered states of consciousness or otherwise distorting language or bodily being. To the contrary, it is reached by rather tedious work with a text which is itself already positioned in the Outdoors with respect to the reader.
Keywords:  philosophy of horror; weird fiction; Gilles Deleuze; Félix Guattari; Nick Land; Howard Lovecraft; Thomas Ligotti; madness; rationality; absolute; inhumanism; ventriloquist idealism.
Not of This Earth: UFO Studies / Logos. 2019. № 5 (132). P. 229-254
annotation:  In contemporary speculative philosophy there is a tendency to theorize about the alien. Among these theories are the xenophenomenology of Dylan Trigg, the alien phenomenology of Ian Bogost, and the weird realism of Graham Harman. All of them assert that the alien is all around us and that we will see it if only we look. Nevertheless, they are all inexplicably ready to ignore the actual encounter with the unknown and the truly alien during the scientific investigation of unidentified flying objects (UFOs) undertaken by the United States Air Force in 1947. The article maintains that the UFO investigations are an indispensable resource without which no theories of the alien and the weird can in principle be developed. Only a thorough analysis of the scientific sources describing the encounter with UFOs will enable us apprehend the alien in itself without reducing it to the alien for us. To demonstrate this point, the author first examines the discourses about UFOs that have dominated mass culture from the 1940s through the 2000s when those discourses were finally marginalized. He identifies seven main types of discourse that gradually supersede each other: 1) encounter with the unknown, 2) guests from other planets, 3) mythological explanation of flying saucers, 4) paleocontact, 5) spiritual dimensions of the contact, 6) alien conspiracy, 7) abductions. He then considers what topics occupied researchers during the period in question and how that may be applied in contemporary theories of the alien (through analysis of the methodology of UFO investigations and the classification of types of contacts). Finally he describes in detail the image of the alien popularized by mass culture (at the juncture between contemporary myths about abductions and UFO crashes and their representations in mass culture).
Keywords:  unidentified flying objects (UFO); ufology; extraterrestrial; alien; xenophenomenology; horror.
Introduction to Hyperstition. An Interview / Logos. 2019. № 5 (132). P. 255-264
annotation:  This interview deals with the concept of hyperstition that was introduced by the Cybernetic Culture Research Unit (CCRU) team in the context of apocalypse. Hyperstition refers to effective ideas that cease to be mere fictions and become real, as opposed to superstition understood as “mere” superstition, or in other words, a passive figment of the imagination with no impact. This process of realizing a hyperstition breaks down both the truth/lie and fiction/reality dichotomies. That is why hyperstition may be regarded by some thinkers as a self-fulfilling prophecy or as the various technologies described in science fiction (for example, cyberspace). Hyperstition relates genealogically to schizoanalysis and the organs without bodies of Deleuze and Guattari. The interview reveals step-by-step various aspects of a schizoanalytic tool for converting fictions into reality, and in particular its connections with pop culture and chthonic cults. Hyperstition is described as: 1) an element of effective culture that makes itself real; 2) a fictional quality functioning as a time travel device; 3) an “intensifier of coincidence;” and as 4) a “call to the Old Ones.” By describing the basic characteristics of hyperstition, the interview reveals that hyperstition is an intergral part of the ideology of progress but that it short circuits the progressive flux of history. This short circuit which corresponds to the fourth and final component of hyperstition is triggered by a regression to the culture of the monstrous other, or Unuttera. The Unuttera conjured into being by the architects of hyperstitions - the hyperstitional cyberneticists - turns any possible future into the apocalypse.
Keywords:  hyperstition; apocalypse; body without organs; schizoanalysis; the Old Ones; meltdown; future shock.
Parasitic Jedi / Logos. 2019. № 5 (132). P. 265-288
annotation:  This interview deals with the concept of hyperstition that was introduced by the Cybernetic Culture Research Unit (CCRU) team in the context of apocalypse. Hyperstition refers to effective ideas that cease to be mere fictions and become real, as opposed to superstition understood as “mere” superstition, or in other words, a passive figment of the imagination with no impact. This process of realizing a hyperstition breaks down both the truth/lie and fiction/reality dichotomies. That is why hyperstition may be regarded by some thinkers as a self-fulfilling prophecy or as the various technologies described in science fiction (for example, cyberspace). Hyperstition relates genealogically to schizoanalysis and the organs without bodies of Deleuze and Guattari. The interview reveals step-by-step various aspects of a schizoanalytic tool for converting fictions into reality, and in particular its connections with pop culture and chthonic cults. Hyperstition is described as: 1) an element of effective culture that makes itself real; 2) a fictional quality functioning as a time travel device; 3) an “intensifier of coincidence;” and as 4) a “call to the Old Ones.” By describing the basic characteristics of hyperstition, the interview reveals that hyperstition is an intergral part of the ideology of progress but that it short circuits the progressive flux of history. This short circuit which corresponds to the fourth and final component of hyperstition is triggered by a regression to the culture of the monstrous other, or Unuttera. The Unuttera conjured into being by the architects of hyperstitions - the hyperstitional cyberneticists - turns any possible future into the apocalypse.
Keywords:  hyperstition; concept; meme; economy of power; balance; parasite; philosophical politics.
The Culture of New Wars / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 1-21
annotation:  The article analyses the dominant trends in contemporary armed conflicts that are referred to as the “new wars.” Rather than debating the empirical aspects of the concept, the author focuses on its conceptual content, which provides a theoretical framework for understanding the military actions that came after the end of the Cold War. She traces the genealogy of irregular wars, which is a concept known since late antiquity, although it was not at that time a definitive part military theory. Traditional military conflicts often took place between armies of states that officially declared war on each other. They were limited in time and space and had clear goals that, once achieved, left open the possibility of a return to peace. The term “small war” came into use by theorists only at the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to describe the processes taking place on the periphery of classical conflicts. However, that term seems to be the most relevant for understanding the irregular
nature of combat actions in the twenty-first century.
New wars add a dimension of biopolitics to the traditional realm of geopolitics. Drawing examples from the conflicts and armed revolutionary movements of the second half of the twentieth century, the author argues that there were fundamental transformations that set irregular warfare apart: a shift of strategic emphasis, the insurgent and guerrilla nature of the conflicts, the redefinition of “collateral damage,” the spread of terrorist methods for waging war between unequal forces, and private financing of paramilitary groups. The characterization of the essential features of the new wars concept includes an analysis of the factors that led to reformulating war; the key factor was the combination of authoritarianism with economic openness and neoliberal economic policy. The conclusion reached is that, against the background of ongoing global integration, the changes in the conduct of armed conflicts are creating a new culture of security that is justifiably labelled “new wars.”

Keywords:  new wars; small wars; just war theory; geopolitics; biopolitics; irregular conflicts; neoliberalism; security culture; revolutionary movements.
How to Think About Wars Today / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 22-24
Keywords:  modern wars
An Introduction to Clausewitz / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 25-58
annotation:  The article analyzes a series of topics from Carl von Clausewitz’s On War by approaching them as philosophical positions without questioning the critique of Clausewitz by military historians and strategists. Special attention is given to Clausewitz’s writing style. Drawing on the works of Edmund Husserl and José Ortega y Gasset, the author distinguishes two types of writing, which may be called “empty” and “vivid” understood in their ontological sense: empty writing presents the reader with the separate qualities of an object, while vivid writing points to the object in its authentic self-absence, in its distancing from all qualities and relations. Clausewitz constantly turns to vivid writing, and the article examines a profusion of examples.
Discussing the scale of a victory, a topic raised by Clausewitz, the author emphasizes how much attention Clausewitz devotes to various kinds of asymmetries in warfare. For instance, even if both sides of a conflict are equally bloodied, the loss of the defeated party will always outweigh the gain of the victor. The author illustrates this thought with the example of the American Civil War. When it comes to the question of how combats are decided, the author criticizes ontological positions which favor events over objects and are unable to acknowledge that events are merely a specialized kind of object. A battle is an event, but it is first and foremost an object, which is not exhausted by its internal or external relations, and therefore deciding the outcome of combat does not depend on what transpires in the battle. In his final examination of Clausewitz’s theory of absolute war, the author gives an account of Col. John Boyd’s remarks on it. While the author is generally in agreement with the critique, he draws the conclusion that Clausewitz’s focus on the decisive battle paradoxically pushes the battle itself into the background in comparison to the consequences that follow from it.

Keywords:  Carl von Clausewitz; John Boyd; José Ortega y Gasset; American Civil War; object-oriented ontology; aesthetics; military history; military strategy; decisive battle; absolute war.
To the gentlemen who wrote the essay on Machiavelli in the first volume of Vesta / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 59-66
annotation:  This short article was written in 1809 as an answer to Johann Gottlieb Fichte’s essay On Machiavelli as an Author (1807). Fichte was unsettled by the defeat of the Prussian army at Jena and Auerstedt and tried to find in Niccolò Machiavelli’s works a prescription for restoring national spirit and military victory. Carl von Clausewitz answers Fichte not only as a military specialist emphasizing the role of light infantry and artillery (the efficiency of which has “at the very least doubled” since Macchiavelli’s time) but also as a philosopher who delves into the problems in the modernity of war. He contrasts the revival of “true military spirit” with artificial forms (the phalanxes and legions that are seen by Machiavelli and subsequently by Fichte as the key to the victories of the ancient Greeks and Romans).
Clausewitz does not accept the universality of ancient stratagems and instead historicizes war and draws a connection between the military and social orders. Clausewitz claims that efficiency of military means is determined by civil conditions. The latter were radically changed by the French Revolution, which produced a new politics that “proposed other means and other forces and therefore made it possible to conduct war with such energy that it could not be conceived in any other terms” as Clausewitz wrote afterwards (part VIII, chapter 6). Clausewitz’s answer to the threat from France appears therefore to be twofold: a sociopolitical transformation must first create the
new forces that then permit the art of war to exploit them effectively. He eagerly agrees with Fichte’s call for rekindling German feelings of nationhood in order to unify the people and achieve revanche because those steps increase the enthusiasm and military spirit which are necessary in modern war — a war that, as it seemed at that time, the German nation had to wage “on its territory for freedom and independence.”

Keywords:  philosophy of war; theory of war; military history; Carl von Clausewitz; Niccolò Machiavelli; Johann Gottlieb Fichte.
Modernity of War: Carl von Clausewitz and His Theory / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 67-98
annotation:  This article discusses Сarl von Clausewitz’s theory of war in relation to war’s modernity. This relation is analyzed in two ways: by tracing its philosophical sources and the epistemological status of the theory, but also by following how it was received in Soviet “military philosophy.” The first part of the article looks into the influence of German idealism on Clausewitz. In the second part, it analyzes his original way of constructing a theory of war, which understands war as a thing that is complex, changeable, and not amenable to comprehensive conceptualization. Clausewitz offers a new way of theorizing: relativistic (as opposed to abstract or absolute modes of thinking), historical (as opposed to the invariance of logical categories) and pragmatic (as opposed to philosophically disinterested).
In conclusion the author reconstructs Clausewitz’s place in Soviet military theory. In the 1920s-1930s Clausewitz was a regarded as an authoritative thinker; in the late 1940s, Stalin denounced him as a “Prussian reactionary” who wrote about the outdated “manufacturing period of war” rather than its modern machine age. In the 1960s-1980s even though the struggle against “kneeling before the West” was over, historical or theoretical studies of Clausewitz were not resumed. Only his name and his famous aphorism that “war is a continuation of politics by other means” were occasionally mentioned. The author considers this “overthrow of Clausewitz” as a victory for Stalinism, the result of ta replication of semantic and power relations and of mental and professional structures that were formed in late Stalinism. The militarized regime of Stalinist science has been perpetuated to some extent in current military-scientific institutions. “Military philosophers” tend to reproduce the same symbolic schemes of thought which are determined by their struggle over the “legacy of the Great Victory.”

Keywords:  philosophy of war; war theory; Carl von Clausewitz; Soviet history; Soviet philosophy; Stalinism.
Philosophy of War: A Brief History / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 99-116
annotation:  The article provides a brief historical overview of the understanding of war in European thought. It provides a chronological account of the transformation in the perception of war as a socio-political phenomenon, particularly from the standpoint of ethics and political theory. The author examines the main approaches that ancient philosophy applied to the moral assessment of war. Plato and Aristotle are ambivalent toward war, maintaining that judgment of a war depends on its compatibility with natural justice. In the works of Christian authors, the basis of this uncertainty rests on the idea that God is the source of justice.
The paradigm of punitive war became the core of the Christian doctrine of just war. In the modern era, the philosophical perception of war came to be secularized. Theological evaluation of armed conflicts was replaced by a legalistic appraisal. The article considers the influence of Grotius and his followers on the process of replacing the punitive paradigm of just war with a legalistic paradigm. However, by the eighteenth century renunciation of war and yearning for perpetual peace had become a popular line of thinking exemplified in Kant’s comments on that matter. The author then invokes the legacy of Clausewitz in order to explain the main features of modern views on war as a function reserved exclusively for the state. The article concludes with a comparative review of approaches to the evaluation of war by political realists and contemporary just war theorists.

Keywords:  war; law of nations; just war theory; political realism; Saint Augustine; Hugo Grotius; Michael Walzer.
The Triumph of Just War Theory (and the Dangers of Success) / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 117-138
annotation:  The article considers the potential of just war theory for critiquing contemporary military conflicts and attempts to project its future development. The author provides a historical account of the application of the principles of the just war and indicates the role it played in forming the language used to describe warfare. He notes the incompatibility of the moral principles of just war theory with the political realism that prevailed in academic and political circles through the 1950s and 1960s and traces the decisive influence that the Vietnam War had in changing the paradigm for thinking about how to conduct ethical warfare. The practices applied in the Vietnam conflict preceded the theoretical rethinking which ultimately led to the actualization of a number of concepts: aggression, intervention, justice, proportionality, and war crimes.
The Vietnam War became the first in which the ways of conducting warfare determined the outcome of the conflict, and it made the practical value of jus in bello obvious. Moral concern for the population at risk became essential to support for the war. The author refers to this as “the usefulness of morality,” and its importance has increased with the expanding coverage of conflicts in the media. This shift changes the status of just war theory and reinforces its special significance because following the principles of a just war not only serves morality, but also is required for the
success of military enterprises that depend on the support of the civilian population. The need to define the moral principles that apply to combat brings up issues related to the analysis of humanitarian interventions, the most important of which are the desire to wage risk-free war and the problem of how to end a war. To solve these problems, the author proposes a modification of the just war theory based on the experience of actual humanitarian interventions.

Keywords:  just war theory; humanitarian intervention; jus in bello; jus post bellum; war crimes; political realism; justice; proportionality; Vietnam War.
Rethinking the Just War / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 139-156
annotation:  The article offers a retrospective analysis of the genesis of the just war theory and analyzes the reasons behind controversies over the concept in modern ethical thinking. The author emphasizes that the development of the just war theory throughout its history since Augustine was generally governed by a uniform approach rooted in common ethical concepts through each succeeding era. From the nineteenth century to the end of the twentieth, the theory evolved in close coordination with international law; at the conceptual level the just war theory began to merge with the UN
Charter and the Geneva Conventions.
Just war theory is now the starting point for both the professional military establishment and also for anyone judging the morality of a conflict. Nevertheless, the definitive status of this set of ethical views is increasingly coming into question. These doubts are to a great extent connected with transformations in the practice of war itself. The changing actors in armed conflicts constitute a challenge to the view that states rather than individual combatants are responsible for them. The true subject of just war theory is not law but morality, a fact often overlooked in the practical application of its ideas. Traditional just war theory has only limited application when the increasing inclusion of civilians in armed conflicts is taken into account. The theory papers over a number of contradictions rooted in the desire to create a set of codified rules for management of conflict while excluding the question of the justice of war itself. All these considerations lead ultimately to a revisionist theory of just war, which will be free from the shortcomings exposed by the author.

Keywords:  just war theory; modern ethics; analytical ethics; new wars; revisionist just war theory; justice; international law; noncombatants; self-defense.
New Wars — Old Ethics / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 157-180
annotation:  The emergence of “new wars” in the second half of the twentieth century has changed the conventional paradigm for thinking about military conflicts and called into question the relevance of what previous theorists have offered. However, the most useful approach to the analysis of war is based on the widely accepted conceptual framework of the theory of just war, which is itself grounded in analytical ethics. The interpretations of just war theory by Michael Walzer, Nick Fotion, Brian Orend and Jeff McMahan are central to an ethical understanding of war, but they are
of only limited value for considering the topic of “new wars,” which meanwhile are in constant flux.
Philosophical thinking on these matters is failing keep pace with the transformation of the object it is considering. War is becoming a media phenomenon, a subject for futuristic speculation, and a routine reality for a number of countries and regions. It is losing its clear spatial and temporal contours, and although we are gaining greater control over its management and increasing the variety of forms that military conflicts take, we are losing control over the overall situation. War should be now seen as a complex phenomenon of social reality that demands a revision of the outdated and limited ethical supports that have been provided for this “necessary evil.” Military conflicts are among the images of modernity that must be apprehended in all their complexity.

Keywords:  new wars; just war theory; social philosophy; analytical ethics; images of modernity; Michael Walzer; Brian Orend; Nick Fotion; Jeff McMahan.
The New Wars: On the Return of a Historical Model / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 181-216
annotation:  The article is devoted to the development of the theory of “new wars.” The author maintains that the system for regulating war developed after the Peace of Westphalia (1648) has ceased to function under current conditions. The structural changes introduced in the new wars are: 1) re-commercialization of military violence, which once again turns war into an instrument for advancing certain (not necessarily political) interests; 2) merging military and criminal violence as warlords and their entourages make their living by profiting from war and forge alliances with international crime; 3) using strategic asymmetries in which the party with inferior power does not try to capture territory and win recognition by the state, but instead uses the expansion of the war (in space and time) to obtain advantages. The author analyses the Westphalian conception of sovereignty in which war and peace are understood as equally valid states for political aggregates. The transition from one to the another comes through an exercise of the will of the sovereign, whose right to wage war (jus ad bellum) is not limited to external campaigns (as the power of the Emperor or the Pope was in the Middle Ages). However, as war became accepted as a state monopoly, there was a codification of the rules of conducting it (jus in bello) that resulted in the adoption of the Geneva and Hague Conventions. The author also analyses the Thirty Years’ War as a typological model which differs from the Westphalian type by not being governed by a unitary regulatory system. The extraordinary duration and brutality of this type of conflict comes from blurring the boundaries between war and peace and between inter-state and civil war. The characteristic features of this non-Westphalian historical model are found in some modern wars, especially in the Middle East. The author develops this analogy and recommends using historical experience in order to prevent the conflicts in the Middle East in from merging into a single devastating war.
Keywords:  study of war; “new wars”; Westphalian sovereignty; Thirty Years’ War; Middle East conflict.
A Security Discourse and the Political Anatomy of Fear in the Age of New Wars / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 217-230
annotation:  A neoliberal “governmentality” lies at the center of the modern political scene. Asymmetric conflicts or “new wars” (hybrid or post-heroic wars) seemingly reassert as their right the mechanisms of sovereign and disciplinary power that have been carried over from the past. The article deals with the problems of “palimpsest” and the particular double bind between these exercises of power. They have come about consecutively but are now acting simultaneously. The friction between the neo-liberal biopolitical discourse transmitted “from above” and the military disciplinary system and replication of the practices sovereign violence emerging “from below” is generating an extremely powerful force field. This then becomes the basis for changing tactics of subjectivation and desubjectivation not only for combatants but also for society as a whole. Michel Foucault saw prospects for resistance and emancipation in this tension, but today it leads instead to the reactivation of utterly conservative practices for wielding power veiled by security discourse and the exceptional circumstances of the war on terror.
Security discourse turns external threats into internal ones and ultimately transfers social problems to a biomedical or even racial plane. And this is not a process of de-modernization but the preservation and rearrangement of modern strategies. Under these conditions, attempts to conduct a neutral analysis of new wars from the standpoint of academic expertise merely preserve the status quo. Therefore, a shift from the analysis of security discourse to the rehabilitation of lived experience and to tactics of subjectivization and the survival of individual actors seems essential. Those tactics will be the foundation of both a modern microphysics of power and of the macro-politics that still sustain the continuation of war.

Keywords:  “new wars”; Michel Foucault; biopolitics; anatomy of fear; security discourse; disciplinary practices; tactics of subjectification.
An Ethics of Autonomous Machines: Deontology and Military Robots / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 231-246
annotation:  The article is a contribution to the ethical discussion of autonomous lethal weapons. The emergence of military robots acting independently on the battlefield is seen as an inevitable stage in the development of modern warfare because they will provide a critical advantage to an army. Even though there are already some social movements calling for a ban on “killer robots,” ethical arguments in favor of developing those technologies also exist. In particular, the utilitarian tradition may find that military robots are ethically permissible if “non-human combat” would minimize
the number of human victims. A deontological analysis for its part might suggest that ethics is impossible without an ethical subject. Immanuel Kant’s ethical philosophy would accommodate the intuition that there is a significant difference between a situation in which a person makes a decision
to kill another person and a situation in which a machine makes such a decision. Like animals, robots become borderline agents on the edges of “moral communities.” Using the discussion of animal rights, we see how Kant’s ethics operates with non-human agents. The key problem in the use of autonomous weapons is the transformation of war and the unpredictable risks associated with blurring the distinction between war and police work. The hypothesis of the article is that robots would not need to kill anyone to defeat the enemy. If no one dies in a war, then there is no reason not to extend its operations to non-combatants or to sue for peace. The analysis presented by utilitarianism overlooks the possibility of such consequences. The main problem of autonomous lethal weapons is their autonomy and not their potential to be lethal.

Keywords:  deontology; lethal autonomous weapons; nonhuman ethics; Immanuel Kant; war.
The Post-Contemporaneity of War / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 247-263
annotation:  The article summarizes material from the thematic issue of Logos on the study of war. The author notes that, contrary to Hannah Arendt’s prediction, it is wars rather than revolutions that accompany human social activity in the twenty-first century. And because war is such a ubiquitous phenomenon, philosophers have tried to gain an understanding of it. Despite the great variety of arguments about war, we can distinguish three theoretical discourses each focused on its own separate topic. The first
discourse is an attempt to rehabilitate the military thought of Carl von Clausewitz, the first theorist of “modern” war; the second is the just war theory, which concentrates on issues of applied ethics (whether it is legitimate to start war, how to conduct warfare, what to do after the conflict, etc.); the third is the discussion on “new wars.”
The author maintains that the second discourse is too instrumental and that the just war theoretical apparatus often lags behind the empirical realities. The first approach can at best be an abstract and theoretical one, but it is not by any means useful as an applied theory. Hence, the most important of these discourses for practical philosophy is the third one, that is, the debate about “new wars.” That is why developing and elucidating the theory and ¾ most important of all — the practice of new wars demands attention. The conclusion is that the social theory of (post)modernity would enrich the new wars discourse, and further areas for study are therefore mapped out.

Keywords:  contemporaneity; postmodern; war; just war theory; “new wars”; social theory.
The Null Degree of Representation / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 264-267
Apocalyptic Mythophysics and Radical Anthropomorphism / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 268-278
How Accelerationism Became Platform Capitalism / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 279-289
Stick to Logical Rules of Reasoning / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 290-297
The Perfect Non-Human / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 298-307
Psychoanalysis, Phenomenology and the Intonation of Omission / Logos. 2019. № 3 (130). P. 308-325
The Postmodern Gene: Does Post-Capitalism Mean Post-Postmodernism? / Logos. 2019. № 2 (129). P. 1-24
annotation:  The article examines a problem besetting social theory and theory of culture: the problem of using postmodernism as a language for describing the 21st century. The author resorts to the umbrella term “post-postmodernism” to indicate the more complex theories that focus mainly on the analysis of the latest forms of capitalism rather than the concepts that other themselves as direct alternatives to postmodernism even though they ignore the link between postmodernism and capitalism. The author takes up the idea, first argued for by the American Marxist philosopher Fredric Jameson, that postmodernism is the cultural logic of late capitalism and then uses Jameson’s approach in an attempt to retrace the continuity of new concepts of capitalism. The discussion begins with the theory of capitalist realism developed by leftist British thinker Mark Fisher. Fisher recognizes Jameson’s merits but takes exception to the term “postmodernism,” although the entire philosophical apparatus that Fisher uses is borrowed from Jameson’s work. The article then bridges the gap between capitalist realism and the latest left-wing theories such as accelerationism and post-capitalism. After tracing the close connection between the work of Mark Fisher and Nick Land, who worked together in the 1990’s at the Cybernetic Culture Research Unit (CCRU) and the ideas of Nick Srnicek, the author asks why Srnicek and his colleagues are put off by Fredric Jameson’s postmodern theory. The answer is that postmodernism does not permit contemporary leftists to speculate about the future. However, as the author points out, Jameson’s ideas about postmodernism at the “genetic level” are implicit in Srnicek’s concept of post-capitalism, which makes Srnicek’s theory “post-postmodernist,” although as a negative variation (in contrast to Mark Fisher’s positive one).
Keywords:  postmodern; postmodernism; post-postmodernism; capitalism; postcapitalism; accelerationism; culture; capitalist realism; Marxism; social philosophy; neoliberalism.
The Birth of Foucault’s Method: Epistemology/ Phenomenology, Psychology/Psychiatry / Logos. 2019. № 2 (129). P. 25-50
annotation:  This paper analyzes Foucault’s early thinking (from 1954 to 1957) as it bears on psychology, anthropology and psychiatry. The author maintains that Foucault’s texts from that period can be mined for the origins of the Foucault methodology, early indications of its scope, and its first applications. Although Foucault opposed a phenomenology of epistemology and allied himself with the latter, a close reading of his early work reveals a paradoxical synthesis of phenomenological and epistemological views. The influences of Georges Canguilhem, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Ludwig Binswanger were decisive here.Foucault adopted the “practice-to-theory” vector from Canguilhem and grounded the history of psychology and psychiatry on the study of essential oppositions: normal - pathological, personality - environment, evolution - history. Merleau-Ponty’s theory allowed him to demonstrate that the ontological perspective of psychology and psychiatry does not match the subject of their research, which is the person and their experience. Foucault’s application of Binswanger and the idea of existence is to problematize the boundaries between psychology and psychiatry and their identity as sciences while formulating the problem of pathology and normality as crucial to their identification. He also considers mental illness as one of the forms of experience. Foucault thus goes beyond the boundaries of psychology and psychiatry to develop his archaeological method. In the Order of things and the Archaeology of Knowledge he makes two philosophical maneuvers: in the first, he rejects the subject; in the second he abandons the continuity of history. Foucault’s early psychological and psychiatric discourse is then the first harbinger of his trespassing the boundaries of disciplines and schools, combining perspectives, and scrutinizing the foundations of scientific practice. A critical dialogue with his own earlier thought is the source of Foucault’s birth as a philosopher.
Keywords:  Michel Foucault; Maurice Merleau-Ponty; Georges Canguilhem; Ludwig Binswanger; psychology; psychiatry; phenomenology; epistemology.
A Postscript to Transgression / Logos. 2019. № 2 (129). P. 51-63
annotation:  The article focuses on Michel Foucault’s important paper A Preface to Transgression published in 1963 and dedicated to the philosopher and writer Georges Bataille, who had died a short time before. Relying on the literary and metaphorical intuitions of Bataille as a writer, Foucault transfers Bataille’s concept of transgression from a social context to a philosophical one and radicalizes the idea. Bataille does not regard transgression as an anthropological constant, but as a historical phenomenon characterizing the modern secular era. Foucault does not define transgression in terms of a legitimate violation of prohibitions, but as the passage of human beings beyond their ontological limits, primarily in the experience of sexuality.Foucault makes the opposition pointed out by Bataille between transgression and dialectics a more profound one by interpreting transgression not as a dialectical restoration of the world’s integrity through contradictions, but as a permanent experience of the subject’s self-transcendence. Like Bataille, Foucault postulates the necessity of a special language to express such an experience in a non-discursive, non-dialectic, and ultimately even a non-conceptual way that adopts a discontinuous and “aphoristic” form. On the last point, he disagrees with Bataille’s pursuit of a mimetic and continuous “communication” reconstituted in literary texts rather than a semiotic discreteness of messages.
Keywords:  philosophy; Michel Foucault; Georges Bataille; transgression.
Michel Foucault and Western Medicine / Logos. 2019. № 2 (129). P. 64-81
annotation:  The article analyzes Michel Foucault’s philosophical ideas on Western medicine and delves into three main insights that the French philosopher developed to expose the presence of power behind the veil of the conventional experience of medicine. These insights probe the power-disciplining function of psychiatry, the administrative function of medical institutions, and the role of social medicine in the administrative and political system of Western society. Foucault arrived at theses insights by way of his intense interest in three elements of the medical system that arose almost simultaneously at the end of the 18th century - psychiatry as “medicine for mental illness”, the hospital as the First and most well-known type of medical institution, and social medicine as a type of medical knowledge focused more on the protection of society and far less on caring for the individual. All the issues Foucault wrote about stemmed from his personal and professional sensitivity to the problems of power and were a part of the “medical turn” in the social and human sciences that occurred in the West in the 1960s and 1970s and led to the emergence of medical humanities. The article argues that Foucault’s stories about the power of medical knowledge were philosophical stories about Western medicine. Foucault always used facts, dates, and names in an attempt to identify some of the general tendencies and patterns in the development of Western medicine and to reveal usually undisclosed mechanisms for managing individuals and populations. Those mechanisms underlie the practice of providing assistance, be it the “moral treatment” practiced by psychiatrists before the advent of effective medication, or treating patients as “clinical cases” in hospitals, or hospitalization campaigns that were considered an effective “technological safe-guard ” in the 18th and most of the 19th century.
Keywords:  Michel Foucault; Western medicine; power; psychiatry; hospital; social medicine.
Governing the Dead: Discipline and Biopolitics / Logos. 2019. № 2 (129). P. 82-103
annotation:  The analysis of practices applied to the body of dominated subjects - their spatial disposition, military drills, corporal punishment and execution - occupies an important place among Michel Foucault’s theories. This article provides an analysis of practices that are not governed by any ritual but by the dominant political mechanisms as those practices are applied to dead bodies. In other words, the logic of Foucault’s analysis is extended to the dead body, in particular to that of a political prisoner. The dead body, as well as the living one, is arguably located at the intersection of two types of power described by Foucault: disciplinary power and biopolitics. On the one hand, the corpse is the focus of disciplinary mechanisms that seek to identify and individualize it, and also to prevent it from dissolving into the mass of other anonymous corpses that have completely exhausted their potential for use. On the other hand, the inmate’s body can be subjected to more radical, massifying, and anonymizing practices that treat it as part of a population to be exterminated. The paper analyzes two ways of treating the corpse: cremation and burial. In the 20th century, the ritual significance of cremation and burial has been replaced by a political one, especially when they are used as repressive measures applied to the corpse of an inmate that died in a concentration or labor camp. In terms of their political meaning, these two practices are not at all equivalent.
Keywords:  discipline; biopower; body; death; concentration camp; cremation; burial; embalming.
Foucault as Superauthor / Logos. 2019. № 2 (129). P. 104-125
annotation:  Three phases in Foucault’s examination of authorship and free speech were essential to him throughout his life. They can be linked to such texts as the three lectures “What is an Author?” (first phase), “What is Critique?,” and “What is Revolution?” (second phase), and the two lecture courses, “Fearless Speech,” and “The Courage of Truth” (third phase). Initially, Foucault merely describes the founders of discursivity (hence, “superauthors”), among whom he reckoned only Marx and Freud, as the sole alternative to his own conceptualization of the author function, which is exhibited en masse in contemporary society. He then modifies his views on superauthorship by making Kant the paradigm and by linking his own concept of free speech to a Kan-tian critical attitude. However, Foucault claims only the half of Kant’s philosophical legacy that is related to the study of the ontology of the self.The article advances the hypothesis that the sovereign power of speech, which can be found in Marx and Heidegger and in generally in the concept of “superauthorship,” becomes unacceptable for Foucault. During the third phase, the danger of a tyrannical use of free speech compels Foucault to make a number of fruitful but questionable choices in his work. He focuses on a single aspect of free speech in which a speaker is in a weaker position and therefore has to overcome his fear in order to tell the truth. Foucault associates this kind of free speech with the ancient Greek notion of parrhesia, which according to his interpretation means “fearless speech”; however, this reading is not always supported by the ancient Greek sources. Foucault’s deliberations bring him to the radical conclusion that free speech transforms into performative “aesthetics of existence.” Foucault’s main motivation for pursuing this line of thought all through his life was to investigate his own abilities and powers as an author
Keywords:  free speech; typology of discourses; superauthorship; parrhesia.
Concepts as Recurrent Elements of Discourse: An Approach to the History of Conceptuality in Michel Foucault’s The Archeology of Knowledge. / Logos. 2019. № 2 (129). P. 126-150
annotation:  The article concentrates on Michel Foucault’s idea from The Archeology of Knowledge that concepts aare recurrent elements of discourse; it is argued that this theme has been insufficiently appreciated and developed. The identification of concepts as a particular kind of repetitive element of discourse means that there is an unequal probability of the distribution of linguistic units in a discourse and therefore discursive regularities are evident. Concepts are also characterized by Foucault as the realization of a specific discursive temporality: their distribution and circulation indicate what is topical and urgent for a given discourse, what is retained from their own past, and what potential future is in store for them. Concepts as a recurring element and as a form of discursive temporality are correlative with the “associative field” of an utterance, i.e. with the form of correlation with the field of the “already said” which is distinctive of an utterance. Finally, recursion must be considered here particularly in the mathematical sense: the concept is a kind of value for a “variable” in a recursive function, i.e. it is the realization of a certain scheme of correlation with prior utterances, and it is dependent upon that scheme. The author considers three “subspaces” of the formation of concepts from the The Archeology of Knowledge: forms of succession, forms of coexistence, and procedures of intervention. It is argued that these subspaces should be understood primarily in terms of the “Foucault hypothesis” that runs through the four chapters of The Archeology that in turn deal with the formation of objects, of modalities, of concepts, and of strategies. The selected subspaces are independent of each other — there is no conceptual way to encompass them in any kind of unity. However, they are interrelated historically — changes in the system of one subspace are synchronized with changes at higher levels and correlates with them.
Keywords:  discursive analysis; archeology of knowledge; Michel Foucault.
A Soviet Miracle: On Translating The Order of Things. An interview with introduction by Elena Smirnova / Logos. 2019. № 2 (129). P. 151-178
annotation:  This conversation with the philosopher and translator Natalia Avtonomova deals with how Michel Foucault’s seminal work the Order of things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences came to be translated into Russian and published in 1977. Those who backed its publication, the officials who were involved with it, and the editors of the book are all singled out. Ms. Avtonomova emphasizes how exceptional this publication was as an intellectual and editorial feat. Even though the text was skeptical about Marxism (e.g. asserting that Marxism is “like a fish in water” in the context of 19th century thought but “has nothing to breathe” in any other environment), the book was published completely unabridged, albeit with editorial notes commenting on sensitive passages. Moreover, the book appeared during the period of stagnation when Russian translations of works by modern Western philosophers, especially those with an ideological ax to grind, simply did not exist as part of the Soviet intellectual scene. The interview further tackles the reception of French structuralism by Soviet scholars in structure and systems studies. Natalia Avtonomova also discusses her book Philosophical Issues of Structural Analysis in the Humanities that was published at the same time as the translation of Foucault, recounts the difficulties in getting it published, and describes the status of the translator in Soviet Russia. Another topic is her correspondence with Foucault in the late 1970s that turned mostly on his attitude toward the events of May 1968. The interview also sheds light on some distinctive features in the current Russian attitude toward Foucault’s work and on the prospects for a new revised edition of the Order of things in Russian
Keywords:  Michel Foucault; The Order of Things; translator’s status; reception; French structuralism; humanities; systems studies; May 1968.
Stop Understanding “Power” Through the “State”: Gouvernementalité, Governmentality Studies, and the Fate of Michel Foucault’s Analytics of Power in Russian Translations / Logos. 2019. № 2 (129). P. 179-220
annotation:  Gouvernementalité is a neologism that was coined by Michel Foucault in 1978, and soon followed by “governmentality” in English. It has become one of the key concepts in the social sciences. Those terms both refer to the novel perspective that Foucault arrived at to understand and analyze the phenomenon of power or, more specifically, various types of power relations typical of different cultures and political communities. Over the past several decades, that perspective has provided the methodological basis for an emerging interdisciplinary field called Governmentality Studies in the English-language social sciences. One purpose of this approach is to reassess the genealogy and specific features of modern societies and modern states without conceptualizing “power” through the “state” as traditional political philosophy has done. However, contemporary social science in Russia has largely been deprived of the opportunity to use Foucault’s conceptual instruments and research methods because of problems with translation among other barriers. The article 1) summarizes the Foucauldian critique and analysis of power embedded in the concept of gouvernementalité and compares that approach with traditional paradigms in political philosophy, 2) highlights how that concept has been used over the years in Foucault’s works dealing with power relations and the topic of the ethical subject, 3) demonstrates that current Russian translations of Foucault’s primary texts incorporating the term gouvernementalité are not merely imprecise, but exemplify what the French call contresens - interpretations that directly contradict the essence of the original. As a corpus, the available translations do not convey Foucault’s thought, but rather bar Russian-speaking readers from his conceptual and exploratory perspective
Keywords:  Michel Foucault; gouvernementalité; governmentality studies; analysis of power relations; state; liberalism; the government of self and others; ethical subject; Russian Foucault; contresens in Foucault’s translations.
The Cultural Revolution, Soviet Mentality, and the Order of Discourse / Logos. 2019. № 2 (129). P. 221-250
annotation:  One of the main topics of theoretical discussions following 1968 was raised by Michel Foucault, who argued for the formative role of discourse - that discourse has regulating effects that extend not only to the structure of utterances, but also to speakers themselves. The shift in viewpoint that Foucault accomplished has provided a way to see discourse not only as a medium of power, but as power itself, a power that generates the subjectivity of those who use or gain access to use of a given discourse. Recognizing this power in discourse enabled Foucault to overturn the traditional conception of the individual as the ontological source of speech (“the creative force determining the initial position of writing”) and to redefine it as a function of the utterance itself that guarantees grammatical unity and the conceptual and stylistic cohesion of speech. This analytical perspective is applicable to the historical materials on the debates about the paths and methods of the Soviet cultural revolution that the victorious proletariat should employ in order to shore up the social victory of October 1917. The problems confronting Soviet theoreticians and agents of the cultural revolution had much in common with those that would be conceptualized later on in discussions from the 1970s and 1980s. The form of assimilation of this normative order and the mechanisms of ideological Interpellation, which imply the active involvement of Soviet citizens in production of discourses, are the central topics in this examination as they provide insight into how an idea becomes a material force and how it captures the masses. The immediate object of study is the worker and village correspondent (rabkor and selkor) movement of the 1920s as well as its understanding by theorists of the Left Front of the Arts
Keywords:  order of discourse; Soviet subject production; post-colonial theory; Left Front of the Arts; LEF; cultural revolution.
Foucault, Lenin, and Western Marxism / Logos. 2019. № 2 (129). P. 251-267
annotation:  This article others a brief historical account of the complex relationship between Michel Foucault and certain theorists in the Western Marxist philosophical tradition. In the context of the history of the “short twentieth century,” Western Marxism is an intellectual trend based on an interpretation of non-Western revolutionary praxis (by Bolsheviks, Maoists, Guevaristas, etc.). Comparative analysis of several schematic portraits - of Lenin’s revolutionary intellectual, of traditional as opposed to organic intellectuals in Gramsci, and of Foucault’s public intellectual - shows that Foucault in a certain instances was not an external enemy of the Western Marx-ist tradition, but rather its internal critic. Foucault comes across as a revisionist who engaged in a debate with Lenin about the strategy of the revolutionary movement in France of the 1960s and the 70s. Foucault’s criticism of Leninism unexpectedly turns out to be consistent with the basic struggle of post-WWII Western Marxism to find an alternative to the Bolshevik experience of revolution. This deliberate concurrence makes Foucault one of the significant figures in the history of late Western Marxism, but this becomes a real problem for current historians of neo-Marxist thought when coupled with his generally anti-Marxist views. The article discusses two possible solutions to this problem devised by Perry Anderson and Daniel Bensaid. Anderson’s description of the role of Foucault in the fate of Western Marxism is limited to conceptual questions about the relationship between Marxism and (post) structuralism. Bensaid tries to explain how Foucault fits into the Marxist tradition by appealing to social changes, specifically the changing ideology of capitalist society (in the spirit of The New Spirit of Capitalism by Luc Boltanski and Ève Chiapello). Building on Bensaid’s work, the article shows the link between Foucault’s position on public intellectuals and the crisis of the revolutionary movement of the last half-century, in particular by reference to the famous “Iranian episode” in Foucault’s biography.
Keywords:  Michel Foucault; Vladimir Lenin; Antonio Gramsci; Western Marxism; neo-Marxism; Leninism; revolutionary practice.
Games Methodologists Play: Michel Foucault and the Organizational Management Project of Georgy Shchedrovitsky / Logos. 2019. № 2 (129). P. 268-288
annotation:  The article considers Georgy Shchedrovitsky’s organizational management project in the light of Michel Foucault’s works on liberal governmentality. As Michel Foucault convincingly pointed out, liberalism understood as a managerial technique seeks to “manage by not managing.” In that context, even relatively soft late Soviet governmentality seems outmoded and overdone with its omnipresent state control, ideological dictates, and rigid adherence to ritual. Many criticized that authoritative governmentality, but even those critical attacks often shared the Soviet enthusiasm for molding a new society from above. Shchedrovitsky’s theory of management is frequently described as radically constructivist, “engineering,” and (despite harsh criticism from the Soviet nomenklatura) authoritarian in the Bolshevik style. Nevertheless, analysis of his “Organization, Guidance, Management” shows the view that it others nothing but a kind of “policing” is to some extent misguided. First, an organizational management project itself can be regarded as a certain kind of “liberalization” of the modern world’s high-tech production. Second, the main goal of Shchedrovitsky’s organizational management activity was not total control over those managed, but rather a redefinition of the relationship between the process of natural transformations and the process of artificial technical conversions. The thing managed is said to be a “centaur-object”: it is capable of natural evolution, self-propulsion, but can also be manipulated from outside. The art of management is finding a balance that would provide relative autonomy to natural transformations, and also turn artificial technical conversions into meaningful and long-term planned activities instead of stereotyped reproductions of past experience.
Keywords:  Soviet philosophy; governmentality; biopolitics; artificial and natural; hybrids and “centaur-objects”
Contingent Labor — Forced Leisure. A Discussion / Logos. 2019. № 1 (128). P. 1-26
annotation:  A sociologist and a philosopher conduct a freewheeling dialogue to try out different theoretical approaches (microsociology vs. post-Marxism) for identifying new phenomena within leisure while also seeking a language that properly describes them. What is the difference between idleness and leisure? How do they relate in terms of “permissibility” and social acceptance? What are the temporal characteristics that they have in common or that set them apart? Are temporal parameters a coercive factor, and how will they change with the “end of the factory whistle,” i.e. with a return to a type of social time characterized by thorough interpenetration of work and free time? What kind of temporal coercion will apply to forced leisure, which soon will become an acute problem? What types of individual and collective uses of free time are endorsed by society? How will the “reframing” of leisure time into new types of employment take place? It is likely that there will be further shifts in the relationship between leisure and work and in their opposition as “suppliers of meaning.” The importance of the act of choosing leisure time grows (and responsibility for it will also increase because leisure is clearly chosen more freely than a job, which is subject to a great many external factors). As a consequence, what new forms will coercion and alienation take with regard to leisure, and how will the temporality of this choice be structured (as a combination of many types or in rapid alternation)? Perhaps the logic of the habitus, which has been an integral component of industrial modernity, will be replaced by a different, more flexible and “omnivorous” logic. Many of these topics have already been raised during discussion of basic (or universal) income, but this is not the only relevant perspective. In any case, it is necessary to update the language of description and analysis. A lexicon that is neither purely Marxist nor grounded mainly in economics will be the most fruitful. Such a lexicon would take into account the diversity of temporal regulations, forced synchronizations, the institutional mechanics of temporal coercion, framing signals, and both local and universal temporal orders.
Keywords:  idleness; leisure; temporalities; forced leisure; omnivorous leisure.
Why Has the Critique of the Leisure Class Run out of Steam? Matters of Fact and Matters of Concern / Logos. 2019. № 1 (128). P. 27-51
annotation:  The article analyzes the conceptual and historical prerequisites for the transition from the classical theory of leisure to modern leisure studies. Its central question is what “matters of fact” and “matters of concern” have had the greatest impact on the formation of the new research agenda. The first part of the article reconstructs Veblen’s conceptualization of the leisure class, which is associated with extensive free time, specific types of leisure, demonstrative consumption of the output from productive work, and the elevated socio-economic status that a particular group attains by following the conventions of a “prestigious” lifestyle. It is argued that the focus on stable, reproducible patterns of behavior in the upper class neglected the distinction between newer leisure practices, as well as the stratified diffusion of leisure time. The author describes three exogenous factors that have undercut the traditional understanding of leisure in the social sciences: the transformation of the temporal structure of work and leisure as a result of the broad penetration of digital technologies; the blurring of the boundaries between workspaces and recreational areas; and the transformation of the resources for economic interactions and of the system for conversion to various types of capital in the labor market. Changes in the basic criteria for a leisure lifestyle have exposed problems with Veblen’s intuitions and have led to the emergence of new disciplinary coalitions. In conclusion, the article deals with the problem of how to describe the modern leisure class. This is a question of whether the emergence of alternative leisure practices provides a sufficient basis for the identification of new leisure groups and of what would constitute a necessary condition for revamping the sociology of leisure.
Keywords:  leisure class; conspicuous consumption; socio-economic status; leisure; workspace; digital technology.
Work in the Age of Intelligent Machines: The Rise of Invisible Automation / Logos. 2019. № 1 (128). P. 53-84
annotation:  The article analyzes how an emerging form of automation may drastically transform contemporary employment dynamics. Recent breakthroughs in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) make it possible to automate both manual and mental non-standard tasks. The first part of the article traces the development of AI. Whereas classical algorithms required the creation of a hermetic environment for AI to thrive, modern neural network-based AI is capable of surviving in the chaotic realm occupied by humans. Based on an analysis of changes in the nature of AI, the authors distinguish between substitutive and supplemental automation. The former refers to a complete replacement of humans by machines, while the latter indicates a selective substitution of humans in specific professional functions.In order to conceptualize professions as a nexus of automatable components, the authors employ Goffman’s dramaturgical framework. Goffman studied the social visibility of professional activity. Goffman held that any profession can be divided into invisible routines that are fundamental to it and a dramatization that makes the profession socially visible. The article demonstrates that the current utopian and antiutopian views of automation both reduce work to its visible components and neglect the logic of supplemental automation. The authors argue that the targets of modern automation are not the socially visible components but the invisible routines. In the final section, the authors develop a model that takes these invisible professional routines into account and analyze what effect this new type of automation may have on different types of professions with differing degrees of social visibility.
Keywords:  artificial intelligence; neural networks; mess; automatization; professional occupations; dramatization; Erving Goffman; social visibility; labor market dynamics.
Re-imagining Digital Leisure Networks Through Global Cities: A Metaphorical Journey / Logos. 2019. № 1 (128). P. 85-129
annotation:  This paper examines the globalization and cosmopolitanism of digital leisure networks through the metaphor of urban parks within global cities. It makes the case for a more inclusive ecology of public leisure space by dismantling conventional boundaries between the park and the city. The article uses the metaphor of global cities to emphasize the hierarchies in digital leisure networks. These global cities function as command centers and as magnets for workers in the industrial, creative, and leisure fields. They also attract privileged groups as well as temporary and migrant laborers. Similarly, not all social networking sites share the same power and influence. While new information and communication technologies are eroding the boundaries between reality and fantasy, the real and the virtual, we should not forget that many of the world’s inhabitants reside in a pre-digital world and constitute an invisible community that has somehow slipped past the database that seemed to be omnipresent.
Poverty, rural conditions, criminality, and perversion are accorded scant attention within the larger discourse on globalization through the internet and its leisure counterpart, the recreational social networks. In terms of the metaphor, this neglect would be much like studying cities without noting the vast slums in which as many as half of their inhabitants live, work and play. This paper offers a dialectical and metaphorical journey in order to make conceptualization of the city and the park, leisure and labor, and the virtual and the material richer by encompassing more of the marginal and the diverse.

Keywords:  globalization of the internet; city parks; metaphor; global city; digital leisure networks
Utopias of Idleness and Laziness / Logos. 2019. № 1 (128). P. 130-132
Keywords:  laziness, Idleness
Inactivity of the Economy and the Economy of Inactivity. An Interview / Logos. 2019. № 1 (128). P. 133-146
annotation:  The article presents edited material from a meeting with Giorgio Agamben to publicize the release of the Russian translation of his book The Kingdom and the Glory: For a Theological Genealogy of Economy and Government. Agamben discusses the reasons and conditions for the formation of power in the West as oikonomia; the early Christian origins of the modern domination of the economy and government in all spheres of public life; the certainty of modern power; together with what makes politics possible and the connection of politics with inactivity, dispositives and processes of deactivation. The archaeological study of the phenomenon of power suggests that its modern forms are notconfined exclusively to government, but power is also characterized by the concept of “glory” whose ceremonial, liturgical and praiseworthy aspects we have customarily viewed as rudiments of the past even though they still retain their influence. Power in the guise of government shifts the focus to action that reveals its own baselessness and radically reconfigures ideas about the relationship between economics and politics. In turn, the groundlessness of praxis requires conceptualizing will, understood as dispositive, which raises the issue of adequate strategies for constructing relations between the subject and the government as a condition for the very possibility of the political. Deactivation, profanation and inactivity are a prism through which the potential of the political, the poetic, the economic and the human is revealed.
Keywords:  economics; governance; inactivity; deactivation; politics; state; church; power; profanation.
The Rehabilitation of Idleness: The Production of New Values and Meanings for Leisure in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries / Logos. 2019. № 1 (128). P. 147-158
annotation:  The author scrutinizes the changing meaning of the concepts that shaped leisure and spare time during the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries. She emphasizes that this period of accelerating industrial development brought about a firm distinction between work and recreation, an increase in free time, and an expansion of leisure. Urban leisure became a separate kind of activity associated with consumerism. The commercialization of leisure, the weakening of social control over it, and the design of the entertainment industry have resulted in a qualitative change in leisure and have contributed to its individualization, to erasure of social and class differences in leisure, and to a rapid top-down transmission of forms of leisure and recreational behavior patterns from the upper to the lower classes. Changes in the social and cultural function of leisure and the transformation of ideas about leisure were reflected in gradual changes in the meaning of concepts associated with recreation in the explanatory dictionaries compiled by Vladimir Dahl (in the 1860s and later editions), the Academy of Sciences (1890s), and Dmitry Ushakov (prepared in the early years of Soviet dominance and published in the 1930s) as well as in works of fiction from the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Transformation in the meanings of such terms as “leisure,” “idle,” “inactivity” and their derivatives provides evidence for the gradual elimination of the opposition between work and recreation, for the individualization of leisure, for its passage beyond the indivisible collective process of alternation between work and recreation, and for a significant modification in the negative connotations of the concepts “idleness” and “inaction.”
Keywords:  leisure; idleness; inaction; relaxation; entertainment industry
Defetishizing Free Time: From Akrasia to Profanation / Logos. 2019. № 1 (128). P. 159-188
annotation:  Images of free time are used today to give the impression that alienation from work is being alleviated. As a result, exploitation of the workers who are constantly occupied with “self-realization” becomes even more effective. Free time becomes a fetish - a means of productively engaging people’s energy through various scenarios in which they are (supposedly) enjoying their leisure time pursuits. Is it even possible to undo the fetishization of free time? And if so, how else might we conceptualize it? In seeking an answer to these questions the author continues the discussion of akrasia launched by Michail Maiatsky in his article “Liberation from Work, Unconditional Income and Foolish Will” (Logos, 2015, 25[3]) in which Maiatsky expressed a well-founded fear that a contemporary “post-Nietzschean” person might respond to the “gift of unconditional freedom” with an irrational desire to test the boundaries of that boon and end up as Dostoyevsky said “living by his own foolish will.” A hypothesis to address that fear argues that the intentions behind such an “akratic rebellion” are inherently rooted in the fetishistic logic that dominates both current perceptions of free time and also the debate about providing a basic income. The akratic reaction is a form of phantasmatic acting out of the painful suspicion that efforts to reach liberation could turn into another form of bondage. The roots of this bind can be found in the historically embedded form of economic organization, which is based on a sense of dire emergency. We owe this understanding of the “economic dispositive” to the work of Giorgio Agamben, but it is already discernible in Xenophon. We can find an indication of its dominant position in modern economic thinking in Nikolay Sieber’s (1844-1888) criticism of the postulates of the “subjective school” of economics. Because the economy acquires a sacred aspect within this dispositive, akrasia may be compared with a sacrilegious trespass of its boundaries. However, Agamben proposes that challenging any form of the solemn ceremonies of capitalism’s priesthood in a way that is not merely imaginary must necessarily be a kind of profanation.
Keywords:  free time; fetishism; akrasia; economy; dispositive; profanation.
Idleness and Freedom in Michel de Montaigne’s “Essays” / Logos. 2019. № 1 (128). P. 189-202
annotation:  The article advances a hypothesis about the composition of Michel de Montaigne’s Essays. Specialists in the intellectual history of the Renaissance have long considered the relationship among Montaigne’s thematically heterogeneous thoughts, which unfold unpredictably and often seen to contradict each other. The waywardness of those reflections over the years was a way for Montaigne to construct a self-portrait. Spontaneity of thought is the essence of the person depicted and an experimental literary technique that was unprecedented in its time and has still not been surpassed. Montaigne often writes about freedom of reflection and regards it as an extremely important topic. There have been many attempts to interpret the haphazardness of the Essays as the guiding principle in their composition. According to one such interpretation, the spontaneous digressions and readiness to take up very different philosophical notions is a form of of varietas and distinguo, which Montaigne understood in the context of Renaissance philosophy. Another interpretation argues that the Essays employ the rhetorical techniques of Renaissance legal commentary. A third opinion regards the Essays as an example of sprezzatura, a calculated negligence that calls attention to the aesthetic character of Montaigne’s writing. The author of the article argues for a different interpretation that is based on the concept of idleness to which Montaigne assigned great significance. He had a keen appreciation of the role of otium in the culture of ancient Rome and regarded leisure as an inner spiritual quest for self-knowledge. According to Montaigne, idleness permits self-directedness, and it is an ideal form in which to practice the freedom of thought that brings about consistency in writing, living and reality, in all of which Montaigne finds one general property - complete inconstancy. Socratic self-knowledge, a skepticism derived from Pyrrho of Elis and Sextus Empiricus, and a rejection of the conventions of traditional rhetoric that was similar to Seneca’s critique of it were all brought to bear on the concept of idleness and made Montaigne’s intellectual and literary experimentation in the Essays possible.
Keywords:  Michel de Montaigne; “Essays”; genre of essay; idleness; freedom.
Anglophilia with An Angler’s Tackle: The English Roots of the Sport of Angling in Russia / Logos. 2019. № 1 (128). P. 203-232
annotation:  The article takes up the topic of recreational angling in order to investigate the impact of English culture on the development of leisure in Russia. The paper surveys materials in Russian and foreign angling periodicals as well as archival materials related to the work of such Russian popularizers of recreational angling as Pavel Cherkasov, Anatoly Shemansky, Nikolai Lieberich and others. The author examines practices and models of leisure by employing the “new cultural history” methodology, which includes the history of leisure and historical anthropology as it applies to the history of everyday life with particular emphasis on commonplace discourses and practices. The author demonstrates that English influence on amateur angling in Russia extended beyond the adoption of tackle and fishing techniques. It affected the culture of fishing by favoring a particular style and a certain kind of behavior and even clothing. The advent of modern English angling tackle during the middle of the 19th and early 20th centuries was an invasion of the Russian recreational landscape that did not proceed without a struggle. Opponents of “English tackle,” which referred to a modern rod, usually a telescoping reed with an inertial (Nottingham) reel, would sometimes portray it as a superfluous artifact - a tangible embodiment of discrimination and an attempt by some anglers to assert their superiority over others. The foes of English tackle felt that it was “technical garbage” useful only under certain conditions and that its adherents were merely kowtowing to fashion. Its supporters, on the contrary, saw themselves as agents of innovation, advocates of progress, and the vanguard of the fishing community. They also sought to make a clear distinction between amateur and sport angling with the latter taken to mean exclusively spinning and fly fishing.
Keywords:  history of leisure; history of everyday life; history of angling; Anatoly Shemansky; Pavel Cherkasov.
Work and the Smoke Break in the Art of the USSR from the 1940s Through the Early 1960s / Logos. 2019. № 1 (128). P. 233-242
annotation:  The article outlines changes in the representation of labor in Soviet art, primarily
painting, from the 1940s through the early 1960s. The author argues that during
the final formulation of Stalin’s Socialist Realism in the 1940s, the ideology associated
with labor in Soviet art changed. Labor was interpreted no longer in terms of
effort, achievement and similar activist categories, but rather in terms of relief from
work or the “smoke break” — a slang term for a pause in work equivalent to the English
“coffee break,” a respite or time out. During Khrushchev’s subsequent cultural
reforms, the heroism of labor no longer appeared in Soviet art. It was replaced by the
notion that labor is “enduring.”

Keywords:  socialist realism; art policy; representation of work and smoke break.
Diligent Notes on Laziness: Oblomov, Lenin and the Capitalization of Laziness / Logos. 2019. № 1 (128). P. 243-258
annotation:  The essay investigates the phenomenon of laziness by first analyzing the opposition between laziness and the good. Both utility and the good make reference to labor. This opposition between labor and laziness is pivotal in Oblomov, Ivan Goncharov’s famous novel written in 1859. It marks a radical transition from a feudal paradigm to a capitalistic one. The two main characters in the novel are Ilya Ilyich Oblomov, a Russian, and Andrey Ivanovich Stolz, a German, who together seem to personify the contradiction between laziness and labor. But the purpose of the essay is to deconstruct that opposition. In this connection, one can cite Kazimir Malevich, who maintained that laziness is the Mother of Perfection and is always unconsciously inherent in the conscious intent to work. Analysis of the Latin concepts of otium and negotium indicates that the laziness/labor opposition may be deconstructed as a dialectic between labor and its opposite. In other words, laziness does not stand in contradiction to labor but is instead its inseparable dialectical other. In the last part of the essay, the article considers the thinking of Anatoly Peregud, a poet who spent almost all his life in a psychiatric hospital. According to Peregud, Lenin derived his pseudonym from the Russian linguistic root “len” (laziness) in order to make laziness central to communism. For his part, Lenin saw Oblomov as an emblem of the main obstacle standing in the way of communism.
Keywords:  laziness; work; time; dream; otium, negotium; capitalism; feudalism.
Laziness and Labor: Variations on a Malevich Theme / Logos. 2019. № 1 (128). P. 259-272
annotation:  What idleness, leisure, and free time have in common is that they are the opposite of labor; all three are linked with the cessation or interruption of labor. The article takes Kazimir Malevich’s provocative essay Laziness as the Truth of Mankind (1921) as the starting point for an examination of the complex and fraught issue of the balance between idleness and labor. Malevich redefines idleness as grace, as the point of labor and its peer, and as something that is not only a release from hard labor but that also leads to peace and God. The author proposes a reading of Malevich’s apologetics of idleness in juxtaposition with Marx’s early focus on the issues of human freedom and on alleviating alienation in a newly arranged society, and with Paul Lafargue’s argument that workers would do better to fight for the right to be idle than for the right to work. The comparison with Marx and Lafargue reveals a fundamental flaw in their socialist program of heroic labor, which preserved the exploitation of labor but had the state rather than the capitalists appropriate it. Malevich’s argument comes close to certain insights of John Maynard Keynes in which he envisaged science and technology resolving economic problems by enabling humanity to enter an age of idleness and plenty. Giorgio Agamben’s philosophical deliberations round out the contemporary understanding of the relationship between labor and idleness. From this point of view, laziness and idleness become essential elements of meaningful labor. The option to remain idle, to reject work, to prolong it or to delay its completion are becoming the sine qua non of creative labor worthy of a free person.
Keywords:  laziness; idleness; alienation; Kazimir Malevich; Paul Lafargue; Giorgio Agamben.
Art, Idleness and Food: The Ethics of War Communism and the Origins of Production Art, 1918–1919 / Logos. 2019. № 1 (128). P. 273-278
annotation:  The article examines the impact of the discourses concerning idleness and food on the formation of “production art” in the socio-political context of revolutionary Petrograd. The author argues that the development of the theory and practice of this early productionism was closely related to the larger political, social and ideological processes in the city. The Futurists, who were in the epicenter of Petrograd politics during the Civil War (1918-1921), were well acquainted with both of the discourses mentioned, and they contrasted the idleness of the old art with the dedicated labor of the “artist-proletarians” whom they valued as highly as people in the “traditional” working professions. And the search for the “right to exist” became the most important goal in a starving city dominated by the ideology of radical communism. The author departs from the prevailing approach in the literature, which links the artistic thought of the Futurists to Soviet ideology in its abstract, generalized form, and instead elucidates ideological influences in order to consider the early production texts in their immediate social and political contexts. The article shows that the basic concepts of production art (“artist-proletarian,” “creative labor,” etc.) were part of the mainstream trends in the politics of “red Petrograd.” The Futurists borrowed the popular notion of the “commune” for the title of their main newspaper but also worked with the Committees of the Rural Poor and with the state institutions for procurement and distribution. They took an active part in the Fine Art Department of Narkompros (People’s Commissariat of Education). The theory of production art was created under these conditions. The individualistic protest and “aesthetic terror” of pre-revolutionary Futurism had to be reconsidered, and new state policy measures were based on them. The harsh socio-economic context of war communism prompted artists to rethink their own role in the “impending commune.” Further development of these ideas led to the Constructivist movement and strongly influenced the extremely diverse trends within the “left art” of the 1920s.
Keywords:  Russian revolution; Russian avant-garde; revolutionary Petrograd; food; art of the commune; Nikolai Punin; Osip Brik.
annotation:  After postmodernism’s key theorists abandoned the topic (Fredric Jameson) or even allowed that postmodernism is no longer exists (Linda Hutcheon), various concepts under the umbrella term “post-postmodernism” have begun to emerge since 2000. One of the last intellectual alternatives to post-modernism was the metamodernism proposed by two Europeans, Timotheus Vermeulen and Robin van den Akker. In 2010 they published a kind of manifesto entitled Notes on Metamodernism in which they argued that there had been a pivot away from cynicism and irony toward sincerity and romance in the newly emerging culture. This pivot heralds the arrival of the new era of metаmodernism. The author of the article critically evaluates the manifesto and concludes that the concept of metamodernism does not stand up to scrutiny and has little of substance to offer. The metamodernism manifesto is at best a set of declarations.
However, this does not mean that the metamodernists had not intuitively hit upon the key to cultural and social tendencies that are still not completely clear. At the end of 2017 a new collection of articles edited by Vermeulen and van den Akker was published. Even though the authors of the metamodernism concept had almost nothing new to offer and failed to develop their ideas any further, other researchers and thinkers with different theoretical orientations from the original authors have taken up the metamodernism impulse and made it qualitatively more interesting. The metаmodernism project has been developed with greater sophistication by theorists and also through empirical research. Metamodernism has been vindicated by the new life it has been given.

Keywords:  postmodern; post-postmodernism; metamodernism; social philosophy; culture; Marxism; post-irony; aesthetics.
annotation:  From 2008 to 2009 and from 2013 to 2016, the world economy faced two waves of one of the most severe crises in history. This crisis was attributed to a number of mistakes made by financiers and regulators or given the usual explanation of overproduction (a crisis typical of the “ten-year” cycle). But the current crisis is due to a more complex cyclical feature of capitalism. It is one of the great crises that begin and end long waves in the development of capitalism and that first took hold in the 1770s. Nikolai Kondratiev suggested that the cycle (of upward and downward waves) begins with a major crisis in the economy. In reality, such crises are found at the junction of the waves.
The author emphasizes that these crises emerge as part of a grand cycle within industrial capitalism. They alter the conditions for growth in the worldwide economy and in national ones while facilitating the development of new industries or the expansion of the global market. These crises alter the economic process so deeply that they play out over years rather than months, while ordinary commercial and industrial crises seldom match their severity and duration. Crises then come in two
forms — major and ordinary. There are other economic crises parallel to these that restructure socio-economic relations. Crises of that kind took place in the 3rd and 14th centuries. This article examines crises throughout the entire history of market systems, including mercantile and industrial capitalism. Particular emphasis is given to the current global economic crisis, the contradictions that caused it, and the contradictions left in its wake. The author also identifies preconditions for overcoming those lingering contradictions and outlines the prospects for a new economic recovery.

Keywords:  economy; crisis; cycles; capitalism; feudalism; antiquity.
annotation:  This article is devoted to a critical analysis of the broadly accepted concept of social partnership. The author analyzes social partnership as one widespread way that has been effective in promoting the interests of social groups under certain historical and political conditions. However, the social partnership model is now in crisis because it no longer serves as an effective method for promoting the interests of the working class and the poorest segment of society. The author exposes the key internal contradictions in the paradigm of social partnership that have precipitated its crisis and call
for revaluation of the concept in both theoretical analysis and public administration.
The author’s main argument is that the concept of social partnership in the modern world, especially in Russia, is a fiction. The emergence of an influential and radical mass social movement in the working class was a precondition for the social partnership of the 19th and 20th centuries. It forced a significant part of the ruling class to make concessions. Social partnership has since become a fading form of social struggle. The contradictions have not been removed, but they have been expressed in another format. The stagnation of the trade union movement in the first world and the crisis of traditional social democracy have established a new reality. The strength of one of the parties in social partnership has been significantly reduced. The ruling class has embarked on a global campaign against the social and labor rights of the population at large. Under these conditions, social partnership has lost its conceptual grounding. The institutions of social partnership have been powerless to defend
the rights of the common people to pensions, medical care, accessible education, decent wages, guaranteed jobs and protection from poverty. The crisis in the concept of social partnership requires renewed vigor and dedication in the social movements that struggle to advance the social and labor rights of the people.

Keywords:  social partnership; social group representation; tripartism; class conflict; class interests.
annotation:  Despite all the revolutionary expectations attached to the precariat, an objective examination of the discourse about it reveals something that looks less like capitalism’s potential gravedigger and more like a potential savior of the liberal-democratic political order. Therefore, one should view the precariat not as the successor to the industrial proletariat, but rather as the heir to the middle class. It actually is in part the former middle class, whose typical position in the 1990s and early 2000s had already became vulnerable and unstable. The preсariat is not a revolutionary class. Even those who sympathize with it do not describe it as a class capable of organizing a new social order. It is instead the disadvantaged class, the victim of global processes, the “multitude,” and a heterogeneous conglomeration of afflicted minorities (that nevertheless compete among themselves).
It would seem that from the 20th century on the ruling bureaucracy of bourgeois states has needed the existence of a massive stabilizing class as a support for its political domination. The middle class served in this capacity at first, but it would subsequently give way to the precariat. The same hopes that were previously invested in the construct of the middle class were then transferred to the precariat. The precariat also arouses the same concerns as the middle class: just as the middle class in some cases paved the way for Fascism, the precariat is susceptible to the promises of modern right-wing radicals. However, if the precariat’s basic demands are satisfied, it can become a new pillar stabilizing liberal-democratic political regimes. At the same time, it will be even more dependent on the state than the previous middle class. The ideological tendencies of this class may lean politically both toward right- and left-populism. In any case, appeals for state interventions in granting political capital to certain groups in the precariat will play a major role.

Keywords:  precariat; class consciousness; middle class; bourgeois state; neo-estate.
annotation:  The article describes the system of mass higher education in terms of political economy. The author discusses how the social and economic results of the education system depend on the principles of its organization. In identifying the economic effect of education, the author emphasizes that in certain circumstances certificates of education may function in the market as fictitious capital, increasing the economic opportunities of certificate holders without any basis in an actual increase in training or professionalism. The analogy with fictitious capital is methodologically justified because the certificate itself brings about an increment in money received although it creates no new value. The social consequence of the formalization of education is the falsification of its cultural content and significance. This formalization of education and the decline in the role of education and knowledge in society may make the cultural capital to which education contributes fictitious as well because it is verified only by a certificate of qualification in place of an actual advanced level of education.
The author describes the process of formalization of education as a bureaucratic attack on the autonomy of the academic environment. To overcome the formalization of education and to repel this bureaucratic attack on it, it is necessary to establish the proper conditions for academic and personal development while enlisting society at large in formulating standards and specific criteria for the development of education. The author sees the processes taking place in education as signs of a crisis
of institutionalization as a principle for regulating human activity. This crisis is manifested
today not only by numerous disruptions in the operation of the educational system but also in the crisis concerning its social significance, and more broadly in questioning the social significance of knowledge.

Keywords:  mass education; higher education; fictitious capital; formal indicators of the effectiveness of education; competence approach.
annotation:  The article is devoted to the crisis of Confucianism in the history of Old and New China, the causes of these crises, and the ability of Confucianism to respond to the demands of the times, to change under the influence of political, historical and ideological metamorphoses. Particular attention is paid to the flexibility of the Confucian tradition, which for thousands of years has remained the main ethical teaching for the Chinese intelligentsia and a fundamental instrument of government. The reasons for the stability of the Confucian doctrine are explained through analysis of the orthodox canons which changed in response to crises. The role of commentators on traditional treatises who greatly enriched the teachings of Confucius and contributed to its flexibility in the face of impending crises is also considered. The article also considers the stylistic changes carried out by the neo-Confucians under the guidance of the famous philosopher Zhu Xi. Those changes temporarily made Confucianism more resistant to all kinds of cataclysms, but in the end it was these changes that played a crucial role in the fundamental crisis in its teachings. There is no denying that the literature of Old and New China exposed all the flaws in Confucian morality. The criticism of Confucianism is especially thorough in the satirical literature that best highlights all the defects of Confucian orthodoxy. The article concludes with an examination of the role of Confucianism in modern China, and Xi Jinping’s new course is analyzed by invoking traditional Chinese thought, which abounds in his works and speeches. The reasons for the stability and flexibility of Confucian thought are reference to the thumbnail sketch of Chinese history in the article.
Keywords:  Confucianism; Confucius; Zhu Xi; Mencius; Vasily Alekseev; Xi Jinping; crisis; flexibility.
“Lenin: The Pantocrator of Sun Dust” / Logos. 2018. № 6 (127). P. 152-163
“The Study of Religion and Its Postmodernist Critics” / Logos. 2018. № 6 (127). P. 164-208
“The Unity of the World from a Post-Non-Classical Perspective” / Logos. 2018. № 6 (127). P. 209-223
“Analytic Philosophy Today: Identity Crisis” / Logos. 2018. № 6 (127). P. 224-243
“The Sources of Social Power” / Logos. 2018. № 6 (127). P. 244-278
Crisis as a Problem of History and Methodology / Logos. 2018. № 6 (127). P. 20-26
The third wave of science studies as a philosophical justification for STS / Logos. 2018. № 5 (126). P. 31-52
annotation:  The principle of reflexivity is a stumbling block for David Bloor’s “strong program”
in the sociology of scientific knowledge — the program that gave rise to alternative
projects in the field called science and technology studies (STS). The principle of
reflexivity would require that the empirical sociology of scientific knowledge must
itself be subject to the same kind of causal, impartial, and symmetrical investigation
that empirical sociology applies to the natural sciences. However, applying reflexivity
to empirical sociology would mean that sociologists of science fall into the trap
of the “interpretive flexibility of facts” just as natural scientists do when they try to
build theories upon facts, as the empirical sociology of scientific knowledge has discovered.
Is there a way to overcome this regression in the empirical sociology of knowledge?
Yes, but it lies in the philosophical rather than the empirical plane. However,
the philosophical “plane” is not flat, because philosophy is accustomed to inquiring
into its own foundations. In the case of STS, this inquiry takes us back to the empirical
“plane,” which is also not flat because it requires philosophical reflection and
philosophical ontology. This article considers the attempt by Harry Collins to bypass
the principle of reflexivity by turning to philosophical ontology, a manoeuver that
the empirical sociology of science would deem “illegal.” The “third wave of science
studies” proposed by Collins is interpreted as a philosophical justification for STS.
It is argued that Collins formulates an ontology of nature and society, which underlies
his proposed concepts of “interactional expertise” and “tacit knowledge” — keys
to understanding the methodology of third-wave STS. Collins’ ontology begins by
questioning the reality of expert knowledge and ends (to date) with a “social Cartesianism” that asserts a dualism between the physical and the mental (or social).

Keywords:  science and technology studies; sociology of scientific knowledge; third wave of science studies; philosophy of science; ontology; epistemology; experience; expertise; language; form of life; tacit knowledge; information.
Diving in magma: how to explore controversies using actor-network theory / Logos. 2018. № 5 (126). P. 53-84
annotation:  Controversy mapping is a set of techniques for exploring and visualizing issues. It was developed by Bruno Latour as a didactic version of actor-network theory to train college students in the investigation of contemporary social and technical debate. However, the scope and interest of this mapping extend beyond its didactic origin. Controversy mapping was conceived as a toolkit to cope with increasing hybridization and as an attempt to follow disputes when they cut across disciplinary boundaries. This mapping should be applied far beyond the limits of sociology, not only to allied humanities but also to the much more distant domains of the natural sciences. According to controversy mapping, the frames of reference of researchers are never unbiased. Some of them may offer a broader or clearer overview of social landscapes, but no observation can escape its origins. Objectivity may be attained only by multiplying the points of observation. The more numerous and partial are the perspectives from which a phenomenon is considered, the more objective and impartial its observation will be. Although controversy mapping is unfortunately not much documented, it is today a full-fledged research method that has been adopted and developed in several universities in Europe and the US. To correct the lack of documentation, the author draws on his experience as Latour’s teaching assistant to introduce some of the main techniques in the social controversy mapping toolkit. In particular, the article focusses on exploration, leaving a discussion of visualization tools for a subsequent paper.
Keywords:  actor-network theory; cartography of controversies; observation methods; public understanding of science; representations of science; scientific controversies; studies of science and technology
Latour’s method: semiotics between literature and science / Logos. 2018. № 5 (126). P. 85-112
annotation:  This article attempts to reconstruct the method of Bruno Latour’s actor-network theory by articulating its links with the semiotics of Algirdas Julien Greimas. Semiotic methodology is considered as a point of entry to the labyrinth of Latour’s projects and a thread of Ariadne through it. The article is divided into two parts. The first one examines Greimas’ conceptions of narrative grammar and narrative programmes. This analysis leads to a number of conclusions: a) Greimas’ semiotics is as ambitious a scientific project as Latourian sociology. Greimas elaborates the general premises of structural linguistics and proposes to extend the latter not only to scientific discourses outside cultural (myth, folktale) and literary texts, but also beyond the textual world itself; b) Elements of semiotic methodology crucial for Latour are emphasized, including the operation of bracketing out (of referent and enunciator) and a separation of orders of (semiotic) acts that points to the distinction between linguistic operations inside the text and the metalinguistic operations of semiotician; c) The vocabulary of movement (trajectory, a point of departure, circulation, vehicles etc.) that are omnipresent in Latour’s writing is narratological in origin and has methodological importance for his work. The second part of the article shows how Latour appropriates and transforms elements of semiotics in his early work on the sociology of science. Methodologically, Latour’s anthropological approach to science is marked by two successive moves: 1. suspension of the key binaries in sociology and the philosophy of science (e.g. subject/object, truth/falsity, social/intellectual); 2. reassembling such distinctions. In his works, Latour carries out these methodological practices by means of sequences of operations designated here as “bracketing in,” “bracketing out,” and “unbracketing.”
Keywords:  actor-network theory; science and technology studies; sociology of science; Bruno Latour; Algirdas Julien Greimas; semiotics
More than one — less than two: the concept and methodology of enactment of multiplicity in actor-network theory / Logos. 2018. № 5 (126). P. 113-136
annotation:  Attempts to find alternatives to totalizing (which appears in the social sciences as explanations via society, class, gender, culture, etc.) and essentializing the understanding of the social lie at the heart of the contemporary efforts in the social sciences to appeal to a concept of multiplicity that enables rendering reality not only as various and fragmented, but also as inconsistent, complex and variously distributed within itself. Psychology, economics, political theory and many other disciplines have offered their own ways of conceiving multiplicity. In sociology the most wellknown attempts to use this concept are by the neo-Marxist authors Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri, and Paolo Virno, and other such attempts are found in Schütze’s phenomenological sociology as well as in the Goffmanian tradition. The article provides theoretical and methodological explications of the multiplicity concept in actor-network theory. In the theoretical terms, it is argued that Annemarie Mol and John Law make the distinction between multiplicity and plurality without resorting to relativism and social constructivism. They employ multiplicity to analyze the decentralized, distributed objects which combine actual existence with the potential to change. The methodological approach of the article is to delineate and analyze the foundations of three methods of explicating multiplicity in actor-network theory: the ethnographic one (Annemarie Mol, John Law, Charis Thompson), the “technological” one (Noortje Marres, Albena Yaneva), and methods of making conceptual figures (Donna Haraway, Michel Serres, Isabelle Stengers). The author maintains that the juncture between theoretical and the methodological consideration of the concept of multiplicity enables actor-network theory to provide definite ways to carry out enactments of social reality rather than merely describing it.
Keywords:  multiplicity; actor-network theory; methods of enactment of multiplicity; ethnography; controversy mapping; philosophical speculation; Annemarie Mol
How to pack the lebenswelt into a black box: assembly instructions / Logos. 2018. № 5 (126). P. 137-168
annotation:  This paper proposes a way to de-transcendentalize the concept of the life-world (Lebenswelt), which is a phenomenological term for basic, pre-theoretical, intersubjective knowledge. The aim is to arrive at a conception that shows the decisive influence of the material background over the life-world. A critical examination of Don Ihde’s phenomenology indicates that the method of phenomenological reflection does not capture the influence of technologies in shaping the life-world and is restricted to the final stages of that shaping. The tools of science and technology studies (STS) are needed for de- transcendentalizing the concept of the life-world. Jurgen Habermas’s concept of the life-world is best suited to this task because it is quite consistent with the methodological requirements of STS and is least burdened by its phenomenological heritage. Nevertheless, some transcendentalist presuppositions are retained in the Habermas concept. These presuppositions are connected with the distinction between goal-oriented actions and communicative and strategic ones. Actor-network theory (ANT) methodology permits a reformulation of that distinction. First, the paper shows the similarity of ANT’s notion of the black box to Habermas’s concept of the life-world. Second, this paper formulates a conception for shaping the life-world which is consistent with ANT’s methodological requirements. Negotiation, which denotes the process of forming a black box by reducing the heterogeneity of multiple actors to one simple device or statement, is the key concept. In this way, the paper constructs a new theory of communication and the life-world free from the transcendentalist presuppositions that have undermined every concept of the life-world from Husserl to Habermas.
Keywords:  life-world; Lebenswelt; “black box”; communication; phenomenology; science and technology studies (STS); actor-network theory (ANT)
Technology and heterogeneous engineering: the case of Portuguese expansion / Logos. 2018. № 5 (126). P. 169-202
annotation:  Based on historical materials about the technology of the 15th and 16th century Portuguese maritime expansion, the author shows that in order to understand the emergence, functioning, and collapse of technological systems we need to develop an approach that will be centred on the notion of heterogeneous engineering. Heterogeneous engineering presupposes that the building of technological systems involves associating and channelling diverse entities and forces, both human and nonhuman. This permits an analysis of how the existence of particular systems is shaped equally by different factors: natural, social, economic, and technical. In the case of Portuguese maritime expansion, the success of system-building was determined by the association between shipbuilding; the navigational skills of the navigators; navigational equipment and guns; features of the capes, oceanic currents, and winds; and the system of state support, training, and regulation - all of which made possible the establishment of a stable and powerful network that allowed the Portuguese to dominate the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Therefore, the construction of a technological system is a process of resolving conflicts between heterogeneous elements, and the associated elements must be able to withstand encounters with hostile forces and entities, both physical (e.g. oceans) and social (e.g. the Muslims). The systems approach proposed by the author shows, first, that technology can be analysed using the principle of generalized symmetry, which states that the same type of analysis should be made for all components in a system whether these components are human or not; and, second, that actors should be understood as entities that exert detectable influence on other entities.
Keywords:  technological system; heterogeneous engineering; maritime navigation; sociology of technology; actor-network theory
Agency through objectification: subjectivityand technology / Logos. 2018. № 5 (126). P. 203-248
annotation:  The article turns to the ethnography of infertility clinics to answer the question: To what extent and in what situations do the technologies that objectify the bodies of patients in these clinics in fact not reduce the agency and selfhood of the patients but, on the contrary, enable them to reveal their capacities? The author engages in an argument with the tradition in feminist studies of regarding those technologies as harmful and as an objectification of the patients and their bodies. On the basis of her fieldwork (participant observation of pelvic exams, ultrasound procedures, surgical operations, etc.), the author cogently shows that certain forms of objectification that are expressed in the patient’s submitting to technical procedures and to epistemological and bureaucratic discipline in fact enable activation of capacities of parts of the body and self that cannot be exhibited outside the clinic. However, these forms of objectification are applicable and relevant for women patients only to the extent that they are in line with an overall progression of the patients from infertility to restoration of fertility. Otherwise, they turn into mechanization and alienation of the patient’s body and self. The author’s conceptual and political aim in this article is to point out the possibility of preserving compatibility between the objectified body parts or selfhood of the patient, the tools and reproductive technologies, the bureaucratic and epistemological discipline inside the IVF clinics, and the “I” of the patient with which she will live before and after the infertility procedures regardless of the outcome. The process of arranging a functional zone where this compatibility is possible is what the author calls ontological choreography.
Keywords:  ontological choreography; science and technology studies; reproductive technologies; ethnography; feminist studies of technologies; self
Self or non-self? Constructing the body in immunology / Logos. 2018. № 5 (126). P. 249-286
annotation:  The article focusses on how the body is constructed for immunology. Specifically, the complex and tangled bio-political genealogy of immunity is analysed in detail as the understanding of it hovers between social and biological discourses. In addition, the controversy between different models of the immune system is examined. The social studies of immunology conducted by Donna Haraway and Emily Martin are also highlighted. In these studies, the body-immune system is understood as a diversified heterogeneous construction consisting of components belonging to different ontological orders. The construction of the immune system does not end in the labora-tory or in the clinic. It continues in other places by other means. Nevertheless, the relationship between the body and the immune system is situational: the immune system could be completely identified with the body or be a part of it. Emily Martin’s ethnography of immune systems and Donna Haraway’s feminist anthropology provide the means for understanding how the immune system, as both academics and non-academics explain it, can be juxtaposed to and also coincide with the body and even the self,but nevertheless conform to the scale, concepts, laws and metaphors of the social world of everyday life. The immune system and immunity are assessed in terms of the physiological body and the self. On the other hand, the body as a biological “self” is abstracted from the physiological and social body, and in a sense it “lives a life of its own.” Therefore, our body is the outcome of a complex coordinating effort among different bodies: the physiological body, the one identified with the self, and the body on a different scale - the biological “self” which turns out to be “non-self” and not belong to the subject
Keywords:  body; immunology; immunity; immune system; heterogeneity; construction; multiply reality; science and technology studies; Donna Haraway; Emily Martin
Multiple bodies, multiple texts / Logos. 2018. № 5 (126). P. 287-298
annotation:  The paper concerns the bodily and textual practices in the social epistemology of Annemarie Mol as presented in her book The Body Multiple. From her ethnography of medical practices in hospital Z, Mol derives a new ontology of objects that changes the emphasis from the opposition of representation and construction to the practices of production and performance. “Ontology in practice” as presented by Mol concentrates on what is done to the object and what exactly makes it an object, rather than determining what the object is. Her study therefore does not deal with the multiplicity of ways to view the body and illness; it deals instead with the multiplicity of practices which generate the multifaceted object of research. Constructed and put together by a variety of practices, this object is always more than one thing: it prominently features the multiplicity of its enactments and the ways of coordinating them. At the same time, Mol’s study deals with social epistemology itself and also makes a contribution to construction of another multifaceted object of research. The field of social epistemology is not just a field of multifaceted objects, but also of multifaceted texts. The seemingly selfevident objectivity of an object is undermined by the diachronic analysis in Mol’s synchronic text. It concerns more than the politics of the normal/pathological distinction or the object/method distinction (although it does handle these). It mostly deals with the practice of academic texts per se: the politics of writing, publishing, reading, citation, etc. The unusual material construction of this text plays an essential role in its textual practice, which also carries over to the text of the paper.
Keywords:  Annemarie Mol; ontology; social epistemology; textual practice; bodies; objects
Pinky and the Brain take over the world again: genealogy and adventures of the cerebral subject / Logos. 2018. № 5 (126). P. 299-311
annotation:  The article provides a review of the problems handled by historian of science Fernando Vidal and sociologist Francisco Ortega in their book Being Brains: Making the Cerebral Subject (Fordham University Press, 2017). They delve into the anthropological figure of the cerebral subject, a figure which depends upon on the thesis of a connection between the brain and the self (personality): the brain generates personality and defines its behavior. This thesis in a naturalized form is promoted by neuroscience as the cutting edge of research into human nature. At the same time, it has spread far beyond the precincts of science and is generating diverse practices and discourses that have a direct impact on the lives of individuals. Thus, scientific knowledge as the truth about human nature becomes the core of the technologies governing the self. Vidal and Ortega place the thesis about the connection between the brain and the personality in historical context and show that it appeared in the 17th century long before the birth of modern neuroscience and that it has its own history. Neuroscience has inherited it and adopted it as its own premise. The figure of the cerebral subject thus motivates the research into the brain, although it is not a result of it; but this does not negate the fact that its dissemination and entrenchment is due to the stream of scientific facts. On the basis of various materials and recent social research data, Vidal and Ortega trace the ideology of the cerebral subject, analyse the disciplines supporting it that were formed as a result the introduction of neuroscience into the human sciences, and discuss the theoretical and practical consequences of a neuro-essentialism that reduces the nature of a person to the brain. Although this idea has become part of common sense, Vidal and Ortega show that the cerebral subject coexists with other types of self and that individuals pragmatically resort to discourse about the brain only in particular situations.
Keywords:  cerebral subject; ideology; brain; neuroscience; self; genealogy
From social epistemology to humanity 2.0. an interview / Logos. 2018. № 5 (126). P. 1-30
annotation:  In this interview Steve Fuller outlines his own intellectual trajectory and changing interests. As one of the creators of social epistemology, he talks about the context of the birth and development of this interdisciplinary project, as well as how he came to the study and development of transhumanism, which is the topic of his recent trilogy Humanity 2.0. He discusses the origins of transhumanism (Victorian science fiction, Russian cosmism, cyberpunk), its political implications and explains its connection with the present which he characterizes as ultra-modern. In ultra-modernism, Fuller argues, spiritual transcendence becomes material, and a human being passes from a being- unto-death to the expansion of the possibilities of the biological body as a horizon of existence. Fuller dwells on his own preferences in Russian cosmism, the problem of differentiation between humans and nonhumans, as well as the proactionary principle which he introduced to describe the transhumanist project. This principle demands an attitude toward risk as an opportunity not a threat, and it therefore legitimizes individual and social experiments and innovations. Even though the opposite pre-cautionary principle, which prohibits innovation and action with a risk of negative consequences, currently plays a key role in the innovation process, it has appeared relatively recently as a replacement the proactionary principle. In fact, the progress of European humanity until the 1960s had been based on the proactionary principle, but it now requires a kind of update: the distribution of responsibility and risks is to be based on responsibility (liability) rather than property as its legal rationale.
Keywords:  social epistemology; transhumanism; nonhuman; Russian cosmism; proactionary principle; risk
WHAT IS SEX? AN INTERVIEW WITH ALENKA ZUPANČIČ / Logos. 2018. № 4 (125). P. 1-26
annotation:  In her latest book What is Sex? (MIT Press, 2017) Alenka Zupančič avoids such tiresome
topics as heterosexual relationships or the gender binary (and gender altogether)
and instead cogently explains sexual difference, the elusive “beyond” of the
pleasure principle, infantile sexuality, the materiality of signifiers, the hole in being,
the non-coincidence of truth and knowledge, primal repression, passion, the event,
and the political importance of psychoanalysis.
Sex for Zupančič is an ontological problem, co-extensive with a disturbance in
reality, a signifying gap and structural impediment. Sex is attached to that which
cannot be fully known or embodied and is therefore directly related to the unconscious.
Subjectivity emerges from within the fault entailed in signification, as does
surplus enjoyment. Important here, too, is the well-worn notion, but with a twist,
that there is no reality prior or external to discourse. Zupančič reminds us that
nature is not a pure and full presence before the arrival of the human but an object
produced by and for science. The Real is an effect of language: the signifier invades
the signified and alters it from within. Finally, and perhaps most mind-blowingly,
the human in her formulation is not that which is merely in excess of the animal
(dressing it up in language and culture, let’s say) but, rather, an unfinished and dysfunctional dimension: humanity as a veil that simultaneously points and gives form
to animals’ ontological incompleteness.
The interview covers these complex ideas as well as other pressing matters: the
disappearance of the hysteric, the desert of the post-oedipal (the only one who managed
to escape the Oedipus complex, Lacan noted, was Oedipus himself), and the
status of love at the end of analysis.

Keywords:  sexuality; psychoanalysis; unconscious; love; Oedipus; interview.
“I See Quentin Meillassoux as Exactly Like Stalin.” An Interview / Logos. 2018. № 4 (125). P. 27-54
annotation:  This interview is concerned with problems that some contemporary theories such
as accelerationism, the theory of a new spirit of capitalism, and speculative realism
confront as they turn out to be not so far removed from the theories of the 19th and
the beginning of the 20th centuries. Instead of acceleration, Groys offers a concept
of a deceleration which eventually results in stagnation. This suggests the possibility
of actualizing the experience of Soviet socialism, which Groys always understood
as original and exotic and therefore especially valuable to those who study it with an
open mind. The interview also considers the scandal resulting from the publication
of Heidegger’s Black Notebooks. According to Groys, Heidegger’s position hinged
on his attitude toward language, which he felt should be defended at some point by
force of arms. Fascism in language may in turn be challenged by the language of visual
culture that is universal and extra-national.
The interview also considers art, including where something new in art is now
to be found. The new is produced by a change in context, and what is new in art is
always a new interpretation of its boundaries. Joseph Beuys’ slogan, “Everyone is an
artist”, has become even more to the point because contemporary communication in
its extremely varied modes lacks an address. Groys underlines the special role of reenactment
in contemporary art as it increasingly devotes itself to exhibiting archived
material and documenting earlier performances. All of this is focused on making the
spectator feel that she has irrevocably missed something and will never be able to
make contact with it. That manoeuvre is also relevant to the problem of authenticity
in art because the authentic exists only as something elusive and impossible to attain
and never as the authentic itself. It exists only as the dream of itself. The interview
touches upon the success strategies for contemporary artists: to succeed locally, you
must first become famous internationally.

Keywords:  art; authenticity; accelerationism; Russian Cosmism; speculative realism; capitalism; materialism.
De-Lacanizing Biographies: Lacan’s, Freud’s and One’s Own. An Interview / Logos. 2018. № 4 (125). P. 55-81
annotation:  Logos interviewed the well-known psychoanalyst and historian of psychoanalysis on
the occasion of the release of the Russian translation of her biography Freud: In His
Time and Ours as a joint publication of the Garage Centre for Contemporary Culture
and Ad Marginem Press. The interview begins with a review of her intellectual
biography: her education, those who influenced her (Althusser, Canguilhem, de
Certeau, Deleuze, Derrida, Foucault, Lacan, Michelle Perrot), studies of the history
of psychoanalysis (Jacques Lacan’s biography, the history of French psychoanalysis,
the vocabulary of psychoanalysis, works on the “geopolitics” of psychoanalysis),
and her debate with radical anti-Freudians (Onfray and American historians of
When Roudinesco saw that there was no holistic and French approach to the figure
of Freud, she undertook a study modelled on medievalist Jacques Le Goff’s biography
of Saint Louis (King Louis IX of France). That choice was deliberate because
the history of modern subjectivity can be traced back to the Early Middle Ages
when private confidential confession replaced the public admission of fault. Roudinesco
felt that it was important to “de-Lacanize” Freud (just as Lacan himself had
previously refused to treat his biography in terms of his own theory). A biography
of Freud should be both familial and political (covering issues of emancipation and
Jewish assimilation among others). One of the keys to his success was the elevation
of individual clinical problems to a universal cultural-mythological level. Freud did
not reveal the unconscious as the source of human behaviour. Instead, he converted
the familial and political circumstances of his era into the unconscious. His errors
and should be explained rather than charged against him. At the close of the interview,
Roudinesco speaks out about current French and Russian political issues.

Keywords:  history of psychoanalysis; intellectual biography; Sigmund Freud; Jacques Lacan; anti-Freudianism; mythology.
Masculine Bodies, Sexualities and Subjectivities / Logos. 2018. № 4 (125). P. 85-108
annotation:  The increase in social inequality, which the author attributes to the spread of neoliberalism around the world, complicates the system of power relations between men, their bodies and sexualities. This leads to a differentiation of masculinities. Forty-three biographical interviews are applied to a critical rethinking of the configuration of power
relations among male blue-collar and white-collar workers. The author concludes that
work guides emotional relationships and consequently regulates the sexual life of men
from both social environments. In addition, the regimes of industrial and office work
generate different logical manipulations of male corporeality, which are carried over
into the private sphere and employed in structuring masculine subjectivity.
Physical skills and strength are the main factors on which blue-collar manual
workers base their masculinity, while bodily representations and performance serve
in that capacity for white-collar workers. This social differentiation in the structure
of work results in uneven chances for creating a “successful” masculine subject.
Male blue-collar workers call themselves “losers”, while white-collar workers perceive
themselves as “successful” even though men from both environments are exploited.
The physical labour of a blue-collar worker is alienated by the process of corporeal
management on the job, while the body of a white-collar office worker is commoditized
and becomes a sign in the system of symbolic exchange. At the same time,
the research shows that the boundaries between social environments are becoming
blurred and class consciousness is weakening. This allows both blue-collar workers
and white-collar workers to follow similar sexual strategies which differ only in form
and style. The masculine subjectivities of blue-collar and white-collar workers include
the very same structural components derived from the traditional, liberal and new
versions of masculinity, which are distinct in the means and forms of their expression.

Keywords:  men; body; sexuality; blue-collar; white-collar; labour; power; emotions; inequality.
The Cyborg as the Code of a New Ontology. Political and Epistemological Aspects of Hybrid Bodies / Logos. 2018. № 4 (125). P. 109-128
annotation:  The article considers the concept of “the cyborg” which has become a code in contemporary culture thanks to A Cyborg Manifesto by Donna Haraway. The cyborg is
the first natural-cultural hybrid of a new ontology that rejects the classical division
between nature and culture along with the power and gender aspects of this distinction.
The cyborg is neither a subject, nor an object; it is not a network. The cyborg
may be conceived only from the perspective of non-classical epistemology. But then
the frame of the customary political oppositions and social norms shifts.
In the paper the author considers what epistemological resources that made
such a radical position possible. Cyberpunk cyborgs buy into the classical ontological
binary: they conspire to obtain power while fearing self-generating machines
and the biological individualized person. Haraway’s cyborg, however, is based on
a feminist critique of the subject and of the objectification of femininity. That critique
in combination with post-positivism and anarcho-epistemology has enabled
the development of a new code of ontology in which the opposition between nature
and culture is radically rejected and replaced by a hybrid symbiosis without external
foundations. This approach has paved the way for contemporary contingent/unstable
ontologies, agent realism and the new materialism. A political position derived
from contingent ontology would not formulate antagonistic oppositions of doubtful
genesis. It would instead construct new algorithms, connections, and interactions
in a fragile non-repressive natural-cultural reality bombarded by a constant influx of
new data.

Keywords:  cyborg; Donna Haraway; feminist epistemology; contingent ontology; feminization of machinery.
Body Practices of Women in the Light of Feminist Debates / Logos. 2018. № 4 (125). P. 129-156
annotation:  The paper provides an analysis of the structuralist and phenomenological traditions in interpretation of female body practices. The structuralist intellectual tradition bases its methodology on concepts from social anthropology and philosophy that see the body as ‘ordered’ by social institutions. Structuralist approaches within academic feminism are focused on critical study of the social regulation of female bodies with respect to reproduction and sexualisation (health and beauty practices). The author focuses on the dominant physical ideal of femininity and the means for body pedagogics that have been constructed by patriarchal authority. In contrast to theories of the ordered body, the phenomenological tradition is focused on the “lived” body, embodied experience, and the personal motivation and values attached to body practices. This tradition has been influenced by a variety of schools of thought including philosophical anthropology, phenomenology and action theories in sociology.
Within academic feminism, there are at least three phenomenologically oriented strategies of interpretation of female body practices. The first one is centred around women’s individual situation and bodily socialization; the second one studies interrelation between body practices and the sense of the self; and the third one postulates the potential of body practices to destabilize the dominant ideals of femininity and thus provides a theoretical basis for feminist activism. The phenomenological tradition primarily analyses the motivational, symbolic and value-based components of body practices as they interact with women’s corporeality and sense of self. In general, both structuralist and phenomenological traditions complement each other by focusing on different levels of analysis of female embodiment.

Keywords:  female embodiment; body practices; sociology of the body; feminist theory; gender; lived body.
The Phenomenon of Taharrush as Collective Sexual Violence / Logos. 2018. № 4 (125). P. 157-190
annotation:  The article analyses the phenomenon of collective sexual violence which was clearly manifested in Germany and is associated with the influx of refugees and migrants in the last few years. In seeking to explain this phenomenon as the export of gendered forms of violence, the author explores its origins by means of a secondary analysis of monitoring data, tracking the escalation and discontinuities in the practice of applying sexualized violence associated with the political struggle during the two Egyptian revolutions. The conjunction of gender, ethnicity, social problems and the crisis of power that appears in a number of monitoring studies indicates that political values were introduced into sexualized violence or that sexual violence was converted by political forces into an instrument in the struggle for power. The practice of collective sexual violence called taharrush and its legitimation in the discursive space of modern Arabic culture have taken shape in this particular context.
The practice of taharrush has contributed for a decade directly and indirectly (through discursive legitimations) to the masculine socialization of young generations of Arabic men. This type of masculine socialization is built on certain social norms that justify the use of violence against “transgressors” and establish moral and religious boundaries for women, and it is also associated with the potential for performing violent acts in public spaces. The experience of participation in the Tahrir uprising as a symbolic achievement of hegemonic masculinity made it possible for those who were subjected to economic deprivation through unemployment to compensate for the gaps in their masculinity and thereby restore male hierarchies. Reconstruction of the Taharrush phenomenon in the different, more Western context of emigration may be explained not only by the economic, social, psychological, and sexual deprivation of refugees from the Arabic world, but also as a form of socialization through equivalent direct and indirect practices.

Keywords:  sexualized violence; taharrush; publicity; instrumentalization of violence; struggle for power; west-east.
Why Do We Care About Baroque? / Logos. 2018. № 4 (125). P. 191-222
annotation:  Despite the demands of the Council of Trent, the Baroque sought not so much to
teach (docere) but to inspire (movere) and to allure (delectare). Owing to the predominance of this aesthetic principle, the Baroque preserved human integrity in a
period when the Renaissance worldview utterly collapsed, when professional disciplines
became compartmentalized, when the infinitely small and great worlds revealed themselves through the microscope and the telescope, and when anatomists
and physiologists went inside the human body.
Only in its sensual aspect is Baroque art seemingly opposed to the rationality of
philosophic and scientific thought. The creative practices of the coryphaei of the
Baroque were carried out under the rubric of ratio. The apotheosis of rationalism
in the arts was the opera house with all of its constituent parts: from the libretto,
the music and vocal techniques to the financial arrangements of the impresarios,
the tiered seating and the wonders of scenography. Leaving behind adherence to
the Renaissance ideal of intellectual and creative excellence, the Baroque encouraged
going beyond what had been known and accomplished, and its message is still
heard today.
From the beginning of European history to the Napoleonic Wars, the Baroque
stands out for its extreme bellicosity. However, the Baroque is surprisingly optimistic
despite the great number of terrible events. From this era on, a European
perceived death not as an impersonal fatal blow, but as a private event whose likelihood
at every point was partly dependent on one’s own actions. Baroque monuments
in Asia and in the Americas show that globalization first manifested itself
in the spread of the Baroque style. But the landing of the Pilgrim founding fathers
on the shore of Cape Cod and the Mayflower Compact they signed were phenomena
of global significance that had nothing in common with the way colonization
of distant territories had been carried out by Europeans before the age of the

Keywords:  baroque; art; architecture; rationality; aggressiveness; optimism.
René Descartes and Christina of Sweden: Obsession with Reason and Passion of Sovereignty / Logos. 2018. № 4 (125). P. 223-260
annotation:  The article describes and comments on a number of epistolary documents pertaining
to the last journey of René Descartes and specifically to his enigmatic relations
with Queen Christina. Those relations were conducted at first as a kind of “epistolary
novel” and may be regarded as one of the examples of a dialogue between a thinker
and a ruler. As the historical tradition clearly indicates, the relationship ended in a
radical rift between power and philosophy. It is important for us to understand why
Descartes, who had shunned all the temptations of power throughout his life, so
recklessly succumbed to the charms of the “northern Minerva” and agreed to assume
the role of court philosopher even though his whole way of life, as well as his philosophy,
argued against such a choice.
The author traces out a series of hypotheses. First, what was dominant in the
relationship between Descartes and Christina was not so much the mostly rational
framework of a “philosopher” encountering a “sovereign” but a sort of confrontation
between two obsessions: the thinker’s arrogant trust in the omnipotence of an
absolute reason that nevertheless had its blind spots, and the untrammelled will of
sovereign power on which the young queen based her existence. Second, turning to
some of the themes in Descartes’ own philosophical thought and in particular to the
“malin génie” from Meditations on First Philosophy (1641), one may infer that this
rather literary or even poetic figure at some point took the form of a kind of “femme
fatale” that preoccupied the philosopher’s thinking and filled his life with an existential
turmoil which contributed to his fatal decision to go to Sweden. The ultimate
conclusion is that the “Souverain Bien” for the philosopher was the rare opportunity
for his thinking to reign supreme; but by succumbing to the temptation to serve the
Empress, he betrayed himself. The “souverain Bien” for the ruler lay in autocracy as
such, and specifically in a devotion to herself as the embodiment of the administration
of power.

Keywords:  René Descartes; Christina of Sweden; letters as instrument of philosophy; libertinism; “malin génie”; “souverain bien”; love.
Peregrinations of a Method: The Cambridge School (of Political Thought) in Varying Contexts / Logos. 2018. № 4 (125). P. 261-302
annotation:  The Cambridge School of political thought embraces several historians (John Pocock,
Quentin Skinner, John Dunn) who began working at Cambridge in the 1960s
and offered a unique approach to the study of social-political ideas. These authors
insisted that political thinking is historical in its nature, and for that reason it should
be studied in historical and ideological contexts. They also insisted that political
ideas should not be considered as concepts that are separated from life or as a “tradition”
which has persisted from Plato to the present.
In recent years there have been attempts to adapt the method of the Cambridge
School to a Russian context. The author insists that there are specific reasons why
this is nearly impossible to achieve. This becomes obvious when the activity of the
Cambridge School is situated in different contexts — in the context of the social and
philosophical thinking in Britain of the 1960s, in the context of American political
theory from the last quarter of the 20th century, and in the context of republican
social philosophy of the early 20th рcentury. One then finds first that the methodology
of the Cambridge School went through considerable transformations as early
as the mid-1970s; and second that the interests of scholars shifted either to political
theory or to history for which their approach is not applicable for certain reasons.
The author concludes that a continuation of the project of the Cambridge School is
possible at best only in the field of contemporary social and political philosophy and
not in the study of European political thought of the 15th through 17th centuries or
American political thought of the 18th century.

Keywords:  political theory; social philosophy; republicanism; intellectual history; Cambridge School; contextualism; Quentin Skinner; John Pocock; John Dunn.
Тела и сексуальности сквозь призму феминистской критики / Logos. 2018. № 4 (125).
Long-Awaited Verdict / Logos. 2018. № 3 (124). P. 1-12
annotation:  The author takes a personal approach to the debate surrounding the Black Notebooks by giving an account of what he owes to Heidegger and then considering how much of a shadow Heidegger’s Nazism and anti-Semitism have cast on the following legacy: A. Heidegger radically revised the philosophical vocabulary; B. stipulated that one can philosophize only by starting with oneself (Dasein); C. that Dasein must be distinguished from the “human being;” D. that one should start from Dasein to achieve Sein, or Being, in order to be in it (not merely to know it); E. that focus on Being is necessary to avoid entrapment in any sort of mun¬dane being; F. Heidegger tightly integrated his philosophy into the history of philosophy. But each of these features has an associated weakness: a. Heidegger denigrates a Latinate vocabulary (vs. the “authentic” Greek) as conducive to modernist degradation; b. he sacralized his own Dasein so that he refused to acknowledge his errors; c. distinguished Dasein from the human being, but nevertheless identified Dasein with being German; d. and Being with the German people; e. only mildly criticized certain mundane beings, such as Nazism; f. and finally, his version of the history of philosophy amounts to the con¬servative stance that “it was better before.” Heidegger had been an unequivocal and enthusiastic supporter of Nazism, but the reality of Nazism when it (temporarily) came to power did not long suit him. Hei¬degger’s disappointment with Nazism as experienced made him question Being itself: if Nazism and the Führer failed to meet his high expectations, was Being not corrupted by Machenschaft (perhaps by machinations of the Jews)? The author con¬cludes that Heidegger’s impact on philosophy will fade, although his vision of a pre-industrial utopia will increasingly appeal to urban masses exhausted by turmoil.
Keywords:  Heidegger controversy; ontology; gnoseologism; Nazism; antisemitism; anti-Semitism
Great Again / Logos. 2018. № 3 (124). P. 13-26
annotation:  The author finds that the question Heidegger’s Black Notebooks raise for today’s Americans is not “Was Heidegger a Nazi?” or “Was Heidegger an anti-Semite?” but “Would Germany’s greatest 20th century philosopher have endorsed Donald Trump?” because the first two questions have already been answered in the affirmative. All the stereotypes compatible with Nazism that we find in Heidegger’s texts may sound uncomfortably current. Analogies with the Weimar Republic have become one of the commonplaces of commentary on last year’s USA presidential election. But Donald Trump is not so much America’s Hitler as an American Heidegger, a self-appointed expert on greatness who insists that the idea of American greatness has vanished, but also that: “Our best days lie ahead. There is so much untapped greatness in our country.” To make the transition between the two, “We need someone who under¬stands greatness.” Although the kind of nationalism advocated by Heidegger and Trump nominally rejects biological racism, it is both exceptionalist and exclusive in that it emphasizes geographical origin and citizenship while stipulating that you may exempt your¬self from universal decline only if you were born in the right place: “The day I was born I had already won the greatest lottery on earth. I was born in the United States of America” (Trump). Trump was, for once, speaking the truth. For a century, there have been substantial increases in real income for the top 1% and also for the middle 50% of the global population, but little or no gains for those in the 75th to 90th per¬centiles. The future that Heidegger anticipated is now. Whole nations are acknowl¬edging their state of need and waiting to see whether greatness will descend upon them.
Keywords:  Martin Heidegger; nationalism; racism; Donald Trump; geographical fac¬tor in development
Heidegger: Conspiracy Against Reality / Logos. 2018. № 3 (124). P. 27-50
annotation:  The philosophical/textual reappraisals which have emerged in Heidegger studiesafter publication of the Black Notebooks are interpreted in this article as consistent with Heidegger’s modernist project presupposing certain strategies of isolation, withdrawal, and estrangement. Those strategies had become steadily less useful in the approach to World War II. Heidegger had identified several modes of concealment (authentic vs. manipulative, or false, ones), but he succumbed himself to a conceptual position of estrangement and exclusion that did not necessarily provide the expected cognitive benefits. That position imposed an extremely narrow range of options for abandoning the uncompleted project of Being and Time, which was in question precisely because it was susceptible to both naturalizing and anthropologizing. In his so-called Kehre or turn, Heidegger did not reject the original project of conceptualizing Being as an instance of estranging every ontic entity; on the contrary, he tried to accomplish it in a very bold way by elaborating a narrative structure for Being’s history that had no proper personages in previous versions. The “conspiracy,” regardless of how it may in fact be realized, is inevitable because it occupies an intermediary position between the “world” and “reality” (in Luc Boltanski’s terms) or between the “ontic” and “ontology,” the ontological distinction that lies at the centre of Heidegger’s philosophy. The abstract conceptual personages of Being and Time are replaced by personages in a conspiracy, and this move allows him to retain “agency,” and refrain from any anthropologizing and naturalizing (up to a point). However, Heidegger’s openness to terminology from conspiracy theories carries with it a range of unexpected consequences, including regarding the positions of conspirators (Jews, Bolsheviks etc.) as equivalent to “Caesarism.” The conspiracy against reality cannot be exempt from the production of that same reality whose personages in turn are setting the scene for self-annihilation.
Keywords:  estrangement; Black Notebooks; Luc Boltanski; conspiracy theories
From the Black Notebooks to the End of the “Heidegger Case”? / Logos. 2018. № 3 (124). P. 51-90
annotation:  The controversy surrounding Heidegger’s philosophical diaries (known as the Black Notebooks) is the last episode in a lengthy dispute that can be traced back nearly to the Third Reich. When the first three volumes were published in 2014, the debate was rekindled primarily by Emmanuel Faye’s Heidegger: The Introduction of Nazism into Philosophy, which was by far the most virulent (although in some ways stimulating) book written against the master of Freiburg. Faye refused to regard Heidegger as a philosopher and accused him of instigating the Holocaust. However, until 2014 the broad consensus had been that the philosopher opposed Nazi biologism and anti-Semitism. With the publication of the first volumes of the Black Notebooks that interpretation became untenable for the vast majority of scholars, including some of the most fervent Heideggerians. Peter Trawny, the editor of those philosophical diaries, has insisted that they contain the notion of a worldwide Jewish conspiracy that was derived from The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Donatella di Cesare, former vice-president of the Heidegger Society, came up with the idea that Heidegger believed the Jews had exterminated themselves. Although Faye’s book has certainly prompted the current controversy, it has been fueled and spread even more by massive use of the internet, which opens this cache of “newly discovered evidence” to anyone interested.
Keywords:  Heidegger controversy; Black Notebooks; Anti-Semitism; reception his¬tory of Nazism; history of mass media
Philosophical Clarity: Heidegger Equals Hitler / Logos. 2018. № 3 (124). P. 91-120
annotation:  Publications over the last fifteen years, including Heidegger’s so-called Black Notebooks, his lectures and seminars from 1933–1935, and letters to his brother necessitate a reappraisal of the “Heidegger case.” New clarity has been reached regarding the significance of the “political” for his philosophy, his place in the intellectual avant-garde of the National-Socialist movement and, finally, the meaning of his “confession” of historical error. The remaining ambiguities persist due to the radical difference between the usual conception of a normal political reality that is shared by his critics and defenders alike and the style of thinking which was typical for that earlier historical period. Our accustomed static interpretation of events with its focus on the formal, ideological, or institutional elements of a normal political process must be distinguished from a dynamic interpretation of the “political.” Interest in Heidegger’s legacy is warranted because he provides his readers with a logic of “proper language” which opens a path to self-knowledge. The price to be paid for this benefit is that readers lose the distinction between their own language and Heidegger’s. Heidegger committed a similar error himself when he was negligent about distinguishing his language from Hitler’s. The conceptual convergence of Heidegger and Hitler serves as a warning about the danger in the kind of salvation Heidegger’s language provides to his readers in their pursuit of self-knowledge. The claim that in some respects “Heidegger equals Hitler” is not equivalent to the simple fallacy of a reductio ad Hitlerum. Further clarification of the relationship between thought and tyranny requires a return to classical political philosophy with its distinction between “proper language” and “common language” and to a tragic conception of truth.
Keywords:  Martin Heidegger; Adolf Hitler; Nazism; philosophy; tragedy; tyranny; proper language; self-knowledge
Was Heidegger an Anti-Semite? On the Black Notebooks and Current State of the Critique of Heidegger / Logos. 2018. № 3 (124). P. 121-148
annotation:  The author takes a somewhat “subjective” approach by considering the fatigue that overwhelms a reader of the Black Notebooks, the indignation brought on by the antisemitic passages and the correlation between these two emotions. The fatigue can be explained by Martin Heidegger’s excessive use of two logical and grammatical operators: identification (of Catholicism with totalitarianism, Wagner with tanks, Hegel with Nietzsche, capitalism with Bolshevism, etc.) and superlatives (e.g. “the utmost clarity,” “the purest simplicity,” “the cruelest intransigency,” “the most intimate joy in the most serene creation,” etc.). The pomposity of such discourse sets up a kind of quarantine, an opposition between a malignant fate and deliverance from it separated into two historical epochs. One is the oblivion of Being and the other is a future “Beginning” of some kind. However, Heidegger himself, for unspecified reasons, manages to avoid the first and be part of the second (although he thinks it cannot come about before the 24th century). How does anti-Semitism enter this scheme? The author considers Heidegger’s anti-Semitism as emergent from the context (as distinct from the etiological antiSemitism of a Carl Schmitt): the Jews do not cause the decay, although they profit from it. One can acknowledge a certain inverse proportionality: Heideggers’s philosophically relevant anti-Semitism appears relatively late and in parallel with his distancing himself from National Socialism. Heidegger’s anti-Semitism found its form of expression only after a long time and remained latent in “hints”. For example, in the Black Notebooks the term weltlos is ascribed directly to Jews, but in the early texts it was also applied to Descartes and Hegel. This throws into question any “wholesale” criticism of Heidegger. Paradoxically, that critique adopts a weapon from his armory by over-identifying things with each other.
Keywords:  Heidegger; anti-Semitism; identification; superlative; National-Socialism
Ein Knabe, der träumt, or Intoxication by Power / Logos. 2018. № 3 (124). P. 149-182
annotation:  The article analyzes several clusters of problems introduced by the publication of Martin Heidegger’s Black Notebooks. First, various explanations of how this material came to be published in its present form are considered. Then it is proposed that Heidegger lends himself to a unique a kind of philosophical experiment in which the subject is the man himself as a personality whose thoughts remain fixed and are available to us. At the center of this experiment is the form itself of “deferred” reflection which reflects events at the time they originated. The purity of this experiment is assured by the physical absence of the author who can no longer influence the evaluation of his texts and actions. This is a very specific model for the “return of the author” because we cannot ignore the author’s opinion. At the same time it is a very specific refutation of the postmodern doctrine of “the death of the author.” It turns out that in a number of cases we are obliged to take the author into account. The article examines in detail the problem of the philosopher’s “intoxication” by the idea of the National Socialist revolution and his position as an ideological philosopher during his rectorate of the University of Freiburg. Numerous ideological speeches of the philosopher are analyzed. And the question of the relation between philosophy and the authorities as a whole is examined.
Keywords:  Martin Heidegger; “death of the author”; National Socialism; philosopher and authority
Arendt Pro/Contra Heidegger: A Discussion / Logos. 2018. № 3 (124). P. 183-204
annotation:  In November 2016 the French TV show Bibliothèque Médicis arranged a debate between two well-known French philosophers, Emmanuel Faye and Alain Finkielkraut. It was devoted to the former’s book Arendt and Heidegger: Nazi Extermination and the Destruction of Thought published a decade after his book Heidegger: Introduction of Nazism into Philosophy. The focus of the discussion was not only the impact of Nazism on Heidegger’s philosophy (the topic of the earlier book) but also Hannah Arendt’s post-War efforts to whitewash Heidegger’s entanglement with Nazism. According to Faye, those efforts should be seen as more than the harmless aftermath of previous intimate relations between these two individuals. Faye thinks that Heidegger’s influence on Arendt lasted much longer than her university study (and their affair). He detects an antidemocratic stance in Arendt’s positions, e.g. in her assessment of “Jewish guilt” for the Holocaust, in the “Race Question” (on the role of Afro-Americans in American culture), and of issues in ethnicity, technology, and consumption. Finkielkraut stressed the crucial importance of Arendt’s ideas for our contemporary self-consciousness, as well as the multiple fertile influences of Heidegger’s thought upon the current intellectual scene, particularly in France.
Keywords:  Martin Heidegger; Hannah Arendt; Heidegger’s impact on Arendt; Nazism and philosophy; Alain Finkielkraut; Emmanuel Faye
Back From the Future: Orientation of Acceleration / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 1-6
Manifesto for an Accelerationist Politics / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 7-20
Teleoplexy: Notes on Acceleration / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 21-30
annotation:  This article describes accelerationism as a temporal structure — one that is operative in situations of positive feedback. Positive feedback processes are self-amplifying and more or less ubiquitous to all domains where there is directed development. In all those domains, they are however most likely to be “perceived” — or at least reacted to — as dangerous and countered by compensatory movements containing the explosive activity. In the socioeconomic domain, these compensatory movements come from social norms and political decisions, and not from the mechanism of capital itself, which would explosively move forward if unconstrained. The twisted complex of conflicting teleologies — natural self-amplification vs corrective compensation — is what the author calls “teleoplexy.” The author then proceeds to problematize the key teleoplexical mechanism in capitalism, namely price. Price is what determines itself and enters into a positive feed-back loop. However, as capitalization is the commercialization of potentials, complex considerations pertaining to risk and future projections enter the dynamic of price determination. The importance placed on risk management and the prediction and assessment of future market states ensures that the teleoplexic process grows more “intelligent” as capital is channelled into the development of automated self-augmenting mechanisms of self-optimization, directing capitalism towards the techonomic singularity at its horizon.
Keywords:  teleology of capitalism; techno-economic singularity; cybernetics; positive feedback; commercialization; risk management
“The Only Thing I Would Impose is Fragmentation.” An Interview with Nick Land / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 31-54
The Labour of Abstraction: Seven Transitional Theses on Marxism and Accelerationism / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 55-66
annotation:  The article discusses the central thesis of accelerationism within the frame of the question of abstraction. The author treats abstraction as a universal form, tracking it on different levels of the organisation of the world. It turns out to be both an aim of capitalism and a method of Marxism. As a fundamental power, abstraction is a source of the concrete. There are two main vectors of abstraction on the level of capitalism — monetary (financialization) and technological (the algorithms of the metadata society). Simultaneously, abstraction is informatized through a cybernetic inoculation of capital and a revalorization of information.
The author proceeds by considering the connection between human and capital. Abstraction is armed with a biopolitical epistemology which generates normative power. Digging into an area of the human, the author elicits abstraction in knowledge as the organic and logical gathering capacity of consciousness preceding language. In its existential aspect, abstraction reveals itself to be a violent gesture of any being against its own identity, gender, class, or species. As a central accelerationist move that separates it from current versions of Marxism, the author considers its special focus on the tendency of the rate of profit to fall. An important step of accelerationism is its association with the big Outside which marks a passage from the paradigm of cognitive capitalism to a paradigm of capitalism as an alien intelligence. The tendency must be accelerated within capitalism, but this “within” is at the same time “outside” the human. A reverse of the tendency must become an epistemic acceleration by means of a conversion of the collective intelligence into a hostile intelligence parasitizing within capitalism. This is an opposition of two inhumanist processes on the battlefield of intellectual space.

Keywords:  abstraction; capitalism; collective intelligence; tendency of the rateof profit to fall
Cosmogenic Acceleration: Futurity and Ethics / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 67-78
annotation:  The article investigates the relation between accelerationist aesthetics and ethics. In the understanding of Steven Shaviro, accelerationist aesthetics is on one hand a utopian contentless gesture, and on the other — a reappraisal of the future which becomes for this aesthetics a future-present, thanks to its orientedness onto this futurity. The author agrees with Shaviro — the task of accelerationism is to save the present and future from the insatiable capital. This is an extremely difficult task — even art and imagination, although freed from its limits by postmodernism, still serve capital. To solve this problem, the author uses the definition of acceleration as varying intensity and draws a distinction between a nihilistic aesthetics of acceleration which ignores intensity and an aesthetics of accelerationism based on intensification. The second version of an accelerationist aesthetic can penetrate the depth of capital and lay bare its affects, creating a dehumanising network of classifications and endless connections. The more inhumanly classified we are, the less vulnerable to an unjust status quo, and the intensification of experience within a new, inhuman classification makes experience more ethical. The author also criticises Shaviro — his fear that aesthetics might lose itself within the spaces of the future it investigates is unjustified. Despite the importance of the future for an accelerationist aesthetics, it already has everything it needs for dehumanising the affects here and now. Through recomposition and reconfiguration, it is capable of becoming more minoritarian and more ethical. Thus, the aesthetics of acceleration is an ethical aesthetics.
Keywords:  accelerationist aesthetics; ethics; affect; inhumanism; temporality; Steven Shaviro; Deleuze and Guattari
Critique — Crisis — Acceleration / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 79-86
annotation:  Threadbare talk about the perpetual crisis of the capitalist world economy does not ask one fundamental question: What is crisis? The paper casts doubt on the definition of the term in the crisis discourse that proceeds from nostalgic phantasms of delay and affection towards balance and calm, entangled in a desire to return to the propitiatory order of Fordist economy so as to preserve the relative prosperity for a small Western minority. Instead — by referring to Marx and Deleuze–Guattari — it is possible to assert that crisis is not the “slowing-down” of a state of uncertainty, but represents the norm and even the dynamic of capitalism. Crises are the result of the necessarily decreasing profit in a capitalist economy that has put ‘innovation’ on its flag. Besides, references to crisis are merely the pretext for the permanent deployment of neoliberal events (e.g. in the sphere of finance, healthcare, and security). The traditional left critique of crisis processes in capitalism merely legitimates the neoliberal politics standing behind them: critique legitimates by means of displacement, carried out by the deferment of objects of knowledge into a sphere of law. It imbues its object with importance while simultaneously constituting the subject of a critical statement. The author’s “Promethean” accelerationism in the sphere of politics juxtaposes critical reflection to recursion and the formula “aimless speed + useless brakes = nostalgia for stagnation” to its alternative “acceleration + direction = progression toward a future.” Progress (technological, social or political) can only be attained via acceleration, which stumbles beyond the reterritorialization drawn by both the Left and the Right. The accelerationist (political) project sets the speculative fixation in the Absolute by way of the particular politics. Accelerationism is the name of a contemporary political heresy: the insistence that the only radical political response to capitalism is not to protest, disrupt, critique, or détourne it, but to accelerate and exacerbate its uprooting, alienating, decoding, abstractive tendencies.
Keywords:  crisis; neoliberalism; left critique; progress; accelerationism
“The Term ‘Accelerationism’ Has Become Useless.” / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 87-102
annotation:  An Interview with Nick Srnicek
Reflections on the "Manifesto for an Accelerationist Politics" / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 103-116
annotation:  The article is dedicated to a reconstruction and critical analysis of the theses of the “Manifesto for an accelerationist politics” within the frame of post-operaism. The author’s optics are defined by topics of labour in late capitalism and the Marxist conception of the ‘tendency of the rate of profit to fall’. The author resumes the programme proposed in “the Manifesto” through the operaist formula “within and against capital.” As a point of departure, the author proposes that we are experiencing the advent of a hegemony of immaterial labour. Thus, only the class of intellectual labour can function as a motor of revolution and a source of its own emancipation. It requires a liberation of technologies from the burden of capital. What is needed is a redistribution of informatized basic capital and the appropriation of the most advanced technologies used by capitalism. This adoption leads to a transformation of subjects, shifting the focus onto the necessity to resist biopolitics. The author accuses “the Manifesto” of having an overly optimistic view of the technosocial body but sees great potential in the further development of the idea of socially productive cooperation. Another condition is the creation of organizations of a new type that avoid both the model of a “proletarian dictatorship” and peaceful horizontalist models. Such measures imply a creation of an intellectual infrastructure, communication channels and class institutions which, together, are capable of constructing images of the future, whilst at the same time avoiding all kinds of futurism. The problem of bad infinity and heterogeneity brought about by the thesis of openness of the tendency is solved in “the Manifesto” by bringing in the Deleuzian concept of collective assemblage of heterogeneous elements. The article concludes with a discussion of the question of money and “the currency of the common” — a topic implied — but not covered by — “the Manifesto”.
Keywords:  postoperaism; accelerationism; immaterial labour; assemblage; class; automation; tendency of the rate of profit to fall
Accelerationism Questioned from the Point of View of the Body / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 117-124
annotation:  The article starts out with a question: is acceleration, proposed as a strategy by the accelerationist hypothesis, not only a necessary but also a sufficient condition for the ultimate and unalterable destruction of capitalist order? The author is quick to respond in the negative, arguing that catastrophism per se is already written in this order — and even constitutes the ground of its power. In turn, the deduction of the accelerationist hypothesis from the works of Deleuze and Guattari (which is commonly performed by both its champions and opponents) has its own limitations. In “What is Philosophy?”, Deleuze and Guattari move away from the irrevocable value of acceleration (as a revolutionary methodology) in favour of the determination of stability in the midst of chaos. In that work, they emphasize the relation between chaos and the brain, leading the author to suggest that the bodily point of view is crucial, not only for a discussion of occasional ruptures in the works of Deleuze and Guattari, but also for any discussion of the “accelerating machine.” From the perspective of sensibility, chaos acts as the pathological perception of speed. Acceleration itself becomes a function which leads to the dysfunction of the whole system of the body — to a panic which appears as an inversion of the paranoia of capitalist order. The author notes that there is some conceptual proximity between the concept of general intellect (from Marx of the “Grundrisse” era to Autonomist Marxist Paolo Virno) and the accelerationist hypothesis. However, seeing that the latter mistakes liberating potentiality (latent in the present composition of work and technology) for almost logical necessity, he perceives the proximity between them to be very dangerous.
Keywords:  accelerationism; Autonomist Marxism; Spinozism; immanence; catastrophism; desiring body; general intellect
Days of Phuture Past: Accelerationism in the Present Moment / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 125-138
annotation:  The so called “classical accelerationism,” which stems from the works of Nick Land, draws inspiration from sci-fi literature (cyberpunk, for the most part) and dance music, especially drum-n-bass and jungle. These genres promised to intensify the acceleration of capitalist dynamics to the point of a breakthrough into a nonhuman future. The permanent crisis of neoliberalism, however, deprives capitalism of any dynamics and deprives us of our future. Contemporary accelerationism reacts to this by calling for a return “back to the future” — a return into the past in order to select from it those forces which are capable to create the future — and thus it implicitly defines itself as a nostalgia directed against nostalgia itself (e.g. in the spirit of post¬modernism). Nevertheless, nostalgia is all the same nostalgia. Thus, there is a major risk that accelerationism will degenerate — or is already degenerating — into a sterile mix of futurism and retromania. This trend is partially evidenced by the crisis of dance music cooccurring with this phase of accelerationism: for example, juke/footwork withdraws from the ground-breaking drive of jungle and locks itself in the iterative velocity of the current moment. Moreover, at a time when accelerationism explicitly deals with forces of the present, it concentrates only on extreme moments of abstraction in such fields as financial speculation and military technology, which are indifferent to humans and exceed our perception. Accelerationists rely heavily on technologies and equate them with development, disregarding Marx’s and Marxist works on political and technical orders. As a consequence, they get trapped, for they are no longer capable of identifying the subject who would perform their suggested reframing of the forces of production. The reality of the present moment withdraws from analysis, leaving room only for the metaphysics of fluid forces that are to be liberated from another time.
Keywords:  accelerationism; antihumanism; epistemo-technical abstraction; temporality; retromania; dance music
Diss-ney-Land / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 139-158
annotation:  The paper deals with the accelerationist movement as a whole and particularly with Nick Land’s version of accelerationism. A special focus is placed on the concept of “hyperstition” and its role in Land’s thought — starting from the earliest phases of “dark Deleuzianism” and texts written for the CCRU group and culminating in the recent theses on “teleoplexy” and risk. A comparison of Land’s version of accelerationism to Srnicek and Willianse’s “left accelerationism” makes it possible to clarify the central conflict of accelerationism as such. The techniques of dealing with the forces of the “Outside” are reduced to a manic-depressive movement between the poles of “necessity” and “chance;” however, such a reduction is far from being evident or justified. The paper shows that the accelerationist movement is part of a broader context in which European thought of the recent two centuries is haunted by the concept of “contingent necessity:” from the “system of freedom” of German Idealists and to such concepts as Catherine Malabou’s “plasticity” and Quentin Meillassoux’s “hyper-chaos.” The explication of the “active substance” of the accelerationist “Disneyland” makes it possible to provide an alternative: the concept of radical TJing. The coincidental speculative intervention, while clarifying the structures of the pure holding-together-of-the-distinct, serves as a ground for the active practice of cutting and mixing of incompatible temporal series. While turning the passive synthesis of the transcendental imagination onto the active, TJ replaces the question of “what else can happen” with the question of “what has happened — and how can we change it” as the real centre of practice and theory.
Keywords:  Nick Land; accelerationism; hyperstition; teleoplexy; coincidentology; tjing
Dreams about Journeys Through Space and the Underworld in Early Soviet Science-Fiction / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 159-224
annotation:  The paper attempts to explain the increased popularity of stories about imaginary journeys through space and the underworld on the threshold of the twentieth century. Although this literary tradition goes back to Cicero, Macrobius, Dante, and a number of authors from the Early Modern period, the fin-de-siècle upsurge in interest towards this genre was not accidental. The paper traces the background of that genre since ancient times and reconstructs the three-tiered structure of the anthropocentric universe that was formed inside of it. The study offers potential reasons that have enhanced the dreams about traveling to the underworld and outer space at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century. One of these reasons was the completion of an extensive colonial conquest. With fewer and fewer unmapped and unexplored spaces on the globe, expectations were rising regarding further steps towards the unknown zones of the universe — both upper and lower. The authors who wrote about traveling to the underworld and outer space employed the terms, metaphors, and plots that reflected the experience of colonialism. The author examines a change in the perception of The Other, caused by the above-mentioned social transformation. He tries to show how it was expressed in the literature on the collisions between the earthlings and the aliens. With regard to early Soviet science-fiction, the author considers three representative cases, each of which describe journeys to distinct cosmic zones: the novels by Alexander Belyaev (Space), Grigory Adamov (Underworld), and Vladimir Obruchev (Earth and its inhabited flip-side). The author then proceeds by comparing them with the classical works of Jules Verne and Herbert Wells. In this regard, there is a distinct difference between the structure of the typical Western and Soviet microcosm of accounts. The paper points out a number of technocratic anticipations to be found in novels by pioneering Soviet science fiction writers.
Keywords:  Soviet science fiction; colonization; The Other; technocracy;anti-modernism
Philosophy as a Theory of Rationality / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 225-247
annotation:  The author undertakes the task to locate the contemporary position of philosophy in postmetaphysical (postidealistic) conditions, particularly its relation to reason and rationality. In the beginning of the article, the author addresses the traditional understanding of philosophy as the philosophy of absolute reason, taking into consideration the German tradition and Hegel’s thought. The departure from the traditional metaphysics of reason, which was largely accomplished in Hegel’s time, portrays a decentring and demythologization of reason. This is particularly visible in the example of the irrational metaphysics of Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and existentialism, as well as in the empiricist attitudes of the Humanities in the 19th century. A return to the classical, metaphysical understanding of reason as a universal entity is no longer possible, and philosophy has lost its privileged place in studying reason. Thus, it must take into account and rely on other contexts of reason and mind research, from artificial intelligence to social anthropology. Philosophy should become an interdisciplinary theory of reason. Philosophy must therefore engage in the hermeneutic interpretation of the manifestations of rational dispositions of man rooted in the linguistic a priori, and make the transition to a systematic explication of rationality contexts that would reveal the normative rules of the functioning of the mind. However, for there are many types of rationality that are irreducible to the common ground, the author concludes that it is impossible to fully explain rationality for all contexts. This allows for the possibility of criticizing one type of rationality with the help of another. This means that the concept of reason and rationality must remain fundamentally open.
Keywords:  rationality; reason; postmetaphysical philosophy; theory of rationality
Republicanism: Straightening of the Crooked Timber / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 248-268
Sit and Watch / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 269-273
Ontological Revolution of Slime / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 274-284
A Revolutionary Mobile / Logos. 2018. № 2 (123). P. 285-294
The Philosophy of Editorials. Merab Mamardashvili as a Soviet Philosopher / Logos. 2017. № 6 (121). P. 1-22
annotation:  This article discusses anonymous editorials in The Problems of Philosophy (Voprosi Philosophii), co-authored by Merab Mamardashvili. An attempt is made to rethink the relationship between “ideology” and “philosophy” and to view the Soviet academic discourse as a site for contestation, not as a solid mass of officialdom. The case of Merab Mamardashvili is perfectly suited to question these enduring dichotomies. On the one hand, he is often seen as a prime example of somebody who is located at the very centre of the autonomous subfield. On the other hand, his long-term work as an editor at The Problems of Philosophy—which tirelessly worked to keep the banner of Marxism upright—entailed the practical adoption and usage of Soviet orthodoxy. The philosophical ideas of the “early” Mamardashvili (1958–1970) are analysed in connection with his professional path and with the controversies that are constitutive of the Soviet philosophical field. Particular attention is paid to discussions concerning the status of historical and philosophical knowledge. The professionalization of Soviet philosophy is understood not only as a “depoliticization,” but also as the use of “officialdom” in order to ratify professional standards both technical (citing foreign sources) and strategic. The article is particularly concerned with the “third way” as the assertion of the relative independence of philosophy (“both separation from politics and unlimited ‘politicization’ of philosophy are harmful extremes”). The compromise is being considered not as something “forced” or “external,” “having no relationship to philosophy,” but as a strategy implemented in “high,” “pure,” “philosophical” and “low,” “dirty,” “ideological” genres. The editorials are seen as a tool used both for the ritualistic expression of loyalty and for upping the ante in the professional game. Though position papers and research papers differ both in style and subject, they reveal a similar logic. Thus, Mamardashvili’s innovative efforts are harmonized with licensed editorial samples.
Keywords:  Merab Mamardashvili; editorials; history of Soviet philosophy; Marxism; sociology of philosophy; socioanalysis; academic policy; Soviet academic contract.
The Hand’s Collapse: Industrial Injuries of Writing and the Instrumental Metaphor of Method / Logos. 2017. № 6 (121). P. 23-58
annotation:  The article discusses the gestural nature of the act of writing: how this act occurs and is experienced, which materials are involved in or provoke the gesture, and finally the (oftentimes traumatic) consequences caused by these media-anthropological assemblages. At the intersection of the individual gestural phantasm and some exact materiality of writing of a particular historical epoch, some heterogeneous and always unstable writing tool or device would emerge. Along with briefly outlining the theoretical foundation for this model of equating writing tools with different instruments (and corresponding actions), the article analyses a number of concrete examples of such instrumental assemblages and the types of negotiations, concessions and conflicts (breakdowns and injuries) that occurred between the materiality and anthropology of writing. The first part of the article discusses industrial gestures and traumas of writing, always having to do with the shortcomings of the medium and some corresponding manual effort (and, consequently, hand injury and maladies). The article analyses the cases of Robert Walser’s expansive writing and “writing cramps,” along with Stéphane Mallarmé’s “axiomatic” gesture of throwing dice. The second part of the article analyses the largely reading-related post-industrial gestures of writing (thus focusing on movements of eyes, not hands). The latter emerges through the information overload experienced by writers and researchers from the beginning of the 20th century: the article analyses the “continuous partial attention” and “reading at” texts developed in Gertrude Stein’s writings, as well as the latest plastics and optics of the humanities in Franco Moretti’s distant reading method.
Keywords:  pragmapoetics; mediology; anthropology of writing; Stéphane Mallarmé; Robert Walser; Franco Moretti; Gertrude Stein
Poetry, Experience and Knowledge / Logos. 2017. № 6 (121). P. 59-82
annotation:  The article raises the question of whether poetry is a form of knowledge. Thus, a step is made towards the problem-plagued field of philosophical thought dealing with such categories as knowledge and experience. The “cognitive” and “experiential or event-based” approaches to poetry are argued to be based on two different attitudes to truth: through language—in the case of knowledge—and through experience—if we understand poetry as an event. In order to understand the relationship of poetry and knowledge, the question of the relation between experience and language is raised at the same time. Here the major problem is the possibility of pre-predicative experience. It is the answer to the question regarding the possibility of such experience that determines how we define the relation of poetry to experience and knowledge. In the article, the differentiation between language and experience is proposed not as a dogmatic statement, but as a kind of “utopian” model: talking about poetry and knowledge, it is feasible to distinguish poetry comprehended as experience and poetry treated in its linguistic aspect. Poetry understood as experience produces a change in how we perceive the world. Poetry, concentrating on its work with language, enriches our linguistic resources. However, knowledge of the experiential measurement of poetry is much more problematic than knowledge of its linguistic dimension. To the extent to which poetry is a linguistic issue, it may be a subject of knowledge. However, there are areas where the “language” approach is irrelevant, “off the mark.” Thus, the event that makes up the substance of poetry, escapes. Both of these “experience-related” and “language-related” aspects are present in poetry simultaneously. In this sense, poetry can be a form of knowledge, but not just that: it affects reality differently—and more profoundly—in its experiential event-driven form than it does in its epistemic aspect.
Keywords:  poetry; knowledge; experience; truth; event
Angels and Usiarchs: the Poetic Cosmology of Bernard Silvestris / Logos. 2017. № 6 (121). P. 83-114
annotation:  The article is devoted to the Cosmographia written by the French poet and philosopher Bernard Silvestris shortly after 1140, probably at Tours. This prosimetrum, by its content and form, is linked to the School of Chartres. It develops the Christian cosmogony and cosmology in mytho-poetic terms. Both the introduction of poetry into a philosophical treatise and the use of elastic poetical formulas in order to give subjective emotions—fear, hope, hesitation—an appearance of philosophical objectivity led to great discoveries in literature and thought. In this, Bernard Silvestris is no doubt representative of a great literary and philosophical tradition of the twelfth-century Renaissance. The author uses a literary form that was well known in the Middle Ages: it combines prose and poetry and allows him to represent the most current philosophical categories and problems in the most unrestrained and suggestive form available in his time. Even his prose is rhythmicized, its poetic character gives it the necessary degree of polyvalence. He relies on a large number of ancient and medieval authoritative texts, from the Timaeus and hermetic Asclepius to Macrobius, Martianus Capella, and Arabic astrology. He is well-acquainted with the exegetical approaches towards antique classics developed by the Chartres masters, since he, a teacher of grammar, also commented on the Eneide at school. But his achievement is his own; his use of classics is so unconstrained that we have to deal with the most original cosmology of his time. The second part of the article presents the first poetic translation of chapter III of the first book, Megacosmus, which, in elegiac dystichs, creates a laconic encyclopaedia of the universe.
Keywords:  Christian cosmogony; Chartres school; prosimetrum; encyclopaedism; Bernard Silvestris; medieval Latin poetry
The “Speculative Grammar” of Thomas of Erfurt and Modern Thought: the Case of Charles Sanders Pierce’s Semiotics / Logos. 2017. № 6 (121). P. 115-128
annotation:  The author compares the speculative grammar of Charles Sanders Peirce and that of Thomas of Erfurt in order to find possible parallels between them. As is well known, Pierce was interested in medieval logic and philosophy, including the ideas presented in the Treatise On the Modes of Signification by Thomas of Erfurt (in Pierce’s time, this treatise was known as Speculative Grammar and mistakenly attributed to Duns Scotus). Pierce cited this work and even gave the title of speculative grammar to one part of his semiotics. In that regard it is notable that the structure of Peirce’s semiotics reflects the structure of the medieval Trivium—a complex of “language sciences,” which included grammar, logic and rhetoric. On the other hand, Peirce sometimes described his speculative grammar as a “theory of knowledge” and this fact dramatically separates him from the medieval tradition. Likewise, certain elements of Peirce’s grammar are more like Kant’s categories than Thomas of Erfurt’s “modes of signification.” Therefore, the main problem the article deals with can be described as follows: do we see in this particular case an accidental and incoherent usage of medieval terminology, or did Thomas’ treatise have a real influence on Pierce’s work? The article concludes that the grammatical tradition of the Middle Ages has had an influence on the semiotics of Peirce, but that this influence was very limited and affected only a few formal aspects. As for the essence of Pierce’s speculative grammar, it is rather a creative development of the philosophical and logical tradition of Modernity.
Keywords:  Charles Sanders Pierce; Thomas of Erfurt; speculative grammar; logic; linguistics; semiotics
Shakespeare’s Hamlet and the Amleth of Saxo Grammaticus as “Twin-Doubles” / Logos. 2017. № 6 (121). P. 129-152
annotation:  Гамлет Шекспира и Амлет Саксона Грамматика как «двойники-близнецы» Сергей Кочеров Профессор, департамент социальных наук, факультет гуманитарных наук, Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики» (Нижний Новгород). Адрес: 603155, Нижний Новгород, ул. Большая Печерская, 25/12. E-mail: Ключевые слова: двойничество; культурный герой; трикстер; сознательная личность; «тень»; архаический героизм. В статье кратко описана эволю- ция взглядов на феномен двойни- чества — от первобытных времен до его переосмысления романти- ками — и рассмотрена культурно- историческая связь между героем трагедии Шекспира «Гамлет» и его прототипом из хроники «Деяния данов» Саксона Грамматика. Вопреки существующей традиции признавать двойниками только героев одного произведения, автор статьи стре- мится доказать, что двойниками могут являться персонажи разных произведений, связанные культур- ным родством и сходством их миссии. В первой части статьи сравниваются характеры данных персонажей, пока- зывается неоднозначность натуры Амлета, которая обычно не замеча- ется исследователями. Переделывая древний сюжет об Амлете, Шекспир преобразил личность главного героя, но не изменил той основы, без кото- рой его история утратила бы смысл. Во второй части работы автор ана- лизирует двойственность характера Амлета, сочетающего свойства куль- турного героя и трикстера. Эта самая древняя форма двойничества вопло- тилась в личности Амлета, конечно, не в своем изначальном виде, так как тот является уже не первобытным существом, а человеком цивилизации, хотя и примитивной. В третьей части статьи вну- тренняя борьба Гамлета представ- лена в контексте противоречия между сознательной гуманистиче- ской личностью героя и его под- сознательной «тенью», требующей от него следовать нормам архаиче- ского героизма. В этой связи лич- ность Амлета следует признать не одним из «наслоений» в образе Гамлета, но базисом личности принца Датского, его «культурным бессознательным». На основе выяв- ления «функционального единства» обоих героев и их принадлежности к «миру героического», хотя и в раз- личном его понимании, делается вывод, что Гамлет и Амлет являются «двойниками-близнецами». SHAKESPEARE’S HAMLET AND THE AMLETH OF SAXO GRAMMATICUS AS “TWIN-DOUBLES” Sergey Kocherov. Professor at the School of Social Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE Nizhny Novgorod), 25/12 Pecherskaya str., Nizhny Novgorod 603155, Russia. Keywords: doubleness; culture hero; trickster; conscious personality; shadow aspect; archaic heroism. The article briefly describes the evolution of views on the phenomenon of doubleness— from prehistoric times and to its reinterpretation by the Romantics—and examines the cultural-historical connection between the protagonist of the Shakespearean tragedy Hamlet and his prototype found in Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus. Contrary to the existing tradition which recognizes doubleness only within a single work, the author argues that doubles may be characters from different works connected by their cultural kinship and similarity in their missions. The first part of the article compares the personalities of these two characters and demonstrates the ambiguity of Amleth that is often overlooked by scholars. Having remade the ancient story of Amleth, Shakespeare transformed the personality of the main character. Yet he did not change the basis of the plot without which the narration would make no sense. In the second part of the research, the author analyses the dualism of Amleth, who combines traits of a culture hero and a trickster. While Amleth embodies this most ancient type of doubleness, he, naturally, does not do so in its original form: after all, he is not a caveman but a man of civilization, however primitive it may be. In the third part of the article, Hamlet’s inner struggle is presented in the context of a contradiction between his conscious humanistic personality and a subconscious “shadow” which requires the Prince of Denmark to follow the norms of archaic heroism. In this connection, the personality of Amleth should be acknowledged not as a mere layer of Hamlet’s personality, but as its basis, its “cultural unconscious.” On the grounds of the “functional unity” of the characters, as well as their belonging to the “world of the heroic”—though the interpretations of the latter is different—it is concluded that Hamlet and Amleth are “twin-doubles.”
Keywords:  doubleness; culture hero; trickster; conscious personality; shadow aspect; archaic heroism
Nostalgia and Self-Deprecation: the Literary Cult of Jane Austen Through the Figure of Her Fan / Logos. 2017. № 6 (121). P. 153-172
annotation:  The article considers the novel Pride and Prejudice by British writer Jane Austen as it is reflected in its adaptations, its literary and film sequels, and the fan practices associated with this novel. A characteristic feature of the bicentennial cult of Austen is its active self-reflection: Austen fans themselves are often described in sequels and parodies. The figure of an Asten fan, “Janeite,” and his or her ways of interacting with classical texts is the main focus of the article. First, the paper describes the transformation of the Jane Austen cult: from the literary communities of the 19th century, through the consolidation in the literary canon and in the popular culture during the 20th century, and finally, “austenmania,” a boom of popularity from the 1990s. Furthermore, specific subgenres of film adaptations and literary sequels devoted to fans of the writer, are analysed. Special attention is also paid to practices of using accessories thematically based on the novels by Jane Austen. Due to their visibility, these practices have helped create a framework of analysing the literary cult of Jane Austen through the figure of her fan in two emotional modes: nostalgia and irony. For an illustration of nostalgia and irony as key factors of “austenmania,” the article reviews the film Austenland, a screen adaptation of the sequel and a series based on the original script, Lost in Austen. To conclude, the article proposes to consider the interaction of the contemporary reader with the novels of Austen as a never-ending shared re-creating of the imagined literary world, a critical description and self-description of the fans, and a nostalgic dreaming about an idealized historical period of the early 19th century.
Keywords:  classical literature; literary cult; sequels; fan practices; fan fiction
Modernism as a Soviet Anti-Canon: Literary Debates of the 1960–1970s / Logos. 2017. № 6 (121). P. 173-202
annotation:  Модернизм как советский антиканон: литературные дебаты 1960–1970-х годов Алина Волынская Студентка магистратуры по цифровой гуманитаристике, гуманитарный факультет, Лозаннский университет. Адрес: Université de Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland. E-mail: Ключевые слова: модернизм; советское литературоведение 1960–1970-х годов; литературный (анти)канон; традиция; обыкновенный читатель; история литературы; интеллекту- альная история. Наука о литературе нередко вычер- кивает те эпизоды своей истории, которые представляются ей «прой- денными», «ошибочными» или бес- поворотно устаревшими. Так, лишь сугубо архивный интерес может заставить современных исследовате- лей модернизма обратиться к тому вторичному, насквозь идеологизи- рованному и клишированному дис- курсу о модернизме, который был в ходу в СССР 1960–1970-х годов. Эти забытые квазинаучные и око- лолитературные дискуссии, однако, не только представляют интерес для истории идей, но и позволяют про- яснить сложившиеся версии исто- рии литературы. Предметом анализа и обсуждения этой статьи стали советские дебаты о модернизме: основные оппозиции, в которые было вписано понятие, спектр его значений и идеологический контекст, соотно- шение основных тем советских деба- тов с западными дискуссиями. В Советском Союзе 1960–1970-х годов литература, квалифицируемая как модернистская, оформляется в своеобразный антиканон, компле- ментарный по отношению к соц- реалистическому канону. При этом модернизм в советских литературных дебатах предстает не просто литера- туроведческим термином, служив- шим для описания особенностей стиля тех или иных авторов, но влия- тельным и перформативным поня- тием, идеей, вовлеченной в процесс производства властных отноше- ний и культурных значений. Дебаты о модернизме устанавливали гра- ницу между каноном и антиканоном, советской культурой и культурой Запада, маркированной как культура Другого. Инсценированная оппо- зиция соцреализма и модернист- ской эстетики тем самым служила утверждению идентичности совет- ской литературы и шире — культуры. Вместе с тем критика модернизма не была общей интерпретативной стратегией советских читателей — это была официальная риторика вла- сти, диктуемая сверху, а не канон, выбранный элитой, интеллектуа- лами и самими писателями. В те же 1960-е годы внутри писательского сообщества начинает складываться модернистский нарратив истории литературы, реабилитирующий фор- мальные поиски и писательскую индивидуальность. Alina Volynskaya. MA student in Digital Humanities, Faculty of Arts, University of Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland. Keywords: modernism; Soviet literary debates of the 1960–1970s; literary (anti)canon; tradition; ordinary reader; literary history; intellectual history. In literary theory, it is common to erase episodes of its history that seem to be irrelevant or obsolete. Thus, only a strong interest in the history of ideas may compel contemporary researchers of modernism to turn to the ideological and stereotyped discourse on modernism that was widespread in the USSR of the 1960–1970s. This article seeks to illuminate the main trajectories of the Soviet literary debates on modernism in order to specify the multiple connotations of the term, inscribe it in a network of (cultural) oppositions, and emphasize tension between them. It also aims to contextualize the Soviet modernism debates and compare them with Western discussions on modernism. In the 1960–1970s, Soviet discussions of modernism acquired special intensity since modernism was institutionalized as a permanent term for describing Western literature. In the Soviet debates, modernism appeared to not just be a theoretical term to describe a style, but a powerful concept involved in the production of cultural meanings and power relations. In fact, it was the modernism debate that marked the border between Soviet and Western culture (via literature) constructed as a culture of the Other. Social Realism, the officially sanctioned doctrine of Soviet Literature and Arts, was defined through the contrast to the modernist method. To put it another way, the positioning against modernist aesthetics served as a means of finding the precise contours of the self-identity of Soviet aesthetics.
Keywords:  modernism; Soviet literary debates of the 1960–1970s; literary (anti)canon; tradition; ordinary reader; literary history; intellectual history
Stones of Memory: Monument, Document, Crypt, Bunker / Logos. 2017. № 6 (121). P. 203-236
annotation:  An interaction with a work of art is always a meeting with something which both once existed and then became part of a past and, at the same time, something which is here and now, new and unique. The historical and aesthetic always coexist and compete in a work of art occurring in the visual field and in a space of contemplation. This is why understanding a work of art means three things at once: remembering, memorizing and reminding; in other words, such understanding is an effort of memory and imagination together with feelings, thoughts and emotions. For this reason, a work of art is a monument and an epiphany, something hidden and buried and also something which rises from the dead and comes alive before the spectator. For the understanding of the analytical features of the monument it is useful to consider the history of the tombstone as a type of monument which started in antiquity and—following all its metamorphoses of meaning—acquired its modern meaning in the 19th century. Apart from more traditional concepts, the newly coined metaphorical term “mnemotope” will be also useful. It should be distinguished from related concepts of “monument,” “relic,” and other similar terms. The term “mnemotope” highlights the sacral spatial constituent which shows its difference from “crypt.” While “mnemotope” is open and needs “reading,” “crypt” is an image of unwillingness to cognize (rather than just the desire to forget). Thus, any analytical discourse on art is a system of places—“topoi,” a special “topica” as a system of transition from the reality of creation and art to the related complimentary reality of cognition, knowledge and science.
Keywords:  monument; stone; the numinous; eschatology; document; ruin; crypt; mnemotope
Naturalization of the Monument: Appropriating Soviet Heritage at Grutas Statue Park, Lithuania / Logos. 2017. № 6 (121). P. 237-256
annotation:  «Натурализация» монумента: практика освоения советского наследия в парке Груто (Литва) Елена Карпенко Доцент школы культурологии, факультет гуманитарных наук, Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики» (НИУ ВШЭ). Адрес: 105066, Москва, ул. Старая Басманная, 21/4. E-mail: Ключевые слова: советское монументальное наследие; парк советской скульптуры; натурализация; музеефикация. В статье на примере парка Груто (Литва) проанализирована практика музеефикации советского монументального наследия. Популярные дискурсы памяти о коллективной травме и советском колониализме, отраженные в официально декларируемых целях подобных экспозиций, тем не менее не могут быть воспроизведены в эстетическом опыте посетителя музея. Для обоснования этого тезиса используется двойная методологическая оптика: историческая реконструкция предполагаемого эстетического воздействия монумента в том месте, для которого он создавался; аналитика субъективного опыта посетителя и механизмов его конструирования. На основании анализа делаются выводы о том, что монументальная скульптура, какими бы ни были ее материальная форма, художественная ценность и идеологическое значение в прошлом, — это прежде всего арт-объект и экспонат, что делает ее потенциально привлекательным объектом коллекционирования. Связь между материальной формой монумента и его идеологическим содержанием является историчной, она обусловлена пространством коллективных коммеморативных практик и соответствующих им дискурсов групповой идентичности. Для советских монументов это прежде всего городские пространства: площадь, проспект, сквер. Изменение пространства воздействия монумента трансформирует эстетический и социальный опыт, отменяя его идеологическое содержание, в зависимости от экспозиционных обстоятельств. Для описания процесса присвоения советского монументального наследия посредством перемещения объектов из публичных городских пространств в естественный (парковый) ландшафт вводится понятие «натурализация». Способ консервации объектов монументальной пропаганды в ландшафтной среде может быть позитивно осмыслен и описан как ретроспектива национальной школы монументальной пластики. Elena Karpenko. Associate Professor at the School of Cultural Studies, Faculty of Humanities, National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), 21/4 Staraya Basmannaya str., 105066 Moscow, Russia. Keywords: soviet monumental heritage; open-air Soviet memorial park; naturalization; museification. Using the case of Grūto parkas (Lithuania), the article explores the practices of preserving and exhibiting the Soviet monumental heritage. Official discourses describing similar expositions update the memory of collective trauma and Soviet colonialism. However, the traumatic experience and “naked Soviet ideology, which suppressed and hurt the spirit of the nation” cannot be reproduced in the aesthetic experience of the open-air museum visitor. To prove this thesis, a dual-methodological framework is employed: a historical reconstruction of the estimated aesthetic impact of the monument in the place for which it was realized; the analysis of subjective experience of the visitor and the technique of its construction. The article argues that monumental sculpture, whatever its material form, artistic merit and ideological significance in the past, is primarily an art object and exhibit that makes it a potentially attractive item for a collection. The relationship between the material form of the monument and its ideological value is historical; it is connected to the space where the people engage in the collective commemorative practices in accordance with group identity discourses. Soviet monumental propaganda is, first of all, an urban project. The resettlement of the monument from the avenue or square modifies the aesthetic and social experience, depriving it of the ideological value that depends on the circumstances of the exposure. To describe the process of appropriation of the Soviet monumental heritage by moving objects from public urban spaces in a natural (park) landscape, the concept of “naturalization” is introduced. The method of preserving objects of monumental propaganda in the landscape environment can be positively understood and described as a retrospective of the national school of monumental sculpture.
Keywords:  soviet monumental heritage; open-air Soviet memorial park; naturalization; museification.
The Wittgenstein-Bernhard House: Pacing Back and Forth / Logos. 2017. № 6 (121). P. 257-287
annotation:  This paper offers an analysis of a literary interpretation of the early and late thought of Wittgenstein by Austrian novelist Thomas Bernhard. The poetics of Korrektur (1975) is at the centre of discussion of obvious intertextual links with Wittgenstein. Particular attention is paid to the spatial image of the ‘cone house’: it was constructed by the character of the novel and became an embodiment of his philosophical and architectural ideas. A comparative study of the Wittgenstein-Engelmann project of the house and the cone house in Bernhard’s novel makes it possible to highlight the aesthetic and philosophical analogies between them. Bernhard’s philosophy of language represented by the protagonist Roithamer evolves from a research of the conditions of language reference to doubting the possibility language, and ultimately to searching ways to go beyond the language-world model in favour of a language-discourse model. The failure of the logic of the language-world model is represented in the novel through the crash of the utopian architectural project (the construction of the cone house for the character’s sister). Thus, the novel presents a fictional analogy between two stages of Wittgenstein’s philosophy: the stage of the “Tractatus” and the stage of “Philosophical investigations,” the so-called Wittgenstein I and Wittgenstein II. The ideal of verbal exactness is impossible, both for the character as well as Wittgenstein I, a Cambridge scholar, a writer and an amateur architect. The discourse about the world is consequently represented as a never-ending correction and rewriting of “propositions” (Sätze) which can never be an exact “picture of reality” (Bild der Wirklichkeit). The key idea of the present paper is focused on defining the ambiguous identity of Bernhard’s intellectual hero and Wittgenstein, the literary character and the real philosopher.
Keywords:  modernism; philosophy of language; linguistic skepticism; philosophy of architecture; Austrian novel of the 20th century; Ludwig Wittgenstein; Thomas Bernhard
“The Moscow Diary”: On the Method of Reasoning, Love, Madness, and Revolution / Logos. 2018. № 1 (122). P. 1-36
annotation:  This article aims to study The Moscow Diary through the notion of “method of reasoning,” and the challenges that prompted Benjamin’s visit to Moscow: love and revolution, madness and the discovery of the other, the impossibility to saunter along the icy streets of the Soviet capital, and the inability to grasp the truly revolutionary elements of the Russian avant-garde of the 1920s. Attention is drawn to one of the main aggravating circumstances of Benjamin’s Moscow experience: what would seem perfectly natural in Berlin or in Paris—to stand firmly on one’s feet, walk around, saunter and watch the city, eyes wide open—demanded supernatural and even surreal efforts on the icy streets of Moscow. In other words, it was not as a European flaneur that Benjamin walked the Moscow streets of 1926–1927, trying to observe with thought and gaze his close friends, casual acquaintances, strangers, street vendors, preoccupied locals, churches, markets and bars: he moved carefully, watching his step to avoid slipping on ice, thus losing the essential capacity of the stroller that lies in the close connection between walking and watching. The author emphasizes that the experience gained by Benjamin in Moscow was not based on the optimistic-utopian idea of the Revolution that originally led the traveler to the Soviet capital, but on a kind of revolutionary melancholy that undermined the subsequent creative endeavors of the philosopher from within. Its elements — the trauma of the fading-away of the revolutionary impulse, as well as unfulfilled sensual expectations—compelled the thinker to conform the experience of the fracture and openness of consciousness with forms of writing marked by disjunction and fragmentation. The Moscow Diary is the last completed work of Benjamin, and all subsequent texts can be considered only as sketches, passages, and transitions to the yet to come—but never to be completed—book: the Passagen-Werk.
Keywords:  Russian revolution; Walter Benjamin; “The Moscow Diary”; Russian art; Vsevolod Meyerhold
The Spanish Format of “The Moscow Diary” / Logos. 2018. № 1 (122). P. 37-58
annotation:  This article attempts to explain the re-naming of Walter Benjamin’s The Moscow Diary to The Spanish Journey (Spanische Reise) and uncover the Spanish format of The Moscow Diary. The article explores its similarity to the traditions of medieval Spanish-Jewish travelogues (primarily in the works of the acclaimed twelfth-century traveler Benjamin of Tudela) and applies the hypothetical concept of “Spain” to the text of The Moscow Diary. This format becomes apparent in the methodologies of textual construction, in the non-contradictory juxtaposition of the commercial and the sacred, and, more importantly, in the conceptualization of space: this journey to “his people”, through Jewish communities, create a kind of discontinuity, a series of thickenings and sparsity, in those places where they are absent. This is an adventure from room to room, across enclosed environments. This principle only changes in the final part of The Moscow Diary, and there appears a sort of generalized view of “the other’s” space. In The Moscow Diary, much like the Jewish travelogue, there are visible traces of a messianic approach to the discovery and collation of the misplaced and recovered entities that can be called “your own.” Furthermore, the travels themselves can be thought of as a search for a possible, (perhaps ideal) place for life, and, in relation to this, a vision for a better world. Spain as a utopia might be related to the idea of a revolution; Moscow, in this sense, is the incarnation of such a place. The Spanish Journey formulates the possibility of the utopia as such. Or, perhaps, any utopia encountered in an adventure might be called Spanish.
Keywords:  Walter Benjamin; “The Moscow Diary”; Benjamin from Tudela; travelogue; Spain; Yiddish; utopia
The Wrinkles and Toys of Walter Benjamin: “The Moscow Dairy” as a Method Appraisal / Logos. 2018. № 1 (122). P. 59-86
annotation:  This paper considers Walter Benjamin’s The Moscow Diary as a unique testament to the particular historical and biographical context for the development of the methodology of socially critical research that made Benjamin one of the most influential thinkers of the 20th century. This methodology allows us to draw analogies between the most diverse spheres of experience—from erotica to politics, from science to poetry—because only in abstraction do they exist in isolation. The task of the thinker is to fix them in the unity of the “dialectical image,” which makes it not only possible to see the ambiguity of the phenomenon or situation, but also reveals the real possibility of resisting the tendencies to homogenize the experience of existence. The life of post-revolutionary Moscow contributed, in no small way, to the formation of Benjamin’s unique way of seeing the world, with its special attention to the fundamental “stops” of thought, no less important than thought’s movements. It is hard not to see the similarity between the wrinkles on the face of a beloved woman, frost on the windows of Moscow’s trams, the disappearance of handmade toys in Moscow stores and, for example, barricades and trenches on the boulevards of Paris in the era of the Commune. Together they form that constellation (or collection) of material moments that enable the living to counter the deadly forces of History and Progress with the messianic hope for happiness. Benjamin’s stay in Moscow, which initially pursued “big” goals (love, work, politics), is increasingly confronted with the “dampening” of these initial intentions as it delves deeper into the material. But due to this, the material itself “crystallizes into a monad,” and is experienced in its radical historicity.
Keywords:  Walter Benjamin; methodology; dialectics; phenomenology; Marxism; city; intentionality; collection; revolution
“Amour pour rien”: Techniques of Affective Mimesis by Walter Benjamin / Logos. 2018. № 1 (122). P. 87-98
annotation:  The article attempts to examine The Moscow Diary by Walter Benjamin through the perspective of his theory of mimesis. Mimetic techniques have served Benjamin for not only hermeneutic purposes. With their help, he constructed his own affective experience and way of being in culture. Thus, one of the possible ways of understanding The Moscow Diary is to see this text as a rhetorical and mimetic gesture, organized in a highly complex manner, simultaneously presenting a paradoxical form of love, an understanding of the craft of writing, and the concept of the city. The basis for this gesture is Benjamin’s mimetic theory, which understands imitations as “concentrations of similarities.” Benjamin believes that similarities, which used to pervade the macrocosm, changed their scale and lost their sensual incarnation, becoming “unsensible similarities.” For him, such a metamorphosis is ambiguous, as it sharpens mimetic perception. The mimetic ability becomes focused primarily in language: in the letter. The writer, constantly honing their ability to work with the simulacra of implied and written, stated and written, is thereby responsible for the “techne” of language, and thus affects the most essential processes of life. For Benjamin, writing not only becomes a magical tool for describing reality, but also for acting on it. For him, the prose Nikolai Leskov associated with the new image of the storyteller as a craftsman is a model of virtuosity and technical perfection. It provides Benjamin with the concept of “craft of communication” that allows him to simultaneously save the phantasm of the beloved as the “pearl without a flaw,” to expand the space of his own sensuality, and to constitute the experience of love as “amour pour rien,” or “love without reason.” Leskov’s short novel, Senseless Love, may be viewed as a close precedent to Benjamin, and allows him to form its own position in relation to Asya Lacis as grounded in the experience of the Real, i.e., that which is associated with the metaphysical absurdity of the experience of faith.
Keywords:  feeling; invention of love; mimetic techniques; unsensible similarity; blindness; touch experience
Vladimir Lenin in Walter Benjamin’s Reflections Before, During and After “The Moscow Diary” / Logos. 2018. № 1 (122). P. 99-114
annotation:  This article analyzes the image of Vladimir Lenin as a Bolshevik leader as depicted in Walter Benjamin’s reflections under the influence of his works, memories of his contemporaries, and his own observations during his trip to Moscow. This was reflected in The Moscow Diary and his other works that were inspired by his trip to Soviet Russia. The trip to Moscow in 1926–1927 allowed Benjamin to observe and evaluate Lenin’s position in culture and mass consciousness directly, and to compare these observations and evaluations with the image of Lenin he had developed prior to the journey. Based on an analysis of Benjamin’s works and correspondence, the salient features of his image of Lenin are outlined, and attention is drawn to a range of factors that influenced the process of forming, preserving, and changing his perception of the leader of the world proletariat. Benjamin’s attempts to critically evaluate the tools of creating Lenin’s image in the collective consciousness, including the machinery of Soviet propaganda, are also analyzed. The reasons Benjamin preserved the image of Lenin he created before travelling to Russia, even decades after the trip, and the circumstances leading to the revision of this image later, are investigated. Benjamin’s impressions of “Lenin” are reflected in the theoretical constructions on various subjects. This is particularly true for his writings concerning the politicization, or even proletarization, of intellectuals whose activity has often been connected with the sphere of art and is far from the class interests of the proletariat. The influence of “Lenin” on Benjamin can be traced up to the beginning of World War II. The negative news coming from “the new world” were not capable of destroying the picture of Soviet Russia created on the basis of Lenin’s image.
Keywords:  Walter Benjamin; Vladimir Lenin; Soviet propaganda; collective consciousness; Bolshevism
The End of Bourgeois Dwellings. Communal Apartments and Museums in “The Moscow Diary” / Logos. 2018. № 1 (122). P. 115-142
annotation:  In The Moscow Diary, Walter Benjamin tries to avoid value judgments: he declares his aim is rather to “record” the facts. The objective of this article is to make explicit Benjamin’s evaluation of what he sees in Moscow by confronting Benjamin’s Moscow observations to his political and aesthetic expectations described in his earlier writings. First of all, Benjamin discovers some alarming political signs in Moscow, the most important of which is the growing bureaucratization. In the Moscow of 1926, neither proletarians nor even “NEPmen” (a “relic” of capitalism) are the ruling class: the power belongs to the Party bureaucracy. Benjamin’s concern regarding the political situation coincides with his concern of an aesthetic kind. What Benjamin observes in Moscow contradicts his idea of the “aesthetic revolution” as carnival (see Naples). As argued by the author of The Moscow Diary, the Russian revolution generates forms of alienation even more serious than those generated by the capitalist system. The article analyzes only one motive from The Moscow Diary—that of fragmentation of bourgeois dwellings. Cohabitation in communal apartments occurs due to a lack of alternatives, and is not voluntary. As a result, the inhabitants of Moscow’s communal apartments are alienated from their dwellings, and the ideal of the commune as the voluntary cohabitation of people is flouted. Besides that, the fragmentation of bourgeois dwellings coincides with the fragmentation of the “building interior,” i.e. the collections of rare objects and pieces of art which were kept there previously. The only acceptable form of transformation of bourgeois interior that Benjamin observes in Moscow is its museification. Only Moscow’s museums, where the proletariat feels at home, allows him to hope for a successful outcome of the Russian revolution.
Keywords:  Walter Benjamin; “The Moscow Diary”; Russian revolution; communal apartments; museums
Lukács and Benjamin: Two Versions of Historical Materialism / Logos. 2018. № 1 (122). P. 143-156
annotation:  The problem of different perceptions of Soviet reality is investigated by analyzing the experiences of Walter Benjamin and György Lukács in the context of the epoch of pilgrimage in the “red” Moscow of Marxist philosophers. Furthermore, an attempt to analyze the two authors’ conceptions of historical materialism is undertaken. The two philosophers’ journey through the capital of the Soviet State, as well as their scientific activities, is well-studied in foreign and domestic historiography. However, this specific comparison of Benjamin and Lukács, within the chosen parameters, has not yet been paid due attention.
Over the course of the research, episodes of the two Marxists’ life in Moscow are considered, revealing the main reason for both Walter Benjamin’s speedy departure and the cause for Lukács’ long stay in the capital: the philosophers saw two different Moscows. Benjamin was in the USSR during the heyday of the New Economic Policy, while Lukács witnessed its eclipse. An investigation of the different conceptions of historical materialism in the works of both authors is used to conclude that, for Lukács, historical materialism serves primarily as a method for studying the history of capitalist society. This explains the author’s concern with the real needs of the proletariat: a change in these needs leads to a change of the functions of historical materialism, yet never interrupts historical development. To some extent, Benjamin also perceives historical materialism as a kind of method designed to rupture the historical continuum in order to release the genuine image of the past. Material things are the carriers of this image. On the basis of the foregoing, the position is substantiated: despite the fact that Benjamin and Lukács belong to the same generation of Neo-Marxists, their versions of historical materialism have more differences than similarities.

Keywords:  Neo-Marxism; works of art; historical materialism; the theory of the history; capitalist society; the proletariat
Straying, Drifting, Inheriting: Walter Benjamin’s The Moscow Diary / Logos. 2018. № 1 (122). P. 157-178
annotation:  This essay investigates the relationship between, on the one hand, Walter Benjamin’s concept of cultural, theoretical, and personal inheritance, and, on the other hand, his phenomenologically inflected account of Moscow as it emerges in his Moscow Diary (written in the winter months of 1926–1927). Here, nothing safeguards the conceptual or experiential redemption of Benjamin’s drifting through the streets of Moscow or his enigmatic encounters there with Mayakovsky, Bely, and Lelevich. Instead, the act of inheriting is intricately bound up with the permanent possibility of absolute failure, radical loss, uncircumventable finitude, and inconsolable mourning — much like Benjamin’s experience of Moscow itself, in which, as he writes, “nowhere does Moscow look like the city itself.” On the far side of systematicity and closure, the time of inheritance, like Benjamin’s time of history itself, emerges as infinite and open, unfulfilled and therefore radically other-directed. These new forms of inheriting and their attendant acts of reading will wish to show themselves receptive both to the demand for slowness, care, and circumspection and to the irrepressible political urgency that not only suffuses Benjamin’s image of Moscow but also inflects his subsequent image, two years later in the essay on Surrealism, of the historical alarm clock that accompanies the movement of straying by ringing, not occasionally, but for sixty seconds every minute.
Keywords:  Walter Benjamin; The Moscow Diary; inheritance; philosophy of history; Moscow; interpretation
On the Translatability of Walter Benjamin’s The Moscow Dairy: A Critical View From the 21st Century / Logos. 2018. № 1 (122). P. 179-200
annotation:  Walter Benjamin’s theory of translatability, in The Task of The Translator, argues that the “fame” of great works reveals itself only gradually, in the meanings ascribed to the works by future generations in their new translations. In this way, the works live and “gesture toward eternity.” The contemporary “fame” of The Moscow Diary is found to be linked to a concept that is mentioned only incidentally in the diary, but that was at the center of Benjamin and Bertolt Brecht’s common, failed project of the 1930’s: the journal Crisis and Critique. The aim of the journal was to unify bourgeois intellectuals—confronted, as we are, by war, economic volatility, and political violence—around a common analytical and political project. For Benjamin, the crisis forced a decision (ultimately negative) about whether to join the Communist Party, and sharpened his awareness of the conflict between the formal and metaphysical aspects in his writing: between form and content. The response to political, intellectual, personal, and aesthetic crisis that is embodied in The Moscow Diary is seen as presaging the fragmentary, montage-based form of the Arcades Project, and as challenging intellectuals in the 21st century, for our part, to respond with a critical reading of events that is necessarily political and must (also) be characterized by opposition and struggle. As a translation of Benjamin’s work into our own era, this response should also consciously leave open a space for the emergence of new, theoretically unforeseeable revolutionary meanings and possibilities.
Keywords:  translatability; crisis; critique; politics; bourgeois intellectuals
“The Vanquished Writes History”: Walter Benjamin’s Messianism / Logos. 2018. № 1 (122). P. 201-216
annotation:  The article discusses the relationship between the concepts of violence and messiahship in Walter Benjamin’ early work, Critique of Violence (1921), and in his later text, Theses on the Philosophy of History (1940), which oppose and deconstruct each other. The interpretation of the texts proceeds by bringing together or comparing certain phrases, their variations within a given text or between texts, with the aim of explicating the logic according to which these texts are constructed. Thus, we see that in the argumentation of Benjamin’s Critique of Violence the term “victory” appears several times at decisive moments. The resulting image suggests that the text forms a structure or articulation invisible to the naked eye. Trying to expose the way Critique of Violence is constructed, we will not be able to avoid a number of appropriations that comprise its intertext, nor the play of intrareferences of which it consists. Translated onto the problem of messiahship (heroism, responsibility, sovereignty, Judaism, nostalgia, pacifism, revolution, piracy, sacrifice, victory, revenge, etc.), the question investigated in this paper is whether there is a link between violence (war) and the coming of the Messiah (justice, democracy, order, peace). Thus seen, how much violence is necessary? What are the figures of violence suitable for this? Is messianic acting possible? Is it necessary to act violently in order to bring about a new epoch? These are the conditions for transitioning to something “other,” whilst simultaneously rejecting it. In that sense, philosophy as praxis is already political action that has a messianic or revolutionary potential. It calls us to joint action due to its tendency to include and associate all, to introduce everyone into active becoming, or, what amounts to the same — to allow no one to remain passive. It demonstrates an urgency of the swiftest possible construction of the just city. Even the very possibility of the arrival of a new historical epoch gives us reason enough to continue reading and producing philosophy. The coming of the former is inseparable from the future of the latter.
Keywords:  violence; messiahship; “Theses on the Philosophy of History”; “Critique of Violence”; justice; revolution
The Aura of History and the Dialectical Imagination in Walter Benjamin’s Passages / Logos. 2018. № 1 (122). P. 217-232
annotation:  The article investigates Walter Benjamin’s early notes, Protocols of Drug Experiments (Protokolle zu Drogenversuchen, 1927–1934), which describe direct impressions of the “aura” phenomenon. The reading of these texts sheds light on the subsequent descriptions of the notion of aura in Passages (Das Passagen-Werk) and other works by Benjamin, and also clarifies certain elements of the subsequent discussions of the aura in contemporary aesthetics. In these discussions, the aura is characterized as an “ornamental halo” around all things, which completely changes with each of their movement, and “things” are described as “mannequins” clothed in “historical events.” Comparing these and other descriptions with the concepts of the synesthetic sys¬tem of sensuality (Susan Buck-Morse), the loss of the aura as the liberation of meaning (Jurgen Habermas), and the inspiration of the consumption experience (György Markush), we come to the interpretation of the aura as the perceived historicity of things. The theory of the aura is here part of the program of “saving history for philosophy.” Such a conception allows us to rethink the methodology of the dialectical imagination in the historiography of the Arcades Project.
Keywords:  Walter Benjamin; Ernst Bloch; “Passages”; aura; ornament
Walter Benjamin’s Media Theory and Russian Left Avant-Garde: Newspaper, Radio, Cinema / Logos. 2018. № 1 (122). P. 233-260
annotation:  Walter Benjamin is rightfully considered to be the founding father of contemporary media theory. When he travelled to Moscow in the late 1920s, he discovered works by Sergey Tretyakov and LEF authors, including films by Vertov, Pudovkin and Eisenstein. A bit later, in the 1930s, influenced by Bertolt Brecht, he closely investigates Tretyakov’s concept of the operating writer and starts to use it along with Brecht’s theory of radio and epic theater in order to develop his own theory. However, Benjamin has significantly rethought the Marxist idea of the necessity of changing the artist’s means of production, production apparatus and writing techniques in the context of the socialist revolution. This rethought idea, for him, consisted not just in the simple artistic expression of Marxist thought and the transformation of the artistic products: at its core, it was about changing the existing means of production and tools “in the spirit of the proletariat,” possible even in a capitalist society. This argument inspired Benjamin to write about the necessity for the artist to make use of the opportunities provided by new media, including photography, movies, radio, and mass communication. All these opportunities gave a kind of feedback option, a limitation of action (ceasura), film editing, distancing (Brecht’s V-effect), etc., which helped avoid a transformation of revolutionary statements into illusionist forms of entertainment and aestheticized forms of social relations. Furthermore, this paper investigates a little-known episode of Benjamin’s radio experience which occurred after his return from Moscow (1926–1927) and his articles on early Soviet art and literature which he wrote on the cusp of the 1920s–1930s.
Keywords:  Walter Benjamin; media theory; left Avant-Garde; Sergey Tretykov
Theories on Violence: Benjamin, Freud, Schmitt, Derrida, Adorno / Logos. 2018. № 1 (122). P. 261-279
annotation:  Peter Weibel’s conception of violence is based on the intellectual canon of the 20th century that absorbed both Freud’s psychoanalysis as well as the critical philosophy of The Frankfurt School. However, the historical context for his critique of violence is rooted in the contemporary era of terrorism. Weibel’s distinctive critique of the positive definition of violence as a pure tool offered by Walter Benjamin in his Critique of Violence (Zur Kritik der Gewalt, 1921) (and interpreted numerous times by, for example, Jacques Derrida, Giorgio Agamben, etc.) is focused on the connections between violence and language, its reflection and conceptions of freedom, fair play, and law. He argues that Freud—who was not familiar with Benjamin’s texts—had similar ideas during the pre-war years, particularly in conceiving law as the consequence of acts of violence. Nevertheless, psychoanalysis cannot resolve the contradiction between culture and violence. Analyzing the thought of Carl Schmitt, the author formulates the principles of inclusion-exclusion dialectics, to which state-monopolized violence is subordinated: violence survives in any state and culture, turning into law. It is not directed against members of its own group, but against strangers. Yet it is equally capable, in extreme cases, of targeting the so-called “enemy within.” In conclusion, the author polemically contrasts the central conceptual figure of Adorno’s non-identity to Agamben’s subject understood as biomass. Weibel sees in such a dramatic approach traces of psychologisms and psychoanalysis, proposing to define the subject as a legal construct independent of instincts or desires, needs and other limitations characteristic of a person’s biological existence. Considering the subject as an object of law rather than anthropological knowledge, Weibel hopes to make it the basis of a new constitutional law which can only be disputed on lawful grounds. The law itself thus constructs a subject that is able to rewrite the laws of the death camps, to overcome them.
Keywords:  violence; inclusive-exclusive dialectic; bio-mass; subject; concentration camps; nonidentity
Freedom for Children and Perverts! / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 1-18
annotation:  In popular view, the concept of the “child” is endowed with sacred status. This makes it an ideal candidate for revealing the mechanics of common sense. According to Gilles Deleuze, common sense is a series of solidified and, therefore, unquestionable truths. Psychoanalytically, a child is a “polymorphic and perverse” being. This definition holds not only for sexual matters, but also in the general sense. The etymology of the word “pervert” shows us that it originally meant a turn away from true doctrine and was used in a religious context. The child represents the non-fixity of sexual identity, whereas the adult represents its fixedness: the child is the one who has not yet become normal, while the adult is the one who has. Thus, the child stands against common sense by definition. The opposite is also true: from the common-sense perspective, the child is a transformation from a plastic to a rigid state. The author of the paper follows Michel Foucault’s appeal to pervert common sense. Using the concept of the child as an example, she shows how to transfer concepts — and the mind that operates with them — from the static modus operandi to the state of free and deliberate modification. For this purpose, the author of the paper discusses Friedrich Nietzsche’s concept of play. According to Nietzsche, the child is able to play with the sacred and the sacrosanct. A game’s course makes already formed values malleable. The game thus threatens the settled common sense and remains an area over which the latter has no power.
Keywords:  child; adult; perversion; common sense; Gilles Deleuze; game; Friedrich Nietzsche; Erasmus of Rotterdam; emancipation
Science of Trauma / Trauma of Science / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 19-24
From Dispute to Persecution: Rhetoric of Debates Surrounding the Formalist Circle in the 1920s / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 25-44
annotation:  The present article traces the origins and forms of aggressive rhetoric in the Soviet literary criticism of the 1920s, using the example of the debates surrounding the Leningrad branch of the Russian Formalist School. The discussions around this research circle can be traced to the destructive experience of revolution and civil war, and the shift from conventional forms of debate to the abuse and annihilation of opponents, transforming the latter practices into the new mainstream. The discussion as such becomes a race for power, or a straight-up competition between political groups. In turn, literary criticism also starts reproducing the repressive methods of the victor. The so-called “formalists” represent the most prominent example of this process, as they were sentenced to annihilation as pure ideological enemies of the new hegemonic class — both in a political and cultural sense. The contrast dualism that characterizes the opposition between ‘us’ and ‘them’ in Russian culture to the present day became visible during that time, as the triumphant class was fundamentally unwilling to compromise with the defeated. The Bolsheviks were not feeling magnanimous after the victory of the October revolution. Their strategy was to cultivate hatred, pitting different groups against each other under the banner of class struggle in order to further strip and/or remove any phenomena diverging from the established way forward. The primary motivation for the crackdown through terror was civil war. Subsequently, it was replaced by the requirement for special vigilance during the temporary resurgence of the bourgeoisie in the period of New Economic Policy (NEP). The conceptualization of the NEP was not only an economic and industrial, but also inevitably a cultural matter, and the proletariat simply had to feel threatened by the surviving oppressors whose consciousness remained the same as before the revolution. Ultimately, the announced and longawaited rejection of the NEP and its “restorative” culture legitimized a new round of aggressive rhetoric that reinforced the internal crisis of the Soviet “poputchiks” (primarily discriminated intelligentsia) and allowed to put an end to them on the cusp of the 1920s and 1930s.
Keywords:  Russian formalism; literary criticism and polemics; rhetoric of competition and discussion in literature; class struggle; Bolshevik revolution
Things Without Words, Totality Without the Private. The Soviet Philosophy of Evald Ilyenkov / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 45-64
annotation:  What is the “Soviet trauma” in philosophy? We consider the case of Evald Ilyenkov, а Marxist who stood against positivism and physicalism in understanding the human mind. Ilyenkov discussed the political and socio-anthropological consequences of positivism, both for the West and the Soviet system. Ilyenkov’s social and methodological criticism is based on his pedagogical theory of personality and presupposes a utopia of the full personal appropriation of the universal. His pedagogy is a mix of materialistic psychology and transcendental philosophy. Ilyenkov’s pedagogical utopia is also a key to his political utopia. According to Ilyenkov, only a cultural revolution that moves beyond socialism will overcome alienation. He understood the alienation of human beings as an alienation from the total nature of mankind. Alienation is a product of private property in a broad sense. The principle of private property implies a positivist logic, which in its turn produces technocratism. Ilyenkov opposes the scientistic logic of adding up particular facts to the dialectic logic of proceeding from the whole. The rightly educated person reconstitutes the whole and transgresses the principle of particularity. The last principle is considered as the main feature and the main vice of modern society. Ilyenkov avoided the question whether any mode of power (and violence) is produced by this logic of the whole. To investigate this question, we invoke Ilyenkov’s works that previously have not been considered as having political meaning. Based on this extended corpus, we try to reconstruct Ilyenkov’s system of political philosophy.
Keywords:  Evald Ilyenkov; Soviet philosophy; positivism; socialism; project; personality; the universal; the ideal; the private; the whole; alienation
Apology of Stalinism in Post-Soviet Literature Textbooks / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 65-86
annotation:  The article is devoted to the apology of Joseph Stalin and Stalinism in a number of post-Soviet literature textbooks. Their authors had a generally positive assessment of Stalin’s role, not only as the head of the Soviet state, but also as the “moderator” of the literary process in the Soviet Union. Stalin’s personal evaluation of concrete writers and their literary efforts — as well as, to some degree, the attitudes of these authors towards this Father of Nations — became an important factor in their inclusion into the classroom canon of textbooks or, on the contrary, discredited and excluded them from it. The authors of these books carefully selected and reinterpreted the facts to emphasize Stalin’s exceptional importance for the development of 20th century Russian literature. Thus, Stalin appeared as the most important figure of the literary process of the Soviet period, and the single method of Soviet literature which was being approved during his reign — “socialist realism” — as a natural extension and embodiment of humanistic traditions of Russian literary classics. In Soviet school textbooks, there is an attempt to create a concept of the history of the 20th century Russian literature on the ideological basis of the late Soviet “soil-bound” conservatism, and to conceptualize Stalinism as the natural continuation of pre-revolutionary political-ideological conservatism. Thus, the school subject “literature” is used as an ideological tool to indoctrinate the younger generation with a “national-patriotic” spirit. Moreover, this ideological line persisted in textbooks throughout the 1990s and 2000s with almost no adjustment, while their distribution was preferentially maintained by government agencies.
Keywords:  late Soviet conservatism; Soviet literature; Stalin; literature textbooks; scholastic literature canon
Representation of Cultural Trauma: The Museification of the Holocaust / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 87-114
annotation:  The article analyzes the problem of the representation of one of the greatest cultural traumas of the twentieth century — the Holocaust — in various Jewish museums (Washington, Berlin, Moscow). Although they are united by the important social function of perpetuation and edification, each museum has its own context and creates its own form of representation and rhetoric, as well as the measure of memory performance about the events of Jewish history. The concepts and exhibitions of these museums are embedded in a context of general social debate about the trauma, its principal expressibility, mediatization and visualization. The research field of trauma contains an internal contradiction. On the one hand, the field employs the psychoanalytic idea of the inexpressible injury (Theodor Adorno, Jean-François Lyotard, Shoshana Felman, Dori Laub, Cathy Caruth et al.), while, on the other hand, subscribing to the concept of its globalization and mediatization (Wulf Kansteiner, Ann Kaplan, Jeffrey Aleksander, Andreas Huyssen). The discourse about the Holocaust is globalized, but the memory of the Holocaust victims is functioning glocally, taking into account the specific local context of traumatic events. Consequently, the museification of the Holocaust generates a diverse field of aesthetic representations. The article stresses the peculiarity of these museums, such as their focus on sensual work with the past, their call for the exchange of experiences and emotions in addition to rational knowledge, their invitation to identify with the experience. In comparison to museums, it becomes evident that modern museum exhibitions and performances variably provoke the visitor to identify with the collective subject of history through a simulated experience of the suffering of others. This is impossible without emotions, sympathy and working memory. However, the therapeutically simulated traumatization through acquaintance with the phenomenon of the Holocaust is not justified in any socio-political and cultural context.
Keywords:  cultural trauma; representation; the Holocaust Museum; memory.
American Trauma Studies and the Limits of Their Transitivity in Russia. Heart-To-Heart Talks With Veterans of Local Conflicts / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 115-136
annotation:  This article considers the formation contexts and conceptual content of American trauma studies, and raises a question of the prospects for carrying out similar research in Russia. What is meant here is, primarily, the “war trauma” of combatants. Studying oral testimonies of Russian veterans of the Afghan and Chechen Wars, the authors discuss the difficulties the combatants face when trying to articulate their war experience. However, such “representation failures” can by no means always be described using the medical term “trauma,” especially since “medicalization” and “victimization” strategies frequently encounter opposition by the veterans themselves. Therefore, in order to do justice to theoretical and practical trauma studies, the authors suggest a cautious ‘reconnaissance’ over ready-made models and “strong programmes,” the reconnaissance being highly sensitive to both the socio-political context of a testimony and the voice of the witness. The metaphor of “trauma” exists in the veterans’ narrative in various contexts. Most frequently, it occurs within an existentialist discursive strategy as a marker of a liminal — and often sublime — experience. On the other hand, it can be used when describing the corporal nature of memory, rooted in everyday habits and habitus. However, this metaphor rarely occurs in cultural-ideological or ironic narratives. The stories of the veterans are typically very fragmentary, amounting to a situational interweaving of the aforementioned narrative lines. Reducing this precarious conglomerate to a singular discursive line — and turning it into a policy of representation imposed from above — can hardly be justified. That is why the authors emphasize the importance of a phenomenological description of experience from below, with all its gaps and contradictions, rather than the mechanical use of readymade theoretical schemes and intellectual clichés.
Keywords:  politics of memory; veterans; local conflicts; testimony; trauma studies
A Small Country / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 137-140
How Children Learned to Listen: The Formation of Radio Clubs in the Soviet Union / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 141-162
annotation:  The paper explores the formation of children’s radio clubs in the Soviet Union. The research approach is relatively new as it provides a “bottom up” perspective in the history of the radio, with a focus on ordinary people rather than inventors and politicians. The author tackles a significant problem for communication studies: how people reacted to innovations when the “old technologies” of today were first introduced. Primary sources for this historical research were radio-themed magazines and the print media of the 1920s. First, this paper draws attention to the birth of radio broadcasting from radiotelegraphy, usually defined in scholarship as a turn from “point-to-point” to “one-tomany” media. Secondly, the paper demonstrates that the state policy towards radio as a hobby after the October Revolution aimed to inspire the public through the publication of magazines and books, instructions about the installation and usage of radio equipment, as well as through the support of radio clubs for teenagers and children. Thirdly, the paper highlights the five key arenas for an institutional organization of children’s radio clubs: schools, palaces of young pioneers, orphanages, juvenile detention centers and villages, with an accompanying description of their main features and problems of radio installations. Fourthly, the content of children’s radio broadcasts — including concrete popular programmes — is described. Finally, the author identifies fundamental barriers to the spread of radio in the 1920s and the advantages of the new technology, such as the usability of the installations, portability of devices and wireless communication itself. As the main thesis, the author argues that the enthusiasts and amateurs were largely responsible for the spread of radio, while state policies supported the “radiofication” of the country mostly rhetorically.
Keywords:  media studies; radio history; wireless telegraph; radio broadcasting; radio amateurs; Soviet childhood; the 1920s
“If War Breaks out Tomorrow…” Preparing for War as an Element of Educating Schoolchildren in the 1930s (Based on Material From The “Pioneer” Magazine) / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 163-186
annotation:  The article is devoted to the analysis of different aspects of representation of past and future wars, as well as the portrayal of the enemies in the “Pioneer” magazine. In the 1930s, these subjects and images became an important element of Soviet education, forming the official narrative. They were repeated in the summaries of party and state documents presented to the readers. Furthermore, they invaded works of fiction and the speech patterns of the pioneers themselves. As a result of this — by the time the war started — a whole generation acquired an understanding of what they were fighting for, who the enemy was and what was at stake. Using materials from the “Pioneer” magazine from 1932–1941, one can see how publications aimed at children were educating their readers, forming their consciousness, and preparing the youth to fight a war with the capitalist states. Magazines published for Soviet pioneers in the 1930s have not yet been researched to a satisfactory degree. Researchers usually focus their attention on the continuity vis-a-vis previous traditions and practices, pointing to trends that were common for pre-revolutionary and post-revolutionary publications. These studies are usually limited to the period of the early 1930s and do not cover events of the second half of that decade, putting emphasis on the formation of the pioneer press instead. This article is broadening our view of Soviet press for children, helping to better understand the causes of heroic behavior of the young generation mobilized to defend their country during the Great Patriotic War.
Keywords:  “Pioneer”; Soviet pupils; war; image of the enemy; fascism; 1930s
Visiting the Future: “The Young Pioneers’ Utopia” and Soviet Realities / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 187-218
annotation:  The article analyzes narratives describing journeys of the Soviet young pioneers into the future communist society. The greatest attention is devoted to two particular stories. The first one was written by Innokenty Zhukov and published in 1924. The second is written by Alexander Svetov and published in 1963. The author attempts to demonstrate that — through the comparison of children’s representation of everyday life in the so-called “bright future” — one can see the great changes of the Soviet society that occurred during the Khrushchev Thaw period compared to the 1920s. The key differences between the general atmosphere of the utopian visions in the 1920s and the thaw period can be clearly noted through the representation of the details of the daily ways of life. A particularly important aspect of the latter is the strengthening of the individualistic features of the protagonists. These features appear both through their distinctive behavior and habits, as well as their personal ambitions. Characters also become more open in demonstrating their attachment to family and feelings, including those of a romantic nature. That said, their overall devotion to collectivistic ideals and corresponding rhetoric remains unchanged.
Keywords:  Soviet childhood; utopia; Innokenty Zhukov; Alexander Svetov; young pioneers; Khrushchev Thaw
The Soviet as the Childlike: The Case of the Courtyard / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 219-240
annotation:  Any state is a result of government regulations and grassroots habits. It is a consensus of the explicit and implicit, the personal and general, the internal and the external, innovation and tradition. The creation of the new man was one of the main objectives of the Soviet regime; this was the goal of the of the Soviet child’s education. This process took place not only at the direct level of requirements and prohibitions, but also at the contextual level of everyday life. This paper is based on the “center-periphery” model. The author analyzes the ways these concepts — as well as the existence of the USSR and the world — are absorbed though the children’s everyday life. The analysis is based on the children’s folklore. The category of childhood is one of the constants of the Soviet habitus that gave stability to the whole society. This paper follows the playful ways used by children to acquire and adopt pre-Soviet and Soviet everyday life practices, events of history and Soviet ideology. The analysis of these practices shows that the child learns by ideology. Children’s discourse combines story, joke, propaganda and reality. For this reason, the world of the Soviet child is an optimistic world. The children’s basic patterns of belonging to the Soviet integrity — produced in the outdoors game space — are as follows: adaptation of public interest to itself and to time fluctuations, currents of fashion; acquisition of security by using the rhetoric of omnipotence; sacrifice for a higher, harmonious world order.
Keywords:  Soviet Union; ideology; everyday social conventions; socio-cultural landscape of the Soviet courtyard; children’s games and rhymes; war; the enemy image
“Good Music is Good, Bad Music is Bad” / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 241-254
Spinning Substances / Logos. 2017. № 4 (119). P. 1-10
annotation:  The article examines a number of issues in contemporary anthropology of knowledge related to the opposition of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and “nontraditional” medical or paramedical practices such as homeopathy and osteopathy. It is suggested that such practices exploit the fundamental informational asymmetry produced by evidence-based medicine as one of its conditions. EBM takes an objectified approach that jeopardizes every customer or patient because the latter may turn out to be an outlier, and accordingly face unacceptably grave and potentially lethal consequences. For this reason, strategies of customizing and domesticating objective knowledge become very attractive. Such a domestication can clarify, to some extent, the therapeutic effect unexplained by EBM. At the same time, homeopathy and similar practices tap into the privilege of closed, club-based forms of knowledge and services: the privilege is itself privileged. The claims of the article are illustrated by an example from Soviet cinema, where homeopathy could play the role of a marker of criminality: homeopathy promoted the setup of a chronometric screen, permitting a distancing from official medicine, investigative authorities, etc. In the end, the opposition of EBM and homeopathy can be understood as a contrast between an anomaly that could kill, and an anomaly which one could live by. Homeopathy promises the patient to find them an individual place in theory, to make a personal account.
Keywords:  anthropology of knowledge; evidence-based medicine; homeopathy; informational asymmetry; club-based practices; privilege
Politics and Poetics in Conspiracy Theories / Logos. 2017. № 4 (119). P. 11-22
Philosophy as Cryptography / Logos. 2017. № 4 (119). P. 23-46
annotation:  This paper considers the reading of a philosophical work as an experience of revelation without Revelation. The secret as the “open closed” or the “manifest implicit” can be understood as a function of a transcendental distinction which remains a problematic issue in contemporary philosophical discussions about the epistemological characteristics of an explanation and the speculative properties of reality. Philosophy as cryptography makes skillful use of the observation that two fundamentally important epistemological modes of the philosophy of Modernity — trust and suspicion — are essentially asymmetric. Trust gravitates towards the absolute, to all completeness and clarity of insight, whereas the smallest, most insignificant and groundless occasion may be reason for suspicion. This asymmetry gives new meaning to Martin Heidegger’s reflections on the essence of truth, rehabilitating the understanding of truth as unconcealedness (aletheia). Truth, much like a secret, exists as, and the establishes borders between, open and closed. Using Heidegger’s understanding of truth as unconcealedness, the paper draws a hitherto unexplored connection between Derrida and Meillassoux. They agree in their refusal to grant subjective experience the power to demarcate the phenomenal from the noumenal, yet disagree in their understanding of the function of the secret. For Derrida, the function of the secret is a disjunction, it presupposes a distancing, a divergence, a gap. On the contrary, Meillassoux attributes a conjunctive function to the secret — akin to cast dice — of combining, coinciding and overlapping. Thus, the philosophical cryptographic method provides an opportunity to reconfigure the established positions of contemporary continental philosophy.
Keywords:  secret; truth; suspicion; open; phenomenal; Martin Heidegger; Jacques Derrida; Quentin Meillassoux
The “Myth of the Jesuits” in their Absence: Russia, the 1860s / Logos. 2017. № 4 (119). P. 47-64
annotation:  Political myths about conspiracies first appeared in the 19th century, primarily in the form of three “big” myths involving Masons, Jesuits and Jews, which in turn prompted the emergence a series of derivatives, such as the “Judeo-Masonic Conspiracy.” A remarkable feature of the Russian version of the myth about Jesuits, which spread widely through many different societal layers and audiences in the 1860s, is that it was — unlike the French version, for example — created in the absence of Jesuits: the order had already been driven out — first from the capital and subsequently from the entire empire — by the end of the reign of Alexander I. This peculiarity has generated a series of characteristic features of the Russian version: without the possibility of relating it to any kind of real referent, the Russian “Jesuit” became a universal entity that could, depending on the situation, replace any other, thereby creating a system of correspondences. The characteristics of the mythological “Jesuit” were applied to entities that were seen as identical, such as “the Pole,” “the Catholic,” “the Priest,” etc. Conversely, the Jesuit could also function as an assertion of non-identity. An example of this juxtaposition would be the image of the good Catholic shepherd who is far removed from Jesuit practices. The myth made it possible to sustain conflicting positions regarding the Catholic church (and, correspondingly, different government policies), ranging from equating it with the Jesuits, who in this case served as exemplary followers of the Catholic faith, following Catholic principles to the letter, to a defensive position against a shrewd and belligerent “Jesuitism” that aims to take over Catholicism. The functional appeal of the myth was related to the opportunity it provided to employ the ideological resources of other groups. Thus, the clerics or the defenders of Orthodoxy could use Enlightenment rhetoric, while anti-clericals could invoke the positions of the Orthodox Church, etc. Losing political relevance quickly, the Jesuit myth later proved to be an effective tool for the legitimation of new versions of the political myth, such as myths about a Jewish plot, forcing opponents to move from the deconstruction of any particular myth to a generalized critique of conspiracy theories.
Keywords:  Walter Scott; Jesuits; Honoré de Balzac; political myth; Slavophiles; Black Legend; Yuri Samarin
Non-Russians’ Plots: Poles, Jews, Germans, and Ukrainians in the Minds of Russian Nationalists in the Early 20th Century / Logos. 2017. № 4 (119). P. 65-86
annotation:  On the cusp of the 19th and 20th centuries, the processes of nation-building and nation-oriented cultural hegemony began to play a significant role in the Russian Empire. The rise of nationalist movements in the borderlands of the empire had an impact on policies. Projects of nationalization began as early as the 1870s, with the progressive Russification of the Imperial Warsaw University, and the reformation of the Dorpat University into the Russian-speaking Iur’ev University. Reactions to the growing national unrest were not only of an administrative nature. They also had a cultural component, with the foundation of societies and organizations aimed to defend and promote the primacy of Russian interests, language and identity inside the imperial frame. Scholars pointed out that the Russian Nationalist project was fundamentally anti-imperial, but as the journal “Okrainy Rossii,” published from 1906 to 1912, demonstrated, the processes of nation- and empire-building went together at the time. The authors of the journal were intellectuals, bureaucrats and publicists who served or had origins in the Russian Empire’s Western Borderlands: Anton Budilovich (former provost of Iurev University), Platon Kulakovskii (professor of Russian philology at the Imperial Warsaw University) and others who started their academic career in the 1870s, a key moment for the Panslavism movement in the context of the Russo-Turkish war of 1877–1878. “Okrainy Rossii” was a tool, for this circle, to affirm their cultural and political views about the destiny of the empire and the definition of Russian identity in relation to the other national projects, such as the Polish, German, and Ukrainian.
Keywords:  Russian nationalism; Russian Empire; national identity; conspiracy theory; Okrainy Rossii
Plato Strikes Back / Logos. 2017. № 4 (119). P. 87-126
annotation:  This article is a detailed review of Alexei Gloukhov’s work “Overlapping Waves. Political Logic and the Post-Nietzschean Overcoming of Platonism” (Moscow, 2014). Glouhkov’s project, a very productive crossover of Plato studies and contemporary political philosophy, tends to treat Plato as an exceptional personage who can resolve both problems of freedom and of justice. The article considers a number of issues related to the designation of the central conceptual figure of “intensive logic.” Then, Plato’s solution (as interpreted by Gloukhov) is contrasted with some questions of political theory, including the issue of the “incommensurability of goods.”
Methodologically, the article deals with problem of the heterogeneity of conceptions that are put together as a pattern meant to form invariant “intensive logic.” In particular, the author emphasizes the major divergence of analyses of “difference” in Deleuze and Derrida, the negligence of which can bias the resulting concept of “intensive thought.” The answer to the justice/freedom problem, as given by Plato according to Glouchov, is contrasted to mainstream political economy concepts, in particular to Mancur Olson’s “roving bandit.” The article demonstrates that Plato’s political logic can be treated as a codification of the violence that functions as a secondary legitimation of the social order. Plato’s performative answer to the problem of “Good” is viewed as a classical philosophical tautology that might not be a satisfying answer to the originally posed question. In the same way, Plato’s idea about the “proper good” allows us to relate the proposed interpretation to the contemporary context of theories of justice.

Keywords:  Alexei Gloukhov; “Overlapping Waves”; Plato; post-nietzscheanism; intensive logic; freedom; justice
Philosophical Realism vs the Dogmatism of Schools: A Reply to Dmitriy Kralechkin / Logos. 2017. № 4 (119). P. 127-148
annotation:  This paper is a response to Dmitriy Kralechkin’s review of my book “Overlapping Waves. Political Logic and the Post-Nietzschean Overcoming of Platonism” (Moscow, 2014). In contrast to the reviewer’s opinion, my reasoning behind discussing Plato’s legacy was not that I wanted to rehabilitate his name in the history of philosophy. Rather, I aimed to overcome the dogmatism of the two dominant schools in contemporary philosophy, i.e. the continental (“post-Nietzschean”) and the analytical schools. My typological method of approaching the history of philosophy allows us to see the implicit possibilities and the limits of the post-Nietzschean intellectual wave, its obsession with the problem of freedom, and its ignorance of the problem of justice. Unlike the reviewer, I consider the shift in key terminology from the notion of freedom to the notion of difference not as an independent development within poststructuralism, but rather as a part of a global philosophic trend, whereby any exceptional speech of positive freedom is bound to inflate the old vocabulary and give incentives to the emergence of fresh metaphors. My interpretation of Plato’s political philosophy is not the same as my argument about the invariant problem of political reality, which is the problem of the mutual untranslatability between the language of anomic freedom and the language of communal justice. As we focus of the latter issue, this problem has become invisible today due to the dominance of the two philosophical schools. This diagnosis of the contemporary situation in philosophy is independent from my historical studies. Limiting the ramifications to Russia, it is safe to say that it would be nonsense for us to await salvation from a direct import of either continental or analytical political theories. Local constant distortion in favor of continental thought proves the absolute compatibility of those allegedly radical ideas with the preservation of the status quo. The reason for this, as well as for the impossibility of any direct import of normative political recipes, is the absence of what we may call the common language of thought in the local political community.
Keywords:  Plato; platonism; political philosophy; continental philosophy
“The problem we are solving today has to do with something utterly unjust.” / Logos. 2017. № 4 (119). P. 149-164
Conceptual History and Translation / Logos. 2017. № 4 (119). P. 165-178
The Golden Age and the Iron Guard: In Memory of the 30th Anniversary of the Death of Mircea Eliade / Logos. 2017. № 4 (119). P. 179-192
annotation:  This text is dedicated to the 30th publication anniversary of the first Russian translation of the famous Romanian-American writer and scholar of myth, religions, and primitive (archaic) consciousness, Mircea Eliade. Although Eliade is considered to almost be the founder of systems research in these areas, this is not quite true. In order to disprove that assertion one only has to compare his texts to earlier works of scholars such as George Frazer, Lucien Lévy-Bruhl, and Vladimir Propp. If we were to trace the history of this scholar, many of his theoretical paradigms would appear in a new and unfamiliar light to readers of popular non-fiction literature. The author, having touched upon the history of the formation of Eliade as a researcher and as an ideologue, draws parallels between Eliade’s public and scientific views, showing their relationship and how the latter is determined by the former. The carefully planned and executed repositioning and the subsequent infiltration of the victor’s camp did not bring Eliade any peace: having become famous, he continually monitored public information for the rest of his life, singling out certain facts of his life whilst carefully hiding others. In fact, his philosophical and historical conception of the “fear of history” is a generalization of his personal attitude, and the “real savage” running to “pleromatic time” is his reflexive self-portrait. Furthermore, the author shows that nowadays the archaic, of which Eliade was a zealous disciple, perfectly fits into the conception of ordinary consciousness, and ideally matches the theoretical toolset of the so-called “wiki-knowledge” — the technology of real-time content generation by random authors.
Keywords:  the Golden Age; future; primitive consciousness; wiki-knowledge; ordinary consciousness; history; fascism
How Not to Write Reviews / Logos. 2017. № 4 (119). P. 193-198
Networks and Assemblages: the Rebirth of things in Latour and DeLanda / Logos. 2017. № 3 (118). P. 1-34
annotation:  This article is dedicated to the juxtaposition between the philosophies of Manuel DeLanda and Bruno Latour against the backdrop of realism and the rehabilitation of things. The author begins by introducing both thinkers, and then goes on to present and compare their positions. If realism is not in decline, then it is on the periphery of the philosophical mainstream, and DeLanda is presented here as one of its rare proponents. While Latour is not a realist, he is nonetheless special in light of his attention to objects and their activity. The author himself qualifies his position as “realist formalism.” He begins his presentation of DeLanda’s philosophy by exposing five basic components of his flat ontology. In addition to realism, these are anti-essentialism; nominalism and historicism of species, and virtualism of genus; theory of catalysis and non-linear causality; and finally, the quadruple world. The last component is made up of two axes, the material-expressive and the territorialization-deterritorialization. After critically considering the realist tradition, DeLanda to replace the opposition “substance-aggregate” with the notion of assemblage. This central concept is defined by a specific theory of relations between part and whole. Latour’s ideas are discussed and compared with DeLanda’s philosophy along the same points. According to the author, what is missing in Latour’s approach is a comprehensive theory of causation. Latour differs from DeLanda in questions concerning realism and virtuality; Latour is a pure actualist. The final part of the article discusses a thought experiment in which the author tries to imagine a possible future, where DeLanda’s and Latour’s ideas have become mainstream philosophy. This would be a dominance of realist flat ontologies, the Achilles heel of which would be a theory of causation.
Keywords:  assemblage; catalysis; virtual; network; actor; flat ontology
A New Ontology for the Social Sciences / Logos. 2017. № 3 (118). P. 35-56
annotation:  This article offers a sketch of the materialistic approach towards an ontology of the social sciences. The author formulates the aims of the philosophy of science with regard to the social sciences. These aims include making clear the types of ontological commitments of a particular theory of society. This task presupposes the productive application of developments of other disciplines, and the avoidance of reductionism. The author moves on to excluding those types of entities that are irrelevant here, and these are all transcendent entities. The author describes the metamorphosis of the notion of species and the notion of individuals using the examples of the theory of evolution, population genetics, and condensed matter physics. The author shows how biological species lost its essence as a unitary seamless and uniting core, acquired a trajectory of historical individuation, and became a contingent and historically concrete population. In order to shed outdated connotations of the notion of “individual,” the author introduces the term “individual entity.” The new social ontology (or flat ontology) is comprised of anti-essentialism, of the theory of part and whole, and of historical individuation. Singular entities differ from each other in space and time scale, but not in their ontological statuses. Hierarchical oppositions (micro and macro levels, agency and structure, phenomenological lifeworld and social system) are replaced by nested sets of individual entities that are exemplified by the formation of cities. This ontology is founded on a bottom-up model: it discusses populations of heterogenous entities of different lower levels, but not a totality, as would be done in a top-down model. The unity of an ontological plane allows us to trace the interaction of historical rhythms, which relates to the problematization of the notions of epoch and periodization.
Keywords:  individual; individual entity; contingency; flat ontology; nested set; population; bottom-up model
“Plasma in Itself”: Between Ontology and Epistemology / Logos. 2017. № 3 (118). P. 57-82
annotation:  This article, based on texts and discussions concerning works of Bruno Latour and Graham Harman, examines the link between the problem of relations, which are never sufficient for changes to be made, and the problem of objects, which are always excessive for changes to be made. Both Latour and Harman solve these problems in their own ways; however, their solutions produce some byproducts in the form of special residues that cannot be fully assigned by their theories; both the authors name them “plasma.” This study focuses on clarifying the dynamics of such ontological and epistemological residues. It should be noted that based on these dynamics, Harman’s object-oriented philosophy, as well as Latour’s actor-network theory, turn out to be insensitive to the actual distribution of objects and relations, and this fact is proven by the introduction of plasma as an epistemological residue, which called to balance the redundancy of objects in Harman’s theory of objects (whereas in the actor-network theory of Latour, plasma acts as an ontological balance, balancing the lack of relationship). But such balancing in fact turns into a new imbalance. The problem then is that behind the facade of “smoothly” functioning object (Harman) and relational (Latour) machines there’s hidden a “shadow economy” providing their smooth operation by illegal sublimation of objects to relationships, and relationships — into objects. It is therefore required to move on to a more transparent and equitable distribution principle to consider (along with objects and relations) relations which are more essential than certain objects, and objects which are more essential than certain relations.
Keywords:  Graham Harman; Bruno Latour; plasma; objects; relations; actualism; ontological residues; epistemological residues
Actor-Network theory: An Object-Oriented Sociology Without Objects? / Logos. 2017. № 3 (118). P. 83-112
annotation:  This article compares different ways of conceptualizing the object in actor-network theory (ANT). Contrary to Graham Harman, the author argues that ANT considers objects as trajectories, and their material realizations as events. This allows us to speak of the sameness of an object. The interpretation of objects proposed here is connected with the conceptualization of objects as institutions and projects, which one can read about in ANT studies of socio-technical artefacts. Different phases of a project represent different forms of the existence of an object, which brings about an object-institution, i.e. technology embedded in collective life. The institution and the project represent actantial and temporal dimensions of delegation respectively, i.e. the ability to act while being absent (in the article this is called “a folded presence in an object”). In this conceptualization, objects have a relational being. In order to find a pattern for analyzing all kinds of objects particular to ANT, the author turns to the problem of technology as “a privileged object.” Drawing on the works of Bruno Latour on the anthropology of the moderns, it is demonstrated that technological objects are hybrids (quasi-objects) which produce other kinds of objects (natural and social), and therefore can be seen as privileged. At the same time, the article stresses that the constitutive feature of technologies is not materiality, but rather the specificity of the folded presence, which makes only technological objects visible, while technology itself is invisible. The author concludes that technology cannot be considered as a privileged object; instead, ANT uses a relational pattern of describing how actions of different actors are connected in order to analyze them.
Keywords:  actor-network theory; object-oriented sociology; object-oriented ontology; material turn; object; technology; Bruno Latour; Graham Harman
Corpus vs Object: Jean-Luc Nancy’s Ontology of Bodies as Object-Oriented / Logos. 2017. № 3 (118). P. 113-126
annotation:  The article examines the ontology of Jean-Luc Nancy. The author begins with the origins of Nancy’s intellectual intuition concerning the role of language, his critique of Kant, and his reflection on the relationship between literature and philosophy. There is no language, including the language of philosophy that can sufficiently express something about the world. Nancy describes language in his mature period of work not only as way to access things for humans, but also as a way in which things access each other. Particular attention is paid to concepts such as corpus (body) and différance. Following the ideas of Jacques Derrida, he shows that consciousness is involved in the world, and that it is part of the world because of the structure of the language itself. For Nancy, this means that consciousness is as much a part of the world as everything else. Elaborating on the concept of corpus, Nancy asserts that all things in the world (humans, lizards, diamonds, etc.) are equal. This concept of equality describes the relationship between language and things: everything interacts with everything else in language and through language. Everyone has access to the world equally; there is no privileged access. The author shows how Nancy juxtaposes his ideas to the ideas of Heidegger (the latter’s ontology presumes the human being as the preferred point of access). With the use of these concepts, Nancy equalizes things and humans in their philosophical status. Following from this, the author compares Nancy’s ontology with the object-oriented ontology of Graham Harman. Finally, the author substantiates the claim that Nancy’s ontology is an object-oriented ontology.
Keywords:  corpus; body; différance; object; object-oriented ontology; Graham Harman; Jean-Luc Nancy
The Universe of things / Logos. 2017. № 3 (118). P. 127-152
annotation:  This article is dedicated to the aesthetic dimensions of the existence of things. The discussion draws on Alfred Whitehead’s philosophy and on Graham Harman’s object-oriented ontology. The article opens with an illustration of the nonhuman experience with reference to a case from Gwyneth Jones’s novel “The universe of things.” The author discusses the instrumentality of things and juxtaposes it with the presence of things, using ideas brought forth by Graham Harman and Martin Heidegger. The author pinpoints the moment when he must side with Heidegger and Whitehead over Harman, arguing for the referentiality of things beyond their presence. The author demonstrates the insufficiency of placing things between their presence and their use, and thus argues that we should pay attention to the aesthetic relationships between things. In this context, the author compares Harman’s idea of “allure,” which breaks with context, and the idea of “metamorphosis,” which widens the web of meaning. All of this works to capture attention, since, according to Whitehead, things have causal efficacy. This causal efficacy unites things into a complicated web of traces, or into a “universe of things.” These things are different from each other, but they are united by the fact that they belong to a common universe. The author discusses the feelings and emotions of this universe. In conclusion, the author offers three theses on the “democracy of things.” The first thesis states that that all aesthetic structures discussed here are universal rather than specific to human beings. The second thesis follows from the first and argues that all things are alive and are creative. The third thesis follows from the previous two and alludes to the fact that we are witnessing a return to panexperientialism or panpsychism.
Keywords:  tool-being; presence; aesthetic relations; allure; metamorphosis; causal efficacy
New Ontologies / Logos. 2017. № 3 (118). P. 153-172
annotation:  The author first discusses the paintings of Piet Mondrian and Willem de Kooning as exemplars or icons of a Modern dualist ontology and a non-Modern mangle-ish ontology, respectively. Echoing Martin Heidegger, he argues that the Mondrianesque stance (1) is associated with projects of domination, and (2) veils our true, de Kooning-like, ontological condition from us. The second example concerns the struggles of the US Army Corps of Engineers with the Mississippi River. Again, these exemplify a project of domination and control, now including scientific knowledge, that is both embedded in and conceals the flow of becoming. In the second part of the article, the author asks whether it would make a difference if humans adopted a stance of self-consciously, acting out an ontology of becoming. It is argued that it would, drawing upon examples from the arts, religion and philosophy, but seeking to draw attention especially, and contra Heidegger, to branches of science and engineering that themselves assume an ontology of becoming. He concludes with a brief discussion of a “politics of experiment” that would go with an ontology of becoming.
Keywords:  ontology of becoming; dualist ontology; symmetry; decentering
Heterarchy of the Multitude / Logos. 2017. № 3 (118). P. 173-198
annotation:  The paper analyzes society as a multitude, the structure of which is a heterarchy, thus presenting society as a heterogeneous, yet ordered multiplicity. This order is based on organizing exterior relations that determine themselves in the process of difference and repetition. This approach implies that the fractal similitude of society is the source of its multiple order. This work follows the heterodoxal tradition in social theory and is based on the theory of social mimesis by Gabriel Tarde, actor-network theory by Bruno Latour, the theory of social assemblage by Manuel DeLanda, and develops the philosophy of multiplicity suggestions by Gilles Deleuze. The paper argues that we should rethink the notion of multitude, introduced into philosophy by Alexandre Matheron and developed by Antonio Negri and PaoloVirno. The social philosophical sense of multitude is analogous to late Latin multitudo (crowd) and mathematical set (eternal aggregate of elements) by Georg Cantor, as well as to geometrical manifold (a space of different kinds of orders) by Bernhard Riemann. As a model of emergent social structure, multitude is compared to a network, presented by Eugene Thacker as a consequence of different topologies. DeLanda’s multiscale model of society overcomes contradictions of the previous interpretations (mainly, reification of theoretical model by institutional order and substitution of concepts). The organisation of multiple social orders takes place through the notion of heterarchy, firstly proposed in neurobiology in works by Warren McCulloch as a model of the neural network. Heterarchy appears a structure (as an object) with a topological dimension and its virtual properties, actualizing through a practical co-presence of relations. This paper demonstrates how the social structure organises itself as spatial allocation of social processes in irreversible temporal sequence. The heterarchical model of society presupposes a process of self-organisation, which finds its analogies in Operaismo theory (general intellect — social mind) and in the sociology of management (heterarchy as distributed intelligence). Nevertheless, the inner constitution of heterarchy, which consists of exterior relations and exists as a virtual one, imposes restrictions on possible institutional embodiments for any theoretical model of this kind.
Keywords:  multitude; heterarchy; topology; heterogeneity; difference; structure; assemblage; similitude; exteriority; virtuality; (ir)reversibility
Philosophy After theory: Trandisciplinarity and the New / Logos. 2017. № 3 (118). P. 199-226
annotation:  This article traces the historical development of “Theory with capital ‘T’” (critical theory) and its various interpretations, focusing on the Frankfurt School and French critical theory. The article examines the origins and main discussions of each school. The author analyzes the reception of the French interpretation of theory in Anglo-phone humanities in the1970s, revews the transformation of “theory” as a result of that reception, and examines the rejection of doctrine by “theory,” which, in turn, made “theory” itself anti-theoretical. The opposition of “T/theory” and disciplinarity and the revival of Marxism as critique by the Frankfurt School is also considered. The author claims that both the French and German versions of critical theory stem from Marxism, but arrive at differing philosophies. Nevertheless, the author highlights some common features shared by both these traditions, which include suspicion of the self-suficiency of philosophy, a consequent orientation towards anti-, inter- and trans-disciplinary objects, an openness to the general text of writing, a critical attitude towards the established forms of Western capitalist societies, and an underlying, transformed rationalism. The latter half of the paper addresses the problem of “the new” (“How to think the ‘newness’ of the new?”) and approaches to it in the framework of critical theory. The author considers the connection between the problems of the new with philosophy of history and with philosophy of time, and examines in this context the opposition between post-Hegelian and anti-Hegelian philosophical traditions. The author analyzes the relationship between affirming the new, rejecting the old, the historical implications, and the conceptual implications (a renewed investigation of the affinities between Hegel’s and Nietzsche’s thought).
Keywords:  theory; critique; self-sufficiency; trans-disciplinarity; the new; temporality
Concepts and Objects / Logos. 2017. № 3 (118). P. 227-262
annotation:  This article presents in a series of numbered propositions a critical outline of the correlationist epistemological/metaphysical program. It traces the genealogy of correlationism up to the postmodernist projects, Latour’s irreductionism, and Harman’s Object-oriented philosophy. Correlationsim serves as the basis for widespread attempts to translate traditional metaphysical and epistemological problems into symptoms of other, non-philosophical (political, social, cultural, psychological etc.) factors. The basic form of correlationism is presented in the form of “the Gem” argument, as exemplified by Berkeley’s skepticism. Upon thorough critical examination, this argument is exposed as logically inconsistent. Therefore, the reason behind Western dedication to correlationism seems to be of emotional, ethical, and/or polit- ical stock, rather than based on rational superiority of an argument. A rejection of correlationism and the re-establishing of the epistemology-metaphysics connection does not mean, however, a regression to the reactionary philosophical purism which would argue that philosophy is unaffected by politics or history. The main claim of the article is that the key problems of epistemology and metaphysics should be treated as irreducible if we want to keep relying on science as the prime means of cognitive access to reality. The rejection of correlationism entails the rehabilitation of a critical link between epistemology and metaphysics and of related differences: sapience/sentience, notion/object. The correlationist attempts to get rid of them stem from the rejection of the cognitive privilege of rational explanation per se, which leads to irrationalism and fideism. These problems are valuable instruments we require in order to keep scientific results meaningful without turning a blind eye to the epistemological and ontological problems they produce.
Keywords:  critical epistemology; rationalist metaphysics; irreductionism; representation; correlation; concept; realism
Reassembling the Everyday: Drones, Elevators, and the MT-1 Project / Logos. 2017. № 2 (117). P. 1-48
annotation:  This paper is an exercise in object-oriented microsociology. Investigations of face-toface interaction fell victim to the “material turn” before all else. The actor-network theory invasion forced many microsociologists to question a key axiomatic assumption of the investigation of everyday life: in social interactions, material objects may only serve as either props or as part of the stage. However, we are now forced to rethink the Everyday (i.e., the original subject of microsociology) as an ontological sphere, the very existence of which is owed to a multitude of invisible actions of material non-human agents. The following paper aims to address three tasks. Firstly, we aim to reveal the line that separates the “material” from the “ontological” turn (MT-1 and MT-2). Our second task is to perform a theoretical revision of the forms of thinking and imagining that was proposed by MT-1 to researchers of the everyday (the codiycation of the functional modes of “objects-in-interaction,” the distinction of constitutive and performative constellations of roles, etc.). Thirdly, to evaluate the ways in which these theoretical assets may be employed in both the sociology of architecture and the sociology of technology. Why is PTSD more prevalent among military drone-operators than among pilots who participate in on-site battles? How did the invention of the railway block brakes change the architectural face of Manhattan? What is the relation between the constitutive and performative modalities of “acting things?” How does the idea of “technological disentanglement” help solve the issue of relating Rem Koolhaas’ concepts of “grid,” “schism,” and “lobotomy?” And, come to think of it, what does Bruno Latour have to with all of this? These questions, along with a few others, will be discussed in the following paper.
Keywords:  drones; skyscrapers; block brakes; elevator; face-to-face interactions
Some Elements of a Sociology of Translation: Domestication of the Scallops and the Fishermen of Saint-Brieuc Bay / Logos. 2017. № 2 (117). P. 49-94
annotation:  This paper outlines a new approach to the study of power, that of the sociology of translation. Starting from three principles, those of agnosticism, generalised symmetry and free association, the paper describes a scientific and economic controversy about the causes for the decline in the population of scallops in St. Brieuc Bay and the attempts by three marine biologists to develop a conservation strategy for that population. Four “moments” of translation are discerned in the attempts by these researchers to impose themselves and their degnition of the situation on others: 1) problematization — the researchers sought to become indispensable to other actors in the drama by defining the nature and the problems of the latter and then suggesting that these would be resolved if the actors negotiated the “obligatory passage point” of the researchers’ program of investigation; 2) interessemen — a series of processes by which the researchers sought to lock the other actors into the roles that had been proposed for them in that program; 3) enrolment — a set of strategies in which the researchers sought to define and interrelate the various roles they had allocated to others; 4) mobilization — a set of methods used by the researchers to ensure that supposed spokesmen for various relevant collectivities were properly able to represent those collectivities and not betrayed by the latter. In conclusion, it is noted that translation is a process, never a completed accomplishment, and it may (as in the empirical case considered) fail.
Keywords:  sociology of translation; generalised symmetry; problematisation; interessement; enrolment; mobilization; scallop
Visualization and Cognition: Drawing things Together / Logos. 2017. № 2 (117). P. 95-156
annotation:  In this paper, ANT comes into fruitful exchange with visual culture studies. What were the reasons for the rapid success of science in the modern era? Some may argue that the main transformation occurred in the economic structure, with the rise of bourgeois capitalism. Others refer to the birth of organized skepticism and development of the scientific method, to the emergence of humanism and individualistic ideology. However, according to the author, these are not the actual causes. The new forms of inscription and knowledge transmission are conditions for the progress of modern science. The linear perspective discovery allowed for the portrayal of objects with optical consistency: regardless of the viewpoint and distance to the object, it can be always depicted from any other angle and without any loss of external qualities. The distant point method revolutionized Dutch painting: now a few simple “camera obscura” tricks transform massive 3D constructions into 2D images on a flat surface. Finally, the printing press invention led to the global distribution of copies, almost identical to the original text, map, or etching. Thanks to these innovations, scientists of 16th and 17th centuries acquired immense power — they learned to act at a distance.
Keywords:  actor-network theory; visual culture; the problem of representation; action at a distance
The Berlin Key, or How to Do Words with Things / Logos. 2017. № 2 (117). P. 157-170
annotation:  The paper presents a model case study of an object, namely a peculiar type of key used in the outskirts of Berlin. The case is designed specifically in order to demonstrate the futility of the traditional dichotomy between the “symbolic” and “material.” No one has ever seen a human society not built with material things, and no material thing exists without people filling it with meanings, the more modern and complex the thing is, the more people swarm into it. Circulations, transitions, transpositions, translations, emanations, substitutions, enactments — all kinds of movement between the human and the inhuman can be seen in a single material thing. The key, from an archeological point of view, contains a program of actions, a system of social relations and disciplinary practices. At the same time, it refuses to be just a representation of social reality: it transforms, constitutes, and modifies it. The social cannot exist without the chain of mediums connected to the physical key (its design, its inventor, its modifications, etc.). This technique of describing an object through chains of relations is the point of actor-network theory, a means to overcome the split between the social and the technical.
Keywords:  technology; chains of associations; mediator; intermediary; anti-program
The Zimbabwe Bush Pump: Mechanics of a Fluid Technology / Logos. 2017. № 2 (117). P. 171-232
annotation:  This paper investigates frontiers of extension of agency and qualities of “appropriate technology” with an example of Bush Pump “B” type. This pump turns out to be such a technology due to something that the authors call the “fluidity” of the pump (of its boundaries, or of its working order, and of its maker). They find that in travelling to intractable places, an object that is not too rigorously bounded, that doesn’t impose itself but tries to serve, that is adaptable, flexible and responsive — in short, a fluid object — may well prove to be stronger than one which is firm. By analyzing the ways in which this device shapes new configurations in the Zimbabwean socio-technical landscape, the authors join the current move in science and technology studies to transform what it means to be an actor. They argue that technologies don not necessarily have to hold themselves as actor-networks to act. The fluidity metaphor allows us to show that there are technologies that do not need any network to spread themselves. Such technologies can extend themselves without a technological general, forming alliances with heterogeneous forces to spread his or her creatures, like Pasteur depicted by Bruno Latour. Thus, the authors approve the notion of symmetry in the actor-network theory, but refuse to universalize the actor-network metaphor throughout the whole world of techno-science. And by mobilizing the term “love” for articulating our relation to the Bush Pump, they try to contribute to shaping novel ways of “doing” normativity.
Keywords:  appropriate technology; normativity
Embodied Action, Enacted Bodies. The Example of Hypoglycaemia / Logos. 2017. № 2 (117). P. 233-262
annotation:  The authors of the paper reinvent the notion of the body. The authors propose a shift from substantial conceptions of the body to processual conceptions, i.e. to a body we do. Through what practices are bodies enacted? The article refers to hypoglycemia, low blood sugar level. In the case of a diabetic, knowledge of hypoglycemia is not restricted to a condition of blood, as he or she immersed in practices by which hypoglycemia is done: a diabetic a) registers hypoglycemia through self-awareness; b) counters it by taking carbohydrates; c) avoids it by maintaining a target sugar level; d) producesit if the recommended target sugar level turns out too low (to counter hyperglycemia). These practices take place in the patient’s body as well as outside of it. Hypoglycemia includes not only self-awareness, but also carb charts, a glucometer, dextrose and witnesses who notice hypoglycemia first. The body-we-do has semi-permeable boundaries, as some processes are incorporated, others excorporated. A body is a whole, but not a coherent whole, rather a range of tensions between processes: interests of different organs (low sugar is healthy, but one risks hypoglycemia, which causes brain damage); sugar level regulation and unpredictable jumps; the wish to live a full life. The aim of the body-we-do is to find a balance between tensions. The aim of medicine is to see a patient not as a passive but as an active body made through numerous practices. Zen medical invasion will cease to be considered an invasion into bodily tissues, intervening in one parameter, and will become clearly what it always was — an intervention into human life, not always yielding improvement.
Keywords:  ethnography; modern medicine; body; body practices; diabetes; hypoglycaemia; self-awareness
Actor-Network Theory: An Unfinished Assemblage / Logos. 2017. № 1 (116). P. 1-40
annotation:  This article outlines the context of two Logos issues, “Anti-Latour,” “UAVs, Elevators, Scallops, Zimbabwe Bush Pump,” and “New Ontologies.” These three issues issues are based on the idea of an atlas meant to map out the intellectual landscape of actor-network theory (ANT) and flat ontologies. Over the course of a few decades of its existence, ANT has evolved from a singular approach in science and technology studies into a transdisciplinary family of theories joined together by a set of basic properties, partial connections, and common references. This article maps out the trajectories of ANT development and reception. Bruno Latour is discussed as one of the main assemblage points of the approach. A one of the founders of the approach, he took part in many of its transformations, as well as in a collective closure and relaunch of the project. However, “Latour” is sometimes a name designating a particular intellectual, sometimes denotes the Paris school of ANT, and is sometimes a reference to a network of research projects, or even the whole actor-network approach. His name conceals differences between these four senses and provides permanent shifts from one to another. Latour’s changeability draws the attention of critics and readers, generating new interpretations of his work. One classic example is the polemic between Bruno Latour and David Bloor, a leader of the Edinburgh school of sociology of scientific knowledge. Their clash is an important event that largely defined which theoretical style would dominate in the field of science and technology studies.
The expansion of ANT across various disciplinary boundaries is discussed in the article through Graham Harman’s proposal to rethink Latour theory in philosophy, connecting the actor-network approach with flat ontologies. This topic is discussed in the third issue (Vol. 27 # 3 2017). This article offers a short description of flat ontologies and highlights the specificity of ANT reception. It finishes with a discussion of the empirical application of the theory, accompanied by commentary on the transformations of vocabulary and of the approach itself.

Keywords:  actor-network theory; laboratory; irreductionism; heterogeneity; flat ontology
Revolution and Reaction: On the Origins of Object-Oriented Sociology / Logos. 2017. № 1 (116). P. 41-84
annotation:  This paper investigates a curious precedent in the history of social theory, namely the birth of object-oriented sociology from the spirit of the sociology of science. Our analysis focuses on the dispute between David Bloor and Bruno Latour, which was preceded by an extended trench war between adherents of the Strong Program and representatives of the “weak” approaches to the sociology of knowledge. We will attempt to show how the schism in the Wittgensteinian camp of sociology occurred, how the internal clash between the “skeptics” and “anti-skeptics” led to a weakened position of the Edinburgh School, and how Latour took advantage of the hasty retreat of Bloor to conservative Durkheimian positions prepared ahead of time. This dispute was a tragic event in the sociology of science, the final and decisive battle of the Strong Program against considerably more radical opponents. Not being able to survive from being stabbed in the back by his former Wittgensteinian allies, Bloor was forced to fend off Latour’s attacks by invoking the intuitions of Emile Durkheim and Mary Douglas. During this clash of the titans, Latour employed his ontological argument for the first time, conceiving the object as a self-referential, underdetermined and causal unit. It is precisely this conceptual move that would give the impulse for the creation of object-oriented sociology. Of all places, why did phrenology become so widespread on the British Isles? Is “one” a number? How did the appeal to the concept of “form of life” (Lebensform) help to answer the question about the social nature of scientific knowledge? How did the anti-skeptical argument of the post-Wittgensteinian sociology of science weaken the Strong Program? Why did the thesis of the “impossibility of private language” lead the Edinburgh School into a dead-end? And why did a debate on the nature of scientific knowledge of objects lead to a war of all-against-all, and a disagreement about the nature of objects themselves? These questions, along with some others, are discussed in this paper.
Keywords:  phrenology; Strong Program; actor-network theory; object-oriented ontology; skepticism
Anti-Latour / Logos. 2017. № 1 (116). P. 85-134
annotation:  This article is dedicated to the defense of the Strong Program in the sociology of knowledge and to a discussion of several related epistemological problems. The author responds to Bruno Latour’s critique of the subject/object scheme and the symmetry principle. He argues that the Strong Program is a naturalistic and causal enterprise, and it treats knowledge as an institutionalized collection of beliefs, that are considered to be either true or false. Latour’s misunderstanding of that fact is said to be the basis for his main critical argument against the symmetry principle. His understanding of nature is akin to naive or direct realism, and his arguments for the autonomy of non-human actors are built upon metaphysical claims, which in turn are just generalized historical facts (namely, facts about Pasteur’s laboratory and his followers). In the second part of the paper, the author compares the methodological principles of Latour’s actor-network theory and the Strong Program, and concludes that Latour’s terminology is extremely obscure and unreliable. Despite his usage of philosophical concepts of “monads” and “entelechies,” he still describes social links, practices, and specific historical activities, and interests, which don’t distinguish him from sociologists who adopted the methodology of the Strong Program. In conclusion, the author describes Latour’s position as uncritical (towards the claims and arguments of the actors themselves), and essentially as a step backwards for modern sociology.
Keywords:  social constructivism; sociology of knowledge; Strong Program; actornetwork theory
For David Bloor… and Beyond: A Reply to David Bloor’s “Anti-Latour” / Logos. 2017. № 1 (116). P. 135-162
annotation:  This article is a response to the arguments proposed by David Bloor. In response to Bloor’s criticism, Bruno Latour acknowledges Bloor’s arguments but does not accept the foundations of Bloor’s position, which is based on a certain version of empiricism. Latour points to several asymmetries between the opponents while drawing on the history and role of the Strong Program in France: he explains the asymmetries in their positions, in their empirical experiences, and in their knowledge of each other’s writing. He also reviews those points that, according to Bloor, Latour had incorrectly reproduced. This includes Bloor’s claim that objects do not have agency. This claim, in turn, stems from an understanding of causality that is threefold: natural causality, the self-referentiality of the social, and a separate type of causality described by David Hume, which connects (or divides) things and their representations. In fact, the dynamically evolving actor-network theory stresses that such divisions are not helpful, and that we should pay attention to chains of associations between different entities that embody all three types of causality. The author explains the connection between his vocabulary (which is criticized by Bloor) and the empirical task of following the chains of associations. This, in turn, allows us to go beyond the idea of opposition as a starting point, and to transform the objects of sociology with the aim of explaining how the same processes construct both nature and society. In conclusion, the author compares the critical potential of each of these research programs in a context of resistance against naturalization and absolutism. The author also proposes to reject a generalized principle of symmetry.
Keywords:  Strong Program; agency; causality; self-referential; underdetermination; chain of associations
Reply to Bruno Latour / Logos. 2017. № 1 (116). P. 163-172
annotation:  This article contains the concluding remarks of the debate between David Bloor and Bruno Latour. The author points out several rhetorical devices used by Latour in place of argumentation, in order to avoid discussing the main differences between the two authors. He summarizes the discussion with the aim of not falling victim to Latour’s tricks and discusses the asymmetries Latour mentions, ultimately demon¬strating that they do not address the main critiques of actor-network theory. Bloor concludes that his opponent was unable to provide any rebuttals to claims that he had distorted the main points of the Strong Program. Moreover, Latour’s arguments are founded upon an incorrect understanding of the thesis on incomplete determi¬nation. Latour claims that his opponent assumes that things do not play any role in their representations, but his opponent actually believes that things simply cannot explain the differences in various notions about them. Bloor responds to Latour’s argument about the contradictions of dividing that which it is later difficult to connect, and explains that it is necessary to destroy with the aim of understanding a construction. Bloor also responds to the criticism that he has invented a third type of causality. He claims this criticism is unfounded and that he has not in fact done this; he instead writes that the connection between things and representations is not equivalent to causality. Bloor also claims that the sociol¬ogy of knowledge is not in fact stagnating, as evidenced by a series of new and orig¬inal studies produced following this research program. In conclusion, the author claims that by stepping away from a generalized principle of symmetry, Latour is actually renouncing his own position.
Keywords:  Strong Program; agency; causality; self-referential; underdetermination; chain of associations
On Actor-Network Theory. A Few Clarifications, Plus More Than a Few Complications / Logos. 2017. № 1 (116). P. 173-200
annotation:  In this article, the author points to a number of common misconceptions about actor-network theory (ANT), which stem from the everyday use of the word “network.” The author explains his choice of this term by stating that it allows us to produce a new ontology, a new topology, and, eventually, new politics. Networks are the endpoint of reduction; there is nothing but networks, which are all contingent in nature. The author explains his approach by drawing on the following key themes: first, the approach includes removing the opposition between distance and closeness. Second, the approach is based on replacing the metaphor of scale with the metaphor of association, eventually bringing about the breakdown of the dichotomy “micromacro.” Third, the approach includes the removal of the division between inside and outside, and the replacement of this division with the immanence of networks. In addition to this topology, the approach is based on the ontological claim that a network is work that is done by actors who are acting, or entities that are acted upon. Importantly, the author warns against anthropocentrism or sociocentrism in our understanding of this term. The latter half of the article explains the architecture of ANT, which is based on three main parts. The first part of this architecture is the semiotic understanding of the construction of entities, and this allows us to view all actors as equal no matter what their characteristics or contexts are. Extending semiotics to things allows us to use an empty methodological frame, which can help us to follow any type of actor and to unravel chains of associations and to remain between descriptive and explanatory forms, which is the essence of the second part of ANT architecture. And, finally, the third part consists of the ontological character of networks and actors. The author explains specific relativism, relationism, and reflexivity of ANT and introduces the term “infralanguage.” In addition, the author explains the idea of following and sketching out networks. In the conclusion of the article, the author proposes to view networks as the production and the distribution of characteristics such as “sociality,” “textuality,” and “naturality.”
Keywords:  network; actor; topology; contingency; methodology; ontology; semiotics; infralanguage; circulation
On Recalling ANT / Logos. 2017. № 1 (116). P. 201-216
annotation:  This paper explores the four difficulties of actor-network theory: the words “actor,” “network,” “theory,” and the hyphen. The originality of ANT lies in the fact that this not so much an alternative social theory as it is a method of unravelling the activities of the actor who constructs their own world. By focusing on operations of structuring and summation rather than on concepts of “actor” and “network,” we are able to show that the tension between the macro and the micro levels in the social sciences is largely artificial. ANT allows us to overcome this tension by channeling our attention away from objects and towards circulations instead. According to the author, the main contribution of this theory to the social sciences is the transformation of the social from the surface, territory, or region of reality into circulation. In the latter half of the paper, the author discusses the potential of ANT as a symmetrical anthropology of the modern and the defining structure of modernity. This implies accounting for the emergence of the ontological opposition between “out there” and “in there” (the nature and the subject), and (the deletion of) political and theological interests. The difference between ANT and many kinds of reflection on modernity, post-, hyper-, pre-, and antimodernity, is simply that it took to task simultaneously all of the components of what could be called the modernist predicament. According to the author, ANT is not a theory of the social any more than it is a theory of the subject, or a theory of God, or a theory of nature. It is a theory of the space or fluids circulating in a non-modern situation. In the conclusion of the article, the author offers an optimistic take on the potential of developing ANT further and giving it new forms.
Keywords:  actor; network; theory; summation; structuring; circulation
Biography of an Inquiry: On a Book About Modes of Existence / Logos. 2017. № 1 (116). P. 217-244
annotation:  This article retraces the main steps that have led to the project called “An Enquiry Into Modes of Existence” (AIME). The author shows that this project actually preceded the work done in actor-network theory, and explains the link between philosophy and anthropology through the peculiar notion of “mode of existence.” The AIME project is a collective study of the modern civilisation, done by many authors by means of hypertext. In order to break the research out of the limits of the genealogy or critique of the Western rationality and to dig into the enigma that are “the moderns,” the author introduces the concept of “modes of existence,” which refer to specific socio-anthropological-cultural domains. The project is rooted in biblical exegesis, which lent it its textual practices. Fieldwork in anthropology completed in South Africa provoked the need for a reflective ethnography, taking the European modern civilisation as its subject. This was tested as anthropology of science in the Salk Institute. Then the theory was infused by semiotics and ethnomethodology, and shaped by collaborations with physicists, ecologists, physiologists etc., which led to the concepts of irreducibility and symmetrical anthropology. The paper demonstrates that the AIME project is rooted in its own socio-politico-cultural history, just as its objects of research, i.e. the moderns. It is, in a way, a reapplication of the method of AIME to itself.
Keywords:  mode of existence; actor-network theory; agency; semiotics; anthropology
Assemblages on a Plane: Minimalism in Social Theory / Logos. 2017. № 1 (116). P. 245-250
From Actor-Network Theory to Modes of Existence: An Exposition in Seven Scenes / Logos. 2017. № 1 (116). P. 251-271
Keywords:  Bruno Latour
As Long as They Call It University / Logos. 2017. № 7 (0). P. 3-16
annotation:  The author considers the pointlessness of choosing between historical models of university. Instead, he proposes to find what is happening to knowledge today and whether this is relevant for higher education. Obviously, the internet and modern commu¬nication technologies affect the character of knowledge and atti¬tudes towards it. The decline of the nation-state means a change of the principal partner and client of science. Now it is the indi¬vidual customer who determines user-friendly content and form of knowledge. University bureaucracy does its best to satisfy his desires. It is this bureaucracy, not scholars-professors, who embody university now. Current trends in knowledge and uni-versity are similar in Russia and in the West (the Bologna reform as a realization of the managerial turn), despite the high degree of corruption and plagiarism in the former.
Keywords:  knowledge; university; customer; managerial turn; social construction of ignorance
Benjamin vs. Schmitt: Giorgio Agamben’s Mistake / Logos. 2017. № 7 (0). P. 17-26
annotation:  “Dangerous liaisons” of the left and right-conservative dis¬course have been discussed widely by different thinkers of the 20th century. Most sharply this issue rung in the context of long standing debates between the left esoteric Walter Benjamin and the conservative utopist Carl Schmitt. Based on the texts of Ben¬jamin and Schmitt of the 20s and 30s focused on a range of issues such as sovereignty, state of emergency or violence and language, the author exposes the irreducibility of the positions of these two thinkers and their fundamental political, metaphys¬ical and ethical alternativeness. The article critically analyses the approaches of famous modern day researchers to the theme referred to (Agamben), conditioned by their preconceived polit¬ical, theological and metaphysical convictions.
Keywords:  origins of law; sovereignty; state of emergency; affect; violence
The Disruption of Continuity / Logos. 2017. № 7 (0). P. 27-42
annotation:  The paper describes in a comparative perspective the dynamics and main phases of revolution from the point of view of economics. It analyses the dynamics of the revolutionary pro¬cesses as well as the economic policy, which revolutionary gov¬ernments are to proceed: inflationary financing, redistribution of property, monetary issue etc. The author argues that revolu¬tions cause the expansion of transaction costs and the economic slowdown as a result. He demonstrates that the Russian trans¬formation of the late 1980s — early 1990s generally actuates the same economic policy mechanisms as during the great revolu¬tions of the past. However there is a specificity in it — this was the first full-scale revolution to take place under the circum¬stances of the crisis of in- dustrialism and the transfer to post-industrial society.
Keywords:  revolutionary politics; post-communist transformation; replacement of elites; property; default; inflationary politics
Representation and Self-Empowerment: Russian Street Protests, 2011–2012 / Logos. 2017. № 7 (0). P. 43-54
annotation:  The article introduces into forms of political and social represen¬tation specific to the recent Russian civil protests. The analysis is based on numerous interviews with protesters and observation of evolution of the movement. The data challenges the frequently ref¬erenced “crisis” of representation and bring to light a variety of coordination centers set in competition for a political mandate of the protest movement, as far as a vague will of a considerable part of protesters to be represented. Media coverage of the street rallies, including their global attribution to a “middle class,” is critically examined along with the protesters’ own statements and rallies agenda, in order to check the presence of an actual social or revolu¬tionary representation. The article reveals a break with apparatus and hegemonic models of collective action in current mobilization which provides it with new (in the Russian context) forms of politi¬cal subjectivity based on self-empowerment and self-trial.
Keywords:  street rallies; political protest; political representation; self-empowerment; revolutionary break; subjectivity; social classes; parties and parliament; political hegemony; direct democracy; common interest; utopia; sociological interview; social move¬me
New Urban Romanticism: Political and Sociocultural Aspects of the Newest Russian Protest / Logos. 2017. № 7 (0). P. 55-72
annotation:  The article examines the major political, social and cultural aspects of Russian protest movements in the late 2011 — early 2012. Well-established concepts used within these movements as well as their social self-characterization are analyzed. The article considers the impact of the new media environment on the shape and political limitations of this phenomenon. It argues that the novelty of the protest phenomenon is the appearance of “new urban romance.”
Keywords:  new urban protests in Russia; legitimacy; legality; spectacle; theatricality; visual culture; new media; creative class; new romanticism
Corruption and Revolution as Structural Foundations for the Fiction of State Interest (raison d’État) / Logos. 2017. № 7 (0). P. 73-90
annotation:  The main thesis of the article is that revolution and corruption are structurally and genetically related to the process of state building (étatisation). Basing itself on Michel Foucault and Pierre Bourdieu’s ideas on the state, the article demonstrates that revolution and anti-corruption agitation are derived from a “normative pressure,” resulting from the generalization of the fiction of raison d’État. In the conclusion of the article this thesis is considered in the context of recent protest movements in the US and Russia which impose a demand on the “new norm.” The fact that the normative initiative shifted from from the governments to protest movements suggests that current models of political representation are undergoing a deep crisis.
Keywords:  state; corruption; revolution; raison d’État; coup d’État; protest movements; order; fiction
Socrates in Spartan Camouflage / Logos. 2017. № 7 (0). P. 91-104
annotation:  The article judges biographical evidence of Socrates, describing some particularities of his visage and behavioral manner. On the basis of evidence by Aristophanes, Xenophontes, Plato and others the author comes to the conclusion that Socrates’ behavior and image are stylized to the Spartans character. “Le Mirage Spartiate” and Socrates’ biographical testimony are compared. The parallels drawn allow to discuss nonverbal determination of the philosophic temper as a subject of the History of Philosophy.
Keywords:  ancient philosophy; Socrates; Sparta; nonverbal aspect of phi¬losophy
Plato and ἀδύνατον: The Alibi of One Utopia / Logos. 2017. № 7 (0). P. 105-126
annotation:  The paper discusses the realistic application of Plato’s Kallipolis, providing results of recent studies on Greek colonization and cultural poetics. The Republic is just one among other colonization projects proposed by Athenian intellectuals in 4th century BC. Participants of the dialogue are quite familiar with real colonization practices. Socrates gives concise and clear indications on the typical recolonisation scenario to implement. The notoriously enigmatic saying that the ideal polis is to be found “nowhere on earth,” should be examined in the context of legendary tales about the foundations of colonies.
Keywords:  Plato; political philosophy; Republic; colonization; utopia; logos; impossible landscape; territorialization
German Idealism after Finitude / Logos. 2017. № 8 (0). P. 1-2
Keywords:  German Idealism
Abstraction and Utopia in Early German Idealism / Logos. 2017. № 8 (0). P. 3-22
annotation:  This paper is based on a close reading of the first five propositions of Schelling’s Darstellung meines Systems der Philosophie (1801). The author argues that what is distinctive and significant about these propositions is that they both describe and create an ideal space determined by an athetic logic. The first five propositions of the 1801 Darstellung are intended to transport the reader outside of time and space, outside of affirmation and negation, to a neutralised utopia defined by three functions alone: abstraction, entailment and definition. The author considers this intention in the context of German Idealist discussions of abstraction: Hegel’s critique of the abstract particular and abstractive methodology, as well as Fichte’s and early Schelling’s attempt to theorise abstraction as the starting point for the philosophical enterprise. This leads the author to consider what a philosophical text that practices abstraction and construction (rather than deduction, inference, or explanation) looks like, and he draws upon the early work of Louis Marin to characterise such a text as utopic. In so doing, he attempts to demonstrate the significance and cogency of a nondialectical, a-Hegelian tradition in early German Idealism that culminates in the opening pages of Schelling’s 1801 Darstellung.
Keywords:  Friedrich Schelling; Louis Marin; abstraction; utopia; early German idealism
Contingency, Pure Contingency — Without Any Further Determination: Modal Categories in Hegelian Logic / Logos. 2017. № 8 (0). P. 23-48
annotation:  Beginning during G.W. F. Hegel’s own lifetime, two interlinked unsympathetic portraits of Hegel take shape and become enduring refrains in his critics’ complaints. According to the first of these, the Hegelian philosophical system posits a foundational teleological necessity that rigidly determines the constitution of both natural and human realities. The second critical portrayal of Hegel charges him with an ideologically pernicious Panglossianism dressing up a miserably conservative/reactionary status quo as the highest possible sociohistorical realization of Reason itself. Taken together, these two connected criticisms amount to treating Hegelian Wissenschaft as a post-Kantian version of Leibniz’s theosophy, with the former, purportedly like the latter, appealing to a necessary teleology supposedly guaranteeing the actualization of “the best of all possible worlds.” From the late-period F. W. J. Schelling and Rudolf Haym through today, countless voices past and present have repeated these anti-Hegelian allegations. The goal of the paper, simply stated, is to discredit thoroughly both of these pictures of Hegel’s philosophy. These two entwined lines of criticism ultimately rest upon the imputation to Hegel of a certain arrangement of modal categories in which possibility has priority over actuality, and necessity dictates the transition from the possible to the actual. Through a close reading of Hegel’s core doctrine of modal categories as definitively delineated in his mature Logic, the author shows that the depiction of Hegel as a neo-Leibnizian is an intellectually bankrupt, one-hundred-eighty-degree inversion of the truth.
Keywords:  Hegel’s logic; contingency; possibility; necessity; modalities
Speculation and Infinite Life: Hegel and Meister Eckhart on the Critique of Finitude / Logos. 2017. № 8 (0). P. 49-70
annotation:  The paper turns to the thought of G.W. F. Hegel and its convergence with Meister Eckhart’s thought in order to explore the possibility of a speculative and affirmative relationship between philosophy and religion. It argues that these thinkers, taken together, offer a possible way of rejecting one of the binary structures prevalent in recent continental philosophy, namely the division between an atheistic defense of philosophy and its (secular) egological subjects on one hand, and the affirmation of the primacy of transcendence and alterity (in a quasitheological vein) on the other hand. Hegel’s and Eckhart’s works suggest that such binaries foreclose a third possibility of annihilating the subject as a way to affirm a speculative and infinite immanence. Utilizing different discursive spaces and theoretical vocabularies, Hegel and Eckhart propose to annihilate the subject as the site from which transcendence could be affirmed in the first place. Moreover, here, God no longer functions as a name against which to struggle in the name of atheism, or one to uphold for a theological critique of the secular. Rather, it becomes the name for the possibility of absolute desubjectivation, of self-emptying and annihilating the subject— processes that are no longer open to transcendence, but reveal the ungrounded immanence of life. In tracing these logics, this paper questions the dominant distribution of concepts structuring the recent turn to religion in continental philosophy, and suggests one possibility for the democratization of thought that would dislocate the imperialism of secular and atheistic discourses without elevating theology to a renewed position of power.
Keywords:  Hegel; speculation; finitude; life; immanence; negative theology
Beginning with Kant: Utopia, Immanence, and the Origin of German Idealism / Logos. 2017. № 8 (0). P. 71-90
annotation:  This paper outlines a utopic reading of the Kantian origin of German Idealism, which in turn implies and necessitates a rearticulation of the concept of utopia. In this optic, utopia ceases to be a mere idealistic vision of the future and becomes, first and foremost, a utopian method and standpoint from which Kantian idealism begins. Utopia, in this sense, originates as if at a distance from the real, but in such a way that it remains impossible to reach it from within reality; any such transition would have to remain, at best, an infinite approximation. It is therefore pointless to expect utopia — one can only begin from it. This implies a different, non-Spinozan immanence, which this paper characterizes as utopian and discovers in Kant. On this reading, transcendental idealism, as non-realism, suspends the real and starts from a “non-place,” refusing to think the emergence of the ideal from any environment or the in-itself. This non-place is reduplicated as an immanent, non-dualist facticity from which the subject of idealism proceeds to think and act. Idealism thus implies a utopian structure (non-relation), operation (suspension), and temporality (futurity-as-facticity), which, taken together, suggest a different way of looking at the continuity between Kant and post-Kantian idealism, as well as a way to think immanence as non-Spinozistic — and even as deconstructing Spinozism — while also avoiding any dualism, including that of the religious-secular binary.
Keywords:  Immanuel Kant; German Idealism; utopia; immanence; temporality
The Beginning of Spirit As We Know It: Hegel’s Mother / Logos. 2017. № 8 (0). P. 91-114
annotation:  Contemporary anthropological discourses are struggling and striving more than ever before. This may come as a surprise, given the longtime intimate connection anthropology has had with metaphysics. This article investigates how and why Hegel’s anthropology, the first part of his philosophy of subjective spirit and his philosophy of spirit as a whole, is a means of overcoming a substantialist characterization of the human. To that end, the article turns to Hegel’s conception of habit in order to raise the problem of the human spirit’s beginning in Hegel’s anthropology and the relationship between habit as “second” nature and the “first” nature that habit transforms. In doing this, we come across the issue of inheritance in Hegel: if there is nothing that is a given, then how can we conceive that which spirit somehow inherits? Hegel refers to this presence of spirit in the mode of absence as “nature.” Spirit presupposes nature, i. e. its own absence. There are, furthermore, two important aspects to the natural disposition of spirit in Hegel, analyzed here: the concept of “genius” and the role of another subject. The author defends the idea that Hegel’s anthropology may be regarded as overcoming substantialism, because for Hegel the human being cannot but be confronted with the fact that there is no (m)other.
Keywords:  Hegel’s anthropology; philosophical anthropology; habit; inheritance
The Owl and the Angel / Logos. 2017. № 8 (0). P. 115-134
annotation:  In Hegel’s philosophical system, the owl of Minerva is not just a metaphor, but a significant symbol. In the symbolism of Hegel’s time, it stood for ideas of enlightenment and political emancipation, including radical, revolutionary, cosmopolitan, anti-monarchical, and even anarchistic ideas. Hegel, however, places the owl in a context that appears utterly un-revolutionary. “The owl of Minerva spreads its wings only with the falling of dusk,” he writes in the preface to the Philosophy of Right, thus summing up his argument that philosophy’s task is not to teach the world how it ought to be, nor to issue instructions to the state, but rather to comprehend the world as reasonable. Not only does Hegel’s owl seem to defend the reactionary present state (a state against which she previously fought in the name of reason and freedom), but she also seems to teach us to accept the present with joy. The point is not merely to reconcile oneself with reality, but also to enjoy it. This paper traces a number of explanatory trajectories — philosophical, psychological, and anthropological — in order to elucidate the paradoxical nature of this enjoyment, and compares the figure of Minerva’s owl with another flying creature, Walter Benjamin’s Angel of History. Such a comparison aims to pave the way towards a new interpretation of Hegel’s philosophy of history and time.
Keywords:  Hegel; Walter Benjamin; Owl of Minerva; Angel of History; happiness; revolution; dialectics
Kierkegaard, Fichte and the Subject of Idealism / Logos. 2017. № 8 (0). P. 135-154
annotation:  While the philosophical and religious authorship of Søren Kierkegaard is often said to be absolutely anti-systematic, and in particular anti-idealist in its orientation, this essay argues that Kierkegaar’s philosophical project can in fact be best interpreted as offering a critical appropriation of the philosophy of German Idealism. Through a reading of his text, Johannes Climacus, the author shows that Kierkegaard is interested in exploring the existential stakes of the philosophy of German Idealism from the perspective of the dynamic development of consciousness. Along with this, he uses the work of J. G. Fichte to further show the manner in which this concern with the life of the individual subject places Kierkegaard in continuity with one of the key figures of German Idealism. Along with a systematic reading which places Kierkegaard in clear historical continuity with German Idealism, the paper concludes by arguing that this idealist interpretation of Kierkegaard not only places his thought more clearly in a nineteenth century philosophical context, but equally that this reading can offer conceptual support to contemporary theories of subjectivity. In particular, the author argues that only by rereading the work of Kierkegaard via the conceptual framework of German Idealism can we bring his thought to life in a way that makes it absolutely crucial to contemporary philosophical debates on the nature of subjectivity and the political.
Keywords:  Søren Kierkegaard; Johann Gottlieb Fichte; subjectivity; German Idealism
Debordian Strategists: Agamben and Virno on the Coming Politics / Logos. 2017. № 8 (0). P. 155-172
annotation:  This paper considers Agamben’s political project as it develops in response to Guy Debord. By tracing the historical context of Agamben’s initial engagement with Debord during the summer of 1968, I argue for a reading of The Coming Community as at one and the same time the opening of Agamben’s explicit political project and as part of a specific theoretical horizon, namely a divergent or heretical Marxism. The importance of Debord for Agamben’s political project allows for a helpful comparison between Agamben and postoperaismo, especially the work of Paolo Virno, alongside whom Agamben published an essay recapitulating the conclusion of The Coming Community in a 1991 book on the Situationists. I situate Agamben’s inheritance from Debord against the work of Virno in order to carry out an immanent critique of Agamben’s conceptualization of language, life, and the common in relation to politics. Situating Virno’s development within a similar, if fleeting, Debordian heritage, I argue that it is especially the problem of the common that remains under-conceptualized in Agamben’s political project.
Keywords:  Guy Debord; Giorgio Agamben; Paolo Virno; language; politics; life; post-operaismo
One Shade Of Facebook / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 1-20
annotation:  This article implements preliminary approaches to the analysis of the distortions of the modern era and its corresponding transformations in the field of communication. The introduction and large-scale spread of virtual social networks have resulted in implicit communication syntax that now determine not only acts of communication, but also the partial representation of agents of communication. The analytical expression of syntax, the description of its underlying code, construction methods, and descriptive dominants allow us to relate modern forms of communication with the new active emerging social order dubbed “the era of perversion.” This “cultural psychodiagnostics” uses both psychoanalytical and philosophical approaches that allow us to create, on the one hand, a set of more adequate analytical tools, and, on the other, to open up the “silent” basic structures that have “settled” in modern technologies and that are responsible for the systemic violence of the latter.
Keywords:  perversion; normopatia; sadism; exhibitionism; private; public; social networking syntax; imaginary; symbolic; communication; metarequirement
The Multidimensional Subject: A Believer in “Imaginary,” “Symbolic,” and “Real” Registers / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 21-56
annotation:  This article is devoted to a systematic rendition of the theory of the subject as it was elaborated in Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalytic theory. The article offers an analysis of human subjectivity in each of the three Lacanian registers: Imaginary, Symbolic, and Real. In the Imaginary register, the subject is represented by his ego, which paradoxically turns out to be the “object within the subject.” In the Symbolic register, the subject is undermined by signifiers that represent him/her in the dimension of language, law, and culture. The article demonstrates that identity is not something that expresses the subject’s essence, but rather identity is what alienates the subject from his/her essence. Finally, in the Real register one can finally find the properly subjective part of the subject, but this part manifests itself in escaping from any content which the subject has in the Imaginary and Symbolic registers.
The point of this rendition is to problematize “naïve” assumptions about the subject, which are usually taken for granted in research on contemporary believers (i.e. in opinion polls). The author shows that this research, in order to be interpreted meaningfully, requires a more complex understanding of human subjectivity. Neglect of the subject’s multidimensionality, a refusal to analyze which register of subjectivity this or that statement of a respondent refers to, results in research that is increasingly entangled in “paradoxes” of (religious) consciousness. These paradoxes are evident when one examines quantitative research in the sphere of religion (i.e. in Russia).

Keywords:  Jacques Lacan; sociology of religion; positivism; theory of the subject; religiosity; Russia
Practical Theory / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 57-70
annotation:  This article analyzes in detail the relations between theory and praxis in psychoanalysis. Following Freud and Lacan, the author claims that it is not possible to consider theory and praxis as separated in psychoanalysis. According to the ideas purported by Freud in 1915, they are always already in a dialectical relationship with one another. Alternatively, in Derredian terms, one could say that theory and praxis in psychoanalysis are always already deconstructed. It is more plausible to apply such notions as either theoretical praxis or practical theory to psychoanalysis. From another point of view, which has been voiced by Slavoj Žižek, in psychoanalysis there exists a gap between theory and praxis, and this gap should be analyzed and maintained as a constitutive one. According to the author of this article, there is no contradiction between Freud-Lacan on the one hand, and Žižek on the other hand with regard to this issue. Rather than contradicting each other, the attitudes can actually supplement one another. The theoretical orientation of analytical practice stems not only from its origins in the symbolic order (which also has to do with certain tectonic shifts in the real order), but also from the necessity to critique both mirages of imaginary traps and the paranoiac foundations of cognition as such. The most important thing in analytic theoretical praxis is the ethical position of the analyst that is based on non-cognition, or, to be more precise, of ignorantia docta. Lacan refers to Nicholas of Cusa, emphasizing that docta in practical theory of psychoanalysis is not scientific cognition, but rather is a formal position that provides the necessary conditions for theoretical practice.
Keywords:  praxis; theory; phantasm; deconstruction; docta ignorantia
Therapy And Literature: On Jouissance Of Psychotherapy / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 71-94
annotation:  The spread of Freud’s ideas to wide audiences has led to the rise of latent resentment among clinicians. e response of clinicians was, on the one hand, the ostensible admission of the value of Freud’s apparatus, but at the same time they tended to principally reject the main attitude of his studies. Freud’s high demands concerning the purity of a clinician’s position and the strict distance between the analyst and patient turned out to be an inconvenient and frightening point for the young psycho-therapeutic community that then generated a ways to reach a compromise and get around Freud’s claims. The result of this compromise was the substitution of Freud’s investigation of unconsciousness for the aim of treatment. This state of a airs provided an opportunity to avoid questions about traces of phantasm in the action of psychotherapists. The existence of these traces are verified in clinical literature dedicated to children with developmental disorders, especially speech disorders, such as in the case of some forms of autism. An analysis of narratives in the classical texts of this sphere points to a gap between the aims of therapy professed by the therapist and the clinician’s own desire to be the passive object influenced by the silent subject, whose silence conveys his status as Master. This desire creates a special clinical phantasm underlying the activity of clinicians, and provides an opportunity for psychotherapists and the audience to use the silent autistic person to obtain unconscious enjoyment (jouissance in Lacan’s term). is raises questions about the ethical point of such psychotherapeutic care and the forms of publicity that it creates.
Keywords:  Freudian psychoanalysis; psychotherapy; clinical phantasm; narrative structure; jouissance
Philosopher’s Enjoyment / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 95-98
annotation:  In this article, the author analyses similarities and differences in method and practice between philosophy as a discipline and subjective position on one hand, and psychoanalysis as a clinical practice on the other hand. is article is the result of a debate between the author and Slavoj Žižek, held in Spain in 2015. e author questions the contemporary situation in which philosophers who study Jacques Lacan’s works and who employ his vocabulary seem to disregard the fact that psychoanalysis is primarily a clinical practice, and that Lacan’s theoretical constructions follow from his experiences with patients instead of preceding them. At the same time, it is extremely important that these theoretical constructions are of interest to the philosophical discipline; the author formulates reasons for and historical background of this interest. e author suggests that there are several similarities and differences between philosophy and psychoanalysis that incite representatives of both disciplines to read Lacan’s text, but to do so in dissimilar ways. Indeed, there are some similarities between philosophical and psychoanalytical disciplines concerning their method, for instance analyzing the logic of the signifier and dividing the subject in its certainties and identifications; Lacan partly bases his method on Socrates’ dialectics and on his relationship to his interlocutors. However, there is a fundamental difference in the subjective positions of representatives of these disciplines, which has an impact on their relationship to truth, knowledge, and to other subjects: philosophers enjoy and act as subjects, whereas analysts are not supposed to enjoy and are meant to embody the subject’s object, the object petit a.
Keywords:  Jacques Lacan; Slavoj Žižek; enjoyment; philosophy; unconscious; clinical psychoanalysis
Jacques Lacan and Leo Strauss: Political Persecution and the Clinic of the Unconscious / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 99-114
annotation:  The author of the article reconstructs the theoretical relationship between Leo Strauss’s Persecution and the Art of Writing and Jacques Lacan’s clinical perspective, found in his Seminar and in his Écrits. References to the works of Leo Strauss appear in Lacan’s texts when he speaks of structure and reading of the unconscious. For Lacan, the way the logic of unconscious repression works in the subject’s psyche can be compared to the way a writer bypasses censorship imposed by society on his texts, according to Leo Strauss. In the first part of the article, the author studies the reasons for the fact that the truth and the subject revealing it are always in a position of opposing the power: be it a state, a religious institution or super-ego. Mechanisms of writing in a situation of censorship are described by Leo Strauss in detail in Persecution and the Art of Writing: contradiction, logical fault, persistent refutation of a statement that the author actually seeks to advocate. Emphasis is made on the Symbolic, guided by the logic of the signifier, as understood by Lacan. In the article, the author isolates the references and concepts that Lacan borrows from Strauss, and analyzes in depth Strauss’s techniques for writing between the lines, in order to apply these techniques in analyzing the unconscious. Lacan uses Strauss to understand how to the unconscious functions and how to transmit truth (in this case, the subjective truth of the unconscious) from a position that is not pedagogical. The functioning of the psychoanalytical clinic is conditioned exactly by transmitting the truth that cannot be transmitted otherwise. Strauss’s work is based on medieval Jewish “philosophy,” specically Maimonides’s comments on Jewish theology. This detour is used by Lacan to exemplify his clinical approach.
Keywords:  Jacques Lacan; Leo Strauss; political persecution; Maimonides; clinical psychoanalysis; writing; censorship
From Locke to Lacan / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 115-126
annotation:  The article was written in order to acquaint the reader with the nonstandard logic that can be built on the basis of the Freudian concept of the unconscious. In this article, the concept is read in a Lacanian fashion. The notion of the unconscious is regarded in contraposition to the equality of consciousness and thought that is introduced, for example, by John Locke in his Essay concerning human understanding. The author cites two approaches to doubting this equality: the idea proposed by Leibniz (on infinitely small perceptions, inaccessible to consciousness); and the idea proposed by Freud, (that there exists a principal rupture between a thought and knowledge about this thought). The main argument made in this article is that Freudian unconscious is not a simple negation of consciousness, and that a subject’s position is determined precisely by the thoughts that he does not know of, i.e. unconscious thoughts. As an illustration, the author analyses the effect that is produced by looking at Édouard Mane’s Olympia — the effect resulting from the fact that light on the picture makes the viewer’s gaze obvious for the viewer himself. The author draws several conclusions relating to the specifics of modified logic, which would have to take into account the existence of unconscious thoughts. This logic is based on the assumption that qualities of an object by itself and qualities of an object in a certain space may di er. Jacques Lacan’s texts allow us to suggest that this difference is introduced through language. The article represents an attempt to revise traditional ideas about the functions of negation. The revision is summarized in an analysis of the hide and seek game, in which the fact that the subject knows where the hidden thing is does not mean that he has found it.
Keywords:  identity of consciousness and thinking; unconscious thoughts; modi ed logic; John Locke; Sigmund Freud; Jacques Lacan
Psychoanalytical Praxis in an Institution / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 127-136
annotation:  This article is based on two years of work in the psychological aid service for refugees and migrants, created on the basis of the “Civic Assistance” committee (a nonprofit charitable organization that aims to help refugees and forced migrants in Russia). The service was set up by psychoanalysts following the tradition of Jacques Lacan. The article addresses a situation in which a psychoanalyst is present in an institution that provides care, education, or any other type of assistance. The author suggests that the position of the analyst with respect to the subject who has come to an institution will be different from both the position of the institution and the position of said subject. The difference in positions is based on the notion of Goodness. The main part of the article is an attempt to outline the ethical position of a psychoanalyst with respect to the notion of Goodness (as Aristotle speaks of it in Nicomachean ethics) and to the subject’s unconscious desire, as well as to formulate the relationship that the subject can form with an institution. The introduction of a psychoanalyst to such institution is viewed as function of demand on the part of the institution. This demand is linked with interruptions in the work of an otherwise satisfactorily and hermetically functioning institution. Such interruptions are understood as an institution’s symptom, which results from the reliance on ethics of distribution of goodness and the exclusion of the dimension of unconscious desire. On the other hand, a subject is represented in an institution as an object (an object of care, teaching, or aid); but the demand for help that he or she voices at the institution is not equal to his or her shortage, and, therefore, cannot always be narrowed down to fulfilling his needs. A psychoanalyst takes such a position in relation to the institution and the subject that allows him represent the third party in situations when the normal functioning of an institution is threatened. The last part of the article others a concrete view of the problems discussed using the example of a psychological aid service.
Keywords:  lacanian psychoanalysis; institution; ethics; unconscious desire; function of Goodness
The Promotion And Presentation Of The Self: The Celebrity As A Marker Of Presentational Media / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 137-160
annotation:  This article explores how the celebrity discourse of the self both presages and works as a pedagogical tool for the burgeoning world of presentational media and its users that is now an elemental part of new media culture. What is often understood as social media via social network sites is also a form of presentation of the self, and it produces a new hybrid of the personal, interpersonal and the mediated — what I call “presentational media.” Via Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, and Friendster, individuals engage in the expression of the self that, like the celebrity discourse of the self, is not entirely interpersonal in nature, nor is it entirely highly mediated or representational. The middle ground of the self-expression described here (again, partially mediated, and partially interpersonal) has produced an expansion of the intertextual zone that has been the bedrock of the celebrity industry for more than half a century, and that has now become the core of social media networks. The article investigates this convergence of presentation of the self through a study of celebrities’ self-presentation on social networks and their similarities with patterns of self-presentation among millions of other users. The article relates these forms of presentation to the greater discourses of the self that have informed the production of the celebrity for most of the last century.
Keywords:  intercommunication; presentational media; social networks; celebrity; Facebook; Twitter
The Celebrity as Part of the Digital Everyday / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 161-188
annotation:  This article describes the phenomenon of the celebrity, its emergence and development in cultural and historical context. The first part of the article provides a brief historical account of the beginning of modernity, when the cultural phenomenon of persons famous for something other than their military achievements, their inheritance, or their artistic talents first emerges. This part of the article addresses the heyday of cinema and television, i.e. the period between the start of the 19th century and the latter half of the 20th century. The second part of the article is dedicated to celebrities as objects of contemporary cultural and social research. As a discipline, celebrity studies is a relatively new sphere in US and UK universities, but an increasing number of researchers are taking up the study of celebrities each year. This is due to the fact that celebrities o en embody a non-articulated public mood, and also because modern celebrity culture is based on the capitalization of names and thus perfectly illustrates many key processes taking in the cultural industry today. The article concludes by examining the phenomenon of internet celebrities, who used the representation of everyday practices in order to gain the attention of their audiences. This is a comparatively new phenomenon that has not been fully examined by academics. This phenomenon occurs when there is a reduction of design, expressed in the demonstration of sincerity and simplicity, resulting in a new sort of self-design. The audience’s demand for simplicity and naive sincerity generates two new trends that will prevail in the culture of celebrities in the coming years. On the one hand, stars will bet on the expansion of demonstrations of everyday life practices. On the other hand, new applications and platforms will emerge that are specifically designed to preserve privacy and the ability to participate in one-way data transmission without interactive connections with fans.
Keywords:  celebrity; fame; social networks; popular culture; attention economics; commonplace; mass media
Under the Other’s Gaze: The Selfie through the Lens of Lacanian Psychoanalysis / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 189-218
annotation:  This essay is an interpretation of the phenomenon of the selfie. The author considers what the phenomenon of the selfie says about the constitution of the human subject. Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalytic theory of the subject is used as a fulcrum to investigate, in particular, his reflections on the gaze (le regard) and the role it plays in the process of constituting human subjectivity. The author takes one specific “mirror selfie” and consistently examines various aspects of the gaze in relation to it: the gaze as it constitutes and verifies the identity of the subject — this aspect is explained with the help of Lacan’s “double-mirror device,” which structurally is very similar to selfie; the ideological dimension of the gaze and “visual interpellation,” which installs the subject into the big Other; the gaze as the objectcause of desire — this aspect explains why one is not satis ed with a single selfie and turns this practice into a constant cyclical pattern; the unbearable inevitability of the gaze and of the attempt to take control of it — the selfie is considered as an attempt to tame the gaze of the Other, to gentrify it; the monstrous Real dimension of the gaze — here one can find analysis of shaming and other cases of traumatic encounters with the gaze of the Other. This traumatic dimension demonstrates that taming of the gaze is something that is doomed to ultimately fail. The author concludes that new technologies, and in particular the new possibilities of self-representation they provide, do not distort the nature of man, but, on the contrary, only reveal it with greater clarity.
Keywords:  Jacques Lacan; Jean-Paul Sartre; sel e; theory of the subject; ideology; Instagram; shaming
The Obscurity Meme / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 219-235
annotation:  This article analyses the term “meme,” its history, its ideological and theoretical background. The article aims to reveal the meaning of the term in different scientific and philosophical interpretations. The term “meme” was introduced by Richard Dawkins, who tried to embed culture into his theory of gene evolution. Hence, its meaning was similar to “gene” in Richard Dawkins’s interpretation. The term became popular in research, in culture, in popular science, and in the sphere of common sense. It is often used to describe online phenomena of funny pictures and phrases that spread quickly. The scientific use of the term supposes a specific ideological background. It is atheistic, technocratic, media-oriented and depicts the human being as a prosumer. This approach is not as developed in the fields of anthropology or sociology, yet it became widely used in research related to viral news or messages diffusion. The article claims that meme popularity is part of an attempt to conceptualize text and context in a new way, stressing the pragmatic aspects of messages exchanges. This claim builds on Marshall McLuhan’s and other media theorists’ idea of communication. The content of memes is similar to what Claude Lévi-Strauss called “bricolage,” and the social situation refers to Benjamin’s mechanical reproduction. Finally, the meme is compared to theories of popularity and celebrities, and is recognized as a conceptual language to describe the practice of consumption that is close to production. The key feature of meme in this context is that it does not produce new meanings; it only reproduces old ones.
Keywords:  meme; celebrity; internet; Richard Dawkins; Walter Benjamin; Claude Lévi-Strauss; Stoned Fox
ZOOM x 2: What Coinsides within Coinsidentology and Why It Should Be Disentangled / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 236-242
Blindsight: Technotheology vs Digital Code / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 243-249
Obsessed Subject of Modernity / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 250-258
There Is No Philosophy but Gnoseology, and Ilyenkov Is Its Prophet / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 259-262
Analytic Philosophy Today: Identity Crisis / Logos. 2016. № 5 (114). P. 1-18
annotation:  The state of contemporary analytic philosophy is somewhat paradoxical. On the one hand, it has demonstrated almost complete dominance in Anglo-Saxon countries and has gradually strengthened its impact on European thought at large. On the other hand, today more and more scholars are declaring the emergence of a crisis of “analytism” as a philosophical ideology. In the second half of the 20th century, analytic philosophy has turned into a kind of intellectual establishment, and, like all successful revolutionary movements, it has lost its vitality in virtue of its success. All of its basic principles and ideas formulated by logical empiricists were either rejected or radically revised by their successors. The philosophical movement that initially set out to achieve the “elimination of metaphysics through logical analysis of language” (Rudolf Carnap) later became even more metaphysically loaded than other intellectual schools or traditions.
There is no consensus among contemporary analysts concerning the tasks and methods of philosophy; the very focus on language (in the case of philosophy of mind, for instance) turned out to be optional. It can be argued that by the end of the 20th century, analytic philosophy ceased to exist as a distinct and self-sustained movement of thought. Rather, it presents itself as a conglomeration of multifarious philosophical doctrines and research programs united only on the basis of their more or less pronounced commitment to a particular style of thinking. Analysts’ pretensions to advance a worldwide transnational philosophy have failed too. In most countries of continental Europe, analytic philosophy is regarded now as specifically Anglo-American tradition.

Keywords:  analytic philosophy; metaphysics; linguistic reductionism; history of philosophy; identity crisis
Battlefield — Free Will / Logos. 2016. № 5 (114). P. 19-58
annotation:  This article offers an overview of contemporary debates surrounding the problem of free will and addresses some of the metaphysical assumptions underlying these debates. The first part of the article provides a critical overview of the most influential arguments on the problem of free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, and hard incompatibilism. It discusses the limitations of George Edward Moore’s hypothetical analysis of the ability to do otherwise and the problems of psychological accounts of free will in contemporary compatibilism. It briefly examines contemporary libertarian theories of free will, provides criticism of agent-causal theories, and discusses the innovative character of Robert Kane’s theory of Ultimate Responsibility. Hard incompatibilism is criticized because of its methodological deficiencies in exploring the prospects of living without freedom of will. The second part of the article is devoted to the analysis of the metaphysical assumptions underlying these debates. First, it provides a criticism of causal determinism, arguing that causal determinism is neither a sound nor plausible thesis from both the “objective” and the “subjective” perspectives. Second, it discusses some of the motivating ideas for the development of libertarian accounts of free will. Nonstandard libertarian approaches to free will are proposed here in order to uncover these motivating ideas and to make explicit “the dogma of control” in contemporary debates.
Keywords:  free will; determinism; compatibilism; incompatibilism; libertarianism; hard incompatibilism
Optimistic Skepticism About Free Will / Logos. 2016. № 5 (114). P. 59-102
annotation:  The author of the paper presents an argument for his theory of hard incompatibilism. According to this position, people do not have the type of free will that is required for moral responsibility. The general argument for this view consists of three parts. In the first one, the author argues against compatibilism, or the thesis that free will is compatible with determinism. If causal determinism holds, then our actions are determined by factors beyond our control. This kind of determination would exclude freedom and responsibility. To prove this point, the author proposes a four-case manipulation argument, which demonstrates how even the best compatibilist theories pose problems for understanding responsibility and free will. In the second part of the article, the author argues against libertarianism, or the thesis that free will is compatible with causal indeterminism. The author points out that given our best physical theories, the idea of substance causation by agents is not credible. On the other hand, the metaphysics of indeterministically connected events could not provide the kind of control that would be sufficient for freedom and responsibility. The author proves this point by presenting the case of the disappearing agent. In the third part of the article, the author reflects on the consequences that giving up on the idea of free will and moral responsibility could have for our social institutions and for our sense of meaning in life. He argues that these consequences would not be as harmful as many may suppose. Moreover, he argues that life and society would improve and become more humane if we were to give up on the idea of moral responsibility.
Keywords:  free will; determinism; compatibilism; incompatibilism; hard incompatibilism; skepticism; manipulation argument; responsibility
Acting “of One’s Own Free Will”: Modern Reflections on an Ancient Philosophical Problem / Logos. 2016. № 5 (114). P. 103-130
annotation:  The article presents one of the most influential contemporary libertarian accounts of free will. The author argues that we must rethink the modern tendency to reduce the problem of free will to the problem of free action. The author’s theory of Ultimate Responsibility emphasizes the formation of will (character, motives, values of the agent) as crucial for problems concerning responsibility and freedom. The ability to form the self or “will” depends on the agent’s ability to perform a so-called “selfforming action” not fully determined by the past of the agent. These specific actions occur in situations of genuine indeterminacy and inner conflict between competing motives and goals of the agent. However, to be a genuine source of freedom and responsibility, these self-forming actions should be under control of the agent, as well connected with the personhood of the agent. The author explains how the relevant kind of control can be construed within an indeterministic framework. According to him, some real indeterminacy in the physical world, more specifically, in brain processes, must represent these actions in order for them to be free and not fully determined by past events. The author shows how all these conditions can be combined in a sound and plausible theory that renders the libertarian position no less intelligible than its compatibilist alternatives. The second half of the article answers key points of criticism that have been directed at this theory, paying special attention to the problem of luck.
Keywords:  free will; indeterminism; libertarianism; incompatibilism; moral responsibility; ultimate responsibility; luck
Semicompatibilism and Its Rivals / Logos. 2016. № 5 (114). P. 131-174
annotation:  The author of this article, one of the most prominent compatibilists in contemporary philosophy, provides an overview of his “framework for moral responsibility” and argues for his theory of semi-compatibilism. He also discusses a number of reasons to prefer his theory against rival views in contemporary compatibilism. The key motivating idea for this theory stems from the appeal of a certain sort of “resiliency.” He argues that our fundamental status as free and responsible agents “should not depend on certain subtle ruminations of theoretical physicists.” The theory of freedom and responsibility should be compatible both with causal determinism and with causal indeterminism. This version of compatibilism includes three main concepts: the concept of guidance control, the concept of reasons-responsiveness and the concept of “ownership.” The concept of guidance control defines the kind of control that is relevant for freedom and responsibility, but does not require alternative possibilities. The concept of reasons-responsiveness defines the ability to recognize and apply reasons, including moral reasons in a person’s decision-making process. The concept of ownership defines how the mechanism that leads the agent to action should be connected with the person of the agent. The author argues that his approach is better than rival compatibilist accounts because of its three main features. First, his theory does not depend on the truth of causal determinism or causal indeterminism. Second, his theory does not involve hierarchical structures of consciousness that generate a number of problems in contending theories. Third, the theory of guidance control can explain the cases weak-willed actions. All these advantages are shown by pointing out the relevant problems within compatibilist theories of Harry Frankfurt and Gary Watson.
Keywords:  guidance control; hierarchical accounts of acting freely; reasons responsiveness; regulative control; semicompatibilism
Two Dead Ends of Incompatibilism / Logos. 2016. № 5 (114). P. 175-200
annotation:  This article is dedicated to various key approaches to solving the problem of free will through incompatibilism. Incompatibilists believe that moral responsibility and free will are incompatible with determinism. Libertarianism, which is one form of incompatibilism, assumes the reality of free will and denies determinism. In this article, I show that radical libertarianism, according to which even our own characters are to be freely created, is conceptually incoherent. I also show that mitigated libertarianism has several flaws and no advantages in comparison to compatibilism. Libertarians weaken the connection between an individual and her/his actions because such actions turn out to be undetermined by the intentions of the individual, and this must lessen her/his responsibility. Compatibilists instead declare a much stronger connection between an individual and action. The alleged advantages of libertarianism, namely favoring the principle of alternative possibilities and the feeling of freedom, are, in fact, compatible with determinism. Another version of incompatibilism assumes that free will and moral responsibility are sorts of illusions. I try to show that this line of reasoning is based on uncertain proofs, like the Manipulation Argument or the Consequence Argument. If we get rid of these tools and realize it is impossible to demonstrate through experiments the thesis that free will is an illusion, we would refute the thesis itself, because, taken as such, it is counterintuitive. The difficulties of incompatibilism indicate that a solution of the free will problem is likely to be found in compatibilism.
Keywords:  free will; moral responsibility; classical compatibilism; libertarianism; hard incompatibilism; alternative possibilities; consequence argument; manipulation argument
Can Determinism Manipulate Us? / Logos. 2016. № 5 (114). P. 201-212
annotation:  The article criticizes the manipulation argument, which is one of the strongest arguments against compatibilism. The argument is based on the notion of manipulation, which is not made clear enough by authors who use it. Derk Pereboom’s Four-Case Argument is a very representative and persuasive example of manipulation reasoning. An analysis of this notion allows us to clarify the necessary conditions of manipulation and to demarcate strong and weak types of manipulation. Manipulation presupposes two things: the manipulated agent and the manipulating factor. A case of manipulation takes place when agent A in the world W1 is compelled by factor F to do X. This is a case of strong manipulation if in the alternative world W2, which lacks factor F, under the same circumstances agent A would not do X. The first three cases of Pereboom’s argument meet the condition of strong manipulation. But the fourth case does not. In this case, determinism is the manipulating factor. According to the condition, there must be an alternative world W2 that lacks this factor. Therefore, W2 must be an indeterministic world. But in W2 the event in question may occur, or it may not occur. The condition of strong manipulation is not met. But only strong manipulation unquestionably suspends responsibility. Therefore it is demonstrated that the clarified notion of manipulation cannot be used in the argument.
Keywords:  free will; moral responsibility; compatibilism; incompatibilism; determinism; manipulation; manipulation argument
The “Consciousness Thesis” and Moral Responsibility in Neil Levy’s Research / Logos. 2016. № 5 (114). P. 213-226
annotation:  This paper presents an analysis of the “consciousness thesis” by Neil Levy and the argument in support of it. The “consciousness thesis” is a claim that consciousness is a necessary condition for moral responsibility. The author of the argument uses to word “consciousness” to refer to the information process in the brain that affects the behavior of the agent, and the contents of which can be reported verbally by him or her. The opponents of this thesis include philosophers-expressivists like Nomi Arpaly, Angela Smith, George Sher. Levy’s argument is built on the Global Workspace Model of consciousness. Levy believes that only consciousness as a global workspace can provide integration of information on the personal level. Automatisms and behavior not guided by conscious understanding of moral aspects of actions are not integrated on the personal level. This integration, however, supports the flexibility and which is necessary for moral responsibility according to two dominant theories: Real Self theory and control theory. Therefore, the consciousness thesis is proved. The author of this paper suggests that the weak point of Levy’s argument is his definition of consciousness. The consciousness thesis is most likely to be refuted by the proponents of two main theories of consciousness: qualophiles and illusionists. Qualophiles claim that the semantic content is based on the qualitatively phenomenal states, and integration of information by itself is not enough to form beliefs on the personal level. Therefore, consciousness as defined by Levy is not relevant for forming personal-level beliefs. Therefore it is not necessary for moral responsibility. Illusionists claim that beliefs are ascribed to the agents from the outside when their behavior is being interpreted. So even those processes that cannot easily be verbally reported still represent personal beliefs. From this we can conclude that consciousness as defined by Levy is not a necessary a condition for moral responsibility.
Keywords:  free will; moral responsibility; consciousness; consciousness thesis; Neil Levy.
The Extended Mind and the Causal Status of the Agent / Logos. 2016. № 5 (114). P. 227-242
annotation:  In this article, it is shown that the one of the basic premises of the free will debates is challenged by the extended mind hypothesis. The premise is that people’s actions are universally determined or undetermined by their previous states. In this article, the causal determinacy or indeterminacy of the behavior of an agent is called “causal status.” Agents whose behavior has just one possible future have determined causal status, while agents whose behavior may vary in the future have undetermined causal status. The structure of the world or local determinism may govern an agent’s causal status. It is claimed that according to extended mind hypothesis agents with different causal statuses may coexist in the world. The extended mind hypothesis states that artifacts located outside of human bodies may perform cognitive functions and we must recognize them as parts of a human cognitive system. Those artifacts may be either determined or undetermined. In both cases, according to the extended mind hypothesis, they are going to be parts of the human cognitive system. Therefore, with respect to cognitive functions performed by those artifacts, agents have different causal statuses. It is easy to imagine a situation in which various people use determined and undetermined devices simultaneously and are considered free in the same manner. If the presented arguments are valid, then the extended mind hypothesis and the assumption about the uniformity of causal states of free agents cannot both be true.
Keywords:  free will; extended mind; causality; determinism; compatibilism
Pragmatism, Identity and Free Will / Logos. 2016. № 5 (114). P. 243-277
annotation:  This article aims to clarify a pragmatist approach to the metaphysics of free will and determinism by focusing on works of William James and Morton White. It starts with general survey of relationship between American pragmatism and analytic philosophy. The author explains some reasons for why we should not follow Peter Strawson’s solution, although this solution and pragmatic theories seem very similar. Next, William James’s theory is considered, and, after analyzing its main arguments, the author raises some issues with regard to his point of view. Then the author tries to eliminate such problems from the pragmatic theory of free will, using Morton White’s ideas for this purpose. The author discusses the main points of his theory, including his criticism of George Edward Moore, Peter van Inwagen and Frankfurtstyle cases. The author emphasizes that so-called corporatism provides us with only a formal solution to the problem, and we need to seek a deeper and more thoughtful understanding of the issue. Then, two arguments based on phaneroscopie, observation, and Hume’s theory of causation are suggested. The first argument is speculative, and the second is empiricist. The speculative argument is based on a special interpretation of identity. The empiricist argument stands on the shoulders of Hume’s critique of causation. The author ultimately concludes that freedom is based on our belief in particular events, and belief in unity of the experience pushes us to be determinists.
Keywords:  pragmatism; identity; free will; William James; Morton White
A Different Philosophy of Music / Logos. 2016. № 4 (113). P. 1-6
Hip-Hop: Youth Counter-Revolution Culture / Logos. 2016. № 4 (113). P. 7-26
annotation:  This article focuses on hip-hop as a movement of popular culture. The article has two main aims. First, observation and discourse analysis, which will identify the principal tropes and commonalities through which researchers and critics of popular culture construct the unity of their analytical narration and subjects of research. It is argued that the achieved discursive unity (the unity of concepts, subjects or themes) does not allow researchers to capture hip-hop as movement in popular culture in all its diversity and heterogeneity. It is argued that academic researchers and critics of hip-hop culture are trapped in representations of the fundamental differences between “mainstream” and “underground.” The article shows that research on this topic is dominated by a kind of narrative scenario shaped in the post-war decades that depicts subculture as growing into a cultural movement with potential for progressive liberation. The second task of the article is pragmatic: to show why hip-hop is interesting in the current political circumstances. This questioning allows the author to formulate the following theses: 1) the eclecticism of values and style in mainstream and underground music renders the difference between them irrelevant; 2) the culture of hip-hop, with its aura of the local or the regional, is one of the manifestations of the antimodernization momentum; 3) the masculinity of hip-hop, its racial identity pathos and romanticizing gangsterism are manifestations of young peoples’ conservative reaction to rapid transformations of their social milieu; 4) the protest culture of hip-hop differs radically from youth protests against capitalism and bureaucracy of the 1960–1970s, with its pathos of gender and race equality, preaching of love and non-violence.
Keywords:  hip-hop; underground; mainstream; youth; protest
Punk in Russia: A Short History of the Evolution / Logos. 2016. № 4 (113). P. 27-61
annotation:  This article concerns the cultural evolution of punk in Russia. The work covers the period from the late 1970s (when the first punks appeared in the USSR) to the mid‑2010s. The study offers a critical reflection on (1) the first examinations of the history of Russian punk, which saw Russian punk as a culturally homogenous phenomenon, and (2) Western works understanding Russian punk as an essentially mimetic entity, copying “authentic” Anglo-American originals. Methodologically, the work departs from the claim of Penny Rimbaud, a musician and philosopher, one of the founding members of The Crass, and a leading ideologist of the DIY movement, on the essentially negative identity of punk. According to Rimbaud, punk continuously avoids positive cultural connotations and resists any closed discursive literality. Investigating the history of the punk scene in Russia, the authors show that, in contrast to Anglo-American punk, Russian punk did not emerge out of a cultural revolution, but rather developed in an evolutionary way. Having emerged on the periphery of rock culture, which itself was a deep underground phenomenon, Russian punk did not aim to confront the commercialization of rock. Instead, it aimed to radicalize the struggle of rock for cultural autonomy. As a result of the inevitable break with both Western punk (which actively distanced itself from mainstream rock) and the Russian rock scene (which did not accept the radical aesthetics of punk), the cultural identity of the punk scene in Russia was inherently precarious and unstable. It was formed in constant negotiation between its relationship with Russian rock culture on the one hand, and Western punk on the other. In the article, the authors distinguish several waves that define the meaning of punk in concrete historical circumstances, and show how diachronic ruptures fragmented cultural discourse of punk even further, which made it impossible to approach it as a single and homogeneous phenomenon, but which provided it with a unique discursive openness and relevance.
Keywords:  popular culture; punk; cultural history; identity; mimesis; style; protest
Voice of the Subaltern: Representations of Otherness in Musical Practices of the “Black Atlantic” / Logos. 2016. № 4 (113). P. 63-94
annotation:  This article considers the problem of self-expression of the subaltern (those who are in a subordinate position in the power hierarchy) and their resistance to the existing order through making music. The topic is addressed in the context of black pop music, which was formed as a result of intensive cultural exchange in the Atlantic. Reflection on experiences of discrimination and the search for alternatives to (Eurocentric) forms of imagination, communication, and political action are constitutive elements of black music. Paul Gilroy, Professor at King’s College London, identifies this alternative as the “counterculture of modernity.” He uses this definition in his book “The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Conciseness,” which is dedicated to the phenomenon of black culture and the role of music in it. This study verifies the key points suggested by Gilroy in his book, and considers a vast array of examples of musical practice. The first part of the article is devoted to a particular form of identity that appears most clearly in musical communication. Black music arises from the collision of different cultural streams in the Atlantic area. It exists in a tension between nomadism and rootedness. For this reason, any attempts to nationalize musical styles (as any other essentialist approaches to their adherents’ identities) seem misleading. At the same time, the rituals of “black music” formed in a context of resistance to colonial power, which explains the coherence of their participants’ self-awareness. The second part of the article describes various social practices, always accompanied by music, which embody certain types of otherness. Participants of such practices consciously put on the mask of the Other, who is the subject of discrimination. Finally, the third part of the article considers the problem of unequal access to resources of representation in the context of demand for authenticity on “world music” markets.
Keywords:  music; counterculture; identity; diaspora; representation; postcolonial theory; subaltern studies; cultural studies
Popodicy. A Technotheological Reading of Popular Music / Logos. 2016. № 4 (113). P. 95-118
annotation:  This paper provides a genetic analysis of popular music from both the technical and religious perspectives. The phenomenon of popular music is thought to be based on a sound record that is regarded as a medium in three ways: 1) as a techno-economic artifact (medium), 2) as a carrier of a love text (mediator), and 3) as a part of everyday life (milieu). The author traces the theological origin of these three concepts (medium, love, the everyday). For this purpose, the author introduces the notion of translation, which is the main tool of technotheological analysis. The history of translation from Young Hegelians to media theory is briefly explored. In the era of late industrialization, the techno-economic medium and the everyday both appear as a complete translation of theological content and love as its incomplete translation, or a “theological residue.” Love is not fully translated (disenchanted, rationalized), and it thus becomes a key text (message) of pop culture media. The function of love being transmitted by means of sound media is the “bearing” of the everyday, the defense from it, whereas the anthropotheotechnical function of popular music in general is the stimulation of the will under conditions of “death” or “weakness of God.” The convergence of the technological, the economic, and the religious in a sound record is made possible by a unifying technotheological scheme. In order to replicate, love as theological residue parasitically exploits pop culture artifacts, while the economic and theological dimensions of pop media are symbiotic. The final beneficiary of both parasitism and symbiosis is capital, but the possibility of obtaining economic benefits stems from a certain theological construct, namely the technotheological scheme of filioque (“pop culture filioque”).
Keywords:  popular music; love; everyday; technotheology; filioque
Fear of Repetition. Vladimir Martynov’s Philosophy, Metaphysics, and Methodology / Logos. 2016. № 4 (113). P. 119-149
annotation:  The article examines the philosophical, historical, and theoretical views of the Russian composer Vladimir Martynov in the context of musical minimalism, a style closely associated with the composer’s working methods. In particular, the article focuses on the category of time, which in minimalist music undergoes drastic transformation resulting in a totally new array of procedural instructions and approaches to musical structure. The author aims to demonstrate how philosophical, theoretical, technical and social aspects of minimalism correspond with Martynov’s own concept of the “end of the time of composers,” and how they inform, illustrate and, in some respects, contradict it. The first part of the article deals with Martynov’s historical philosophy of music, which describes the development of musical forms and practices through a series of dispositions referring to musical structure and the role of an author in its creation. It discusses the three basic forms of music according to Martynov: “ritual music,” “composers’ music” and liturgical chant; defines the sources of this conception; and compares Martynov’s interpretations with the original content of the sources. The second part of the article outlines the history of American minimalist music; examines its origins; conceptualizes its seminal problem, namely, the representation in music of “non-teleological” time; and considers related methodological, social, and ideological effects of such representation. In the third part of the article, the author draws a correlation between Martynov’s music and the methodology of minimalism, and attempts to define how the composer’s digression from the agenda underlying minimalism influences both his music and his philosophy.
Keywords:  Vladimir Martynov; minimalism; time; temporality; repetition; the end of the time of composers; determinism; referentiality; teleology; meaning of music
In Defense of the Power of Solitude / Logos. 2016. № 4 (113). P. 151-164
annotation:  This article derives from a lecture given on Radio Free Berlin (Sender Freies Berlin) in 1983. It was published as part of a collection of Marquards’ papers, titled Skepticism and Agreement (Skepsis und Zustimmung). The articles of this collection specify and build on ideas fist articulated in the work Farewell to Matters of Principle (Abschied vom Prinzipiellen). The lecture In Defense of the Power Solitude addresses a broad audience. For this reason, the author does not indicate who his main opponents are, but a polemic with Jürgen Habermas’s theory of communicative action and Theodor Adorno’s critical theory can be traced in the text. The author argues with the popular critical theory approach to solitude, stating that the main problem of modernity is not in fact solitude, but rather the lack of capacity for solitude. In the first part of the article, the author deals with the sociocultural foundations for why solitude is an inevitable characteristic of modernity. In the second part of the article, the author describes how modern citizens try to avoid solitude, and points out that these attempts may produce the opposite results of what is intended. The third part of the article presents a detailed argumentation for why it is useless to try and avoid solitude. The author argues that solitude should be accepted, at least insofar as it allows for distancing oneself from reality in order to soberly assess it. This conclusion is articulated in the fourth and final part of the work, in which the author identifies the phenomena that cannot save one from solitude, but that contribute to the formation of a culture of capacity for solitude.
Keywords:  Joachim Ritter school; compensation theory; philosophical skepticism; solitude; modernity; urban culture; theory of communicative action; critical theory
Odo Marquard: the Scepticism and Agreement / Logos. 2016. № 4 (113). P. 165-179
annotation:  The article examines the intellectual biography and views of the greatest German polemist and philosopher of the latter half of the 20th century, Odo Marquard. From a historical philosophical point of view, Marquard is considered to be a member of the school of Joachim Ritter, who is mostly known as the initiator and chief editor of the fundamental encyclopedic text Historical dictionary of philosophy (Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie, 1971–2007). Marquard himself points out that his reception of Ritter’s philosophy was strongly influenced by the protests of 1968. His affirmative position towards the modern world is in part a consequence of these political events. Until this period, Marquard was deeply interested in the Frankfurt School and wrote sarcastic epigrams about Ritter’s philosophy. But after 1968, Marquard began to debate with the theories of Theodor Adorno and Jürgen Habermas, and Ritter’s philosophy of diremption (Entzweiung) became the object of his reflection as well as partially a polemical weapon against attempts to question the foundations of the liberal-democratic society of postwar West Germany. From a political point of view, Marquard’s philosophy is often considered to be a philosophy of liberal conservatism. Marquard points out that the history of the formation of liberal institutes plays a great role in modernity at large. This emphasis can be explained historically. Marquard belongs to the generation identified by Helmut Schelsky as a “skeptical generation.” This generation underwent radical historical breaks. Extreme politicization of everyday life under national socialism, World War II, the collapse of the Third Reich, and the experience of radical disorientation all contribute to Marquard’s skeptical position, which distances itself from any ideology or assertion, and pretends to be the absolute truth. According to Marquard, a skeptic aims not to search for a theory that could “reconcile” a conflict between differing points of view, but rather to uphold this conflict. In other words, the aim is to uphold a principle of separation of powers, where the powers are considered not only as political institutions, but also as assertions, theories, conceptions that could influence the position of an individual.
Keywords:  Odo Marquard; Joachim Ritter school; Frankfurt School; compensation theory; skeptical generation; conception of modernity; philosophical skepticism; modernization; historization
Confessions of a Retromaniac / Logos. 2016. № 4 (113). P. 180-188
Music at the Heart of Noise / Logos. 2016. № 4 (113). P. 189-195
Children of One Video Sequence / Logos. 2016. № 4 (113). P. 196-204
The Political Slang of New Music / Logos. 2016. № 4 (113). P. 205-214
Translator’s Note / Logos. 2016. № 3 (112). P. 2-5
Preface / Logos. 2016. № 3 (112). P. 6-16
1. Why Blues? / Logos. 2016. № 3 (112). P. 17-56
2. First Encounters / Logos. 2016. № 3 (112). P. 57-75
3. Moscow Blues: Musicians and Their Music / Logos. 2016. № 3 (112). P. 76-110
4. Moscow Blues: Sites and Sounds / Logos. 2016. № 3 (112). P. 111-132
5. St. Petersburg and the Provinces / Logos. 2016. № 3 (112). P. 133-163
6. Identity and Community / Logos. 2016. № 3 (112). P. 164-193
7. Politics / Logos. 2016. № 3 (112). P. 194-215
Acknowledgments / Logos. 2016. № 3 (112). P. 216-217
Chicago — Moscow, or the Modern History of Russian Blues / Logos. 2016. № 3 (112). P. 218-233
“Blues is a Good Ideology.” / Logos. 2016. № 3 (112). P. 234-255
German Idealism After Finitude / Logos. 2016. № 2 (111). P. 1-4
Abstraction and Utopia in Early German Idealism / Logos. 2016. № 2 (111). P. 5-28
annotation:  This paper is based on a close reading of the first five propositions of Schelling’s Darstellung meines Systems der Philosophie (1801). The author argues that what is distinctive and significant about these propositions is that they both describe and create an ideal space determined by an a-thetic logic. The first five propositions of the 1801 Darstellung are intended to transport the reader outside of time and space, outside of affirmation and negation, to a neutralised utopia defined by three functions alone: abstraction, entailment and definition. The author considers this intention in the context of German Idealist discussions of abstraction: Hegel’s critique of the abstract particular and abstractive methodology, as well as Fichte’s and early Schelling’s attempt to theorise abstraction as the starting point for the philosophical enterprise. This leads the author to consider what a philosophical text that practices abstraction and construction (rather than deduction, inference, or explanation) looks like, and he draws upon the early work of Louis Marin to characterise such a text as utopic. In so doing, he attempts to demonstrate the significance and cogency of a non-dialectical, a-Hegelian tradition in early German Idealism that culminates in the opening pages of Schelling’s 1801 Darstellung.
Keywords:  Friedrich Schelling; Louis Marin; abstraction; utopia; early German idealism
Contingency, Pure Contingency: Modal Categories in Hegelian Logic / Logos. 2016. № 2 (111). P. 29-54
annotation:  Beginning during G.W. F. Hegel’s own lifetime, two interlinked unsympathetic portraits of Hegel take shape and become enduring refrains in his critics’ complaints. According to the first of these, the Hegelian philosophical system posits a foundational teleological necessity that rigidly determines the constitution of both natural and human realities. The second critical portrayal of Hegel charges him with an ideologically pernicious Panglossianism dressing up a miserably conservative/reactionary status quo as the highest possible socio-historical realization of Reason itself. Taken together, these two connected criticisms amount to treating Hegelian Wissenschaft as a post-Kantian version of Leibniz’s theosophy, with the former, purportedly like the latter, appealing to a necessary teleology supposedly guaranteeing the actualization of “the best of all possible worlds.” From the late-period F. W. J. Schelling and Rudolf Haym through today, countless voices past and present have repeated these anti-Hegelian allegations. The goal of the paper, simply stated, is to thoroughly discredit both of these pictures of Hegel’s philosophy. These two entwined lines of criticism ultimately rest upon the imputation to Hegel of a certain arrangement of modal categories in which possibility has priority over actuality, and necessity dictates the transition from the possible to the actual. Through a close reading of Hegel’s core doctrine of modal categories as definitively delineated in his mature Logic, the author shows that the depiction of Hegel as a neo-Leibnizian is an intellectually bankrupt, one-hundred-eighty-degree inversion of the truth.
Keywords:  Hegel’s logic; contingency; possibility; necessity; modalities
Speculation and Infinite Life: Hegel and Meister Eckhart on the Critique of Finitude / Logos. 2016. № 2 (111). P. 55-80
annotation:  The paper turns to the thought of G.W. F. Hegel and its convergence with Meister Eckhart’s thought in order to explore the possibility of a speculative and affirmative relationship between philosophy and religion. It argues that these thinkers, taken together, offer a possible way of rejecting one of the binary structures prevalent in recent continental philosophy, namely the division between an atheistic defense of philosophy and its (secular) egological subjects on one hand, and the affirmation of the primacy of transcendence and alterity (in a quasi-theological vein) on the other hand. Hegel’s and Eckhart’s works suggest that such binaries foreclose a third possibility of annihilating the subject as a way to affirm a speculative and infinite immanence. Utilizing different discursive spaces and theoretical vocabularies, Hegel and Eckhart propose to annihilate the subject as the site from which transcendence could be affirmed in the first place. Moreover, here, God no longer functions as a name against which to struggle in the name of atheism, or one to uphold for a theological critique of the secular. Rather, it becomes the name for the possibility of absolute desubjectivation, of self-emptying and annihilating the subject — processes that are no longer open to transcendence, but reveal the ungrounded immanence of life. In tracing these logics, this paper questions the dominant distribution of concepts structuring the recent turn to religion in continental philosophy, and suggests one possibility for the democratization of thought that would dislocate the imperialism of secular and atheistic discourses without elevating theology to a renewed position of power.
Keywords:  Hegel; speculation; finitude; life; immanence; negative theology
Beginning with Kant: German Idealism, Utopia, and Immanence / Logos. 2016. № 2 (111). P. 81-106
annotation:  This paper offers a reading of German Idealism from within its Kantian origin, defined here as utopian. To make such a definition possible, utopia must be understood as something other than a mere idealistic vision of the future. Originating by definition as a “non-place,” utopia must involve a rearticulation of the problem of beginning. Utopia begins as if at a distance from the real, but in such a way that it remains impossible to reach it from within reality; any such transition would have to remain, at best, an infinite approximation. It is therefore pointless to expect utopia — one can only begin from it. This implies a different, non-Spinozan immanence, which the author calls utopian; based on a re-reading of idealism’s self-distancing from dogmatism and the logic of beginning and immanence in the Kantian corpus, he identifies it in Kant. Idealism, as non-realism, suspends the real and starts from a “non-place,” refusing to think the emergence of the ideal from any environment. This non-place is reduplicated as an immanent, non-dualist facticity starting from which the subject of idealism begins to think and act. Idealism thus implies a utopian structure (non-relation), method (suspension), and temporality (futurity-as-facticity), which, taken together, suggest a different way of looking at the continuity between Kant and post-Kantian idealism and Romanticism, as well as a way of thinking immanence as non-Spinozist — and even as deconstructing Spinozism — while also escaping any dualism, including the religioussecular binary.
Keywords:  ant; German Idealism; utopia; immanence; temporality
The Beginning of Spirit As We Know It: Hegel’s Mother / Logos. 2016. № 2 (111). P. 107-132
annotation:  Contemporary anthropological discourses are struggling and striving more than ever before. This may come as a surprise, given the long-time intimate connection anthropology has had with metaphysics. This article investigates how and why Hegel’s anthropology, the first part of his philosophy of subjective spirit and his philosophy of spirit as a whole, is a means of overcoming a substantialist characterization of the human. To that end, the article turns to Hegel’s conception of habit in order to raise the problem of the human spirit’s beginning in Hegel’s anthropology and the relationship between habit as “second” nature and the “first” nature that habit transforms. In doing this, we come across the issue of inheritance in Hegel: if there is nothing that is a given, then how can we conceive that which spirit somehow inherits? Hegel refers to this presence of spirit in the mode of absence as “nature.” Spirit presupposes nature, i. e. its own absence. There are, furthermore, two important aspects to the natural disposition of spirit in Hegel, analyzed here: the concept of “genius” and the role of another subject. The author defends the idea that Hegel’s anthropology may be regarded as overcoming substantialism, because for Hegel the human being cannot but be confronted with the fact that there is no (m)other.
Keywords:  Hegel’s anthropology; philosophical anthropology; habit; inheritance
The Owl and the Angel / Logos. 2016. № 2 (111). P. 133-158
annotation:  In Hegel’s philosophical system, the owl of Minerva is not just a metaphor, but a significant symbol. In the symbolism of Hegel’s time, it stood for ideas of enlightenment and political emancipation, including radical, revolutionary, cosmopolitan, anti-monarchical, and even anarchistic ideas. Hegel, however, places the owl in a context that appears utterly un-revolutionary. “The owl of Minerva spreads its wings only with the falling of dusk,” he writes in the preface to the Philosophy of Right, thus summing up his argument that philosophy’s task is not to teach the world how it ought to be, nor to issue instructions to the state, but rather to comprehend the world as reasonable. Not only does Hegel’s owl seem to defend the reactionary present state (a state against which she previously fought in the name of reason and freedom), but she also seems to teach us to accept the present with joy. The point is not merely to reconcile oneself with reality, but also to enjoy it. This paper traces a number of explanatory trajectories — philosophical, psychological, and anthropological — in order to elucidate the paradoxical nature of this enjoyment, and compares the figure of Minerva’s owl with another flying creature, Walter Benjamin’s Angel of History. Such a comparison aims to pave the way towards a new interpretation of Hegel’s philosophy of history and time.
Keywords:  Hegel; Walter Benjamin; Owl of Minerva; Angel of History; happiness; revolution; dialectics
Kierkegaard, Fichte, and the Subject of Idealism / Logos. 2016. № 2 (111). P. 159-179
annotation:  While the philosophical and religious authorship of Soren Kierkegaard is often said to be absolutely anti-systematic, and in particular anti-idealist in its orientation, this essay argues that Kierkegaar’s philosophical project can in fact be best interpreted as offering a critical appropriation of the philosophy of German idealism. Through a reading of his text, Johannes Climacus, the author shows that Kierkegaard is interested in exploring the existential stakes of the philosophy of German idealism from the perspective of the dynamic development of consciousness. Along with this, he uses the work of J. G. Fichte to further show the manner in which this concern with the life of the individual subject places Kierkegaard in continuity with one of the key figures of German idealism. Along with a systematic reading which places Kierkegaard in clear historical continuity with German idealism, the paper concludes by arguing that this idealist interpretation of Kierkegaard not only places his thought more clearly in a nineteenth century philosophical context, but equally that this reading can offer conceptual support to contemporary theories of subjectivity. In particular, the author argues that only by re-reading the work of Kierkegaard via the conceptual framework of German idealism can we bring his thought to life in a way that makes it absolutely crucial to contemporary philosophical debates on the nature of subjectivity and the political.
Keywords:  Kierkegaard; Fichte; subjectivity; German Idealism.
Losers, Animals, and Animals-Losers / Logos. 2016. № 2 (111). P. 180-180
Anti-Nietzsche / Logos. 2016. № 2 (111). P. 181-208
Systems, Values, and Egalitarianism / Logos. 2016. № 2 (111). P. 231-244
annotation:  This article challenges Malcolm Bull’s “Anti-Nietzsche” and the claim that there is a “transcendental argument” in Nietzsche’s. The author distinguishes between two traditions of interpreting Nietzsche, the systematic and the perspectivist traditions. Geuss suggests that Bull follows the first tradition, the difficulties of which Nietzsche had warned about. It is possible that the transcendental argument may not amount to anything because one cannot reduce all evaluations to a single homogenous space. Geuss believes that some kinds of indifference, or absence of evaluation, do not fit the transcendental matrix of the Bull-Nietzsche argument, i. e. they cannot be presented in the form of a negative evaluation or refusal. One example is the absence of religious belief; Rorty points out that we should discuss not atheism itself, but rather the disappearance of the very categorical space in which there could be such a thing as religious belief. Ultimately, the single logic of “evaluating” can be treated as a consequence of the very linguistic trick Nietzsche had cautioned against. In discussing the question of egalitarianism and its treatment by Nietzsche and Bull, Geuss highlights the fact that Nietzsche distinguishes between two kinds of egalitarianism: factual and ascriptive, i. e. real and normative. Nietzsche does not oppose real egalitarianism, but challenges normative egalitarianism. Geuss contests Bull’s radical egalitarianism and argues that one should decide which kind of egalitarianism is worth supporting on a case-bycase basis.
Keywords:  valuation; egalitarianism; Nietzsche; transcendental argument; Malcolm Bull
Nietzsche for Losers? / Logos. 2016. № 2 (111). P. 209-230
annotation:  In his article, Peter Dews begins with reflections on the characteristic critical dynamics of European philosophy since Kant, then moves to an assessment of one of the main philosophical issues at stake — the role of transcendental argument in the thesis of will to power — and to a detailed discussion of Heidegger’s relation to Nietzsche and nihilism. The author suggests that the interpretative strategy chosen by Malcolm Bull in his book “Anti-Nietzsche” (“reading like a loser”) can work only within a nietzschean “ecology of value,” but not in the framework of Heidegger’s conception of Being and its “clearing.” Heidegger and Nietzsche are ultimately asymmetrical: the latter maintains some ecology of value through a hierarchy of people that is reestablished once the nihilism is transcended, while Heidegger contents himself with a minimal relation to Being which is not eliminated even in the “outer dark” Bull describes. The position of the “subhuman” is equivalent to that of Aristotle’s plant, notably of one who is excluded from any discourse, so he can contend nothing. Dews offers an alternative to both Nietzsche and Heidegger in the form of the concept of subject-subject relation, developed by many thinkers, from Hegel to Feuerbach to Levinas. This, according to the author, helps move away from Bull and his idea of the “subhuman” in order to find a new foundation for value-positing, free of any ecology.
Keywords:  critical philosophy; Nietzsche; Malcolm Bull; transcendental argument; reading like a loser; will to power; ecology of value
An Empty Community? / Logos. 2016. № 2 (111). P. 245-256
annotation:  This article addresses egalitarianism and the theory of need in Malcom Bull’s interpretation of Nietzsche. The author stresses the originality of Bull’s concept of “negative community” and identifies several problems associated with this concept. One of the key questions raised in this article relates to the idea of “need” itself. By settling with the formal concept of “need,” Bull opens the doors to difficult-to-solve cases because he does not consider any ranking of need. The author suggests that despite the caveats Bull himself identifies, his theory should nonetheless be treated as a theory of distributive justice that could lead to a substantive theory of need. According to Bull, negative community is divorced from the institution of property, although actual property can remain (albeit with no rights or guarantees attached). The author argues that even this minimal property is an example of a “property regime” that allows for the resolution of controversial cases. This extra-egalitarianism can easily and readily fall short of Pareto optimality, and therefore the disputed good could be destroyed so that none of the claimants can claim the good. This method is not universal, and a difficult trial could raise the eternal question of the “good life.” Efforts to establish egalitarianism upon a “needs” basis are not met with success, so Bull’s theory of negative community remains inconsistent.
Keywords:  Malcolm Bull; Anti-Nietzsche; need; distributive justice; negative community
The Politics of Falling / Logos. 2016. № 2 (111). P. 257-272
annotation:  In this article, Malcolm Bull responds to his critics and analyzes their claims. Bull believes that Nietzsche combines two arguments, the transcendental and the materialist (or biological), and that the latter could be challenged. The negative ecology of value demands a leveling of the world which may still lose more of its sense. In his answer to Raymond Geuss, Bull suggests that being unranked depends upon some evaluation, at least from Nietzsche’s point of view of not equating the valuation to explicit opinion. In answer to the argument about the theory of need, Bull contends that his extraegalitarianism should be understood as a process rather than as a final state at which the substantive ranking of needs should be defined. Bull goes on to claim that the question of the “ghost” as well as the issue of efficiency and optimality point to a metaphysical dimension in the arguments of his critics. Politics might be more like a fall than like a building or a theory standing upon a foundation. In returning to the question of Heidegger’s and Nietzsche’s ecology of values, Bull insists that Heidegger admits that differences between species is analogous to the border of German nation, and therefore it is not always self-evident that man cannot actually become lesser than himself. Subhumanism makes the world less and less welcoming to Being. In his answer to the Aristotelian argument about exclusion from discourse, Bull affirms that such an exclusion is the point of his project.
Keywords:  Malcolm Bull; Anti-Nietzsche; transcendental argument; falling; negative ecology; distributive justice
...sed magis amica phænomenologia / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 2-4
The Problem of Edmund Husserl’s Phenomenology / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 5-46
annotation:  In his seminal article from 1939, Fink presents his interpretation of Husserl’s philosophy by addressing the question of what the main problem of philosophy is. In his introduction, Fink stresses that at the start of any philosophy, including phenomenology, we find an astonishment that “reaches” and “overcomes” man and is experienced by him. The way a philosophy comes to grips with astonishment determines that philosophy’s characteristics and its main problem. The latter de defines the whole agenda and method of the philosophy. The problem of the Being is, for Husserl, the crucial problem in phenomenology, and he interprets it as a problem of evidence. Fink will follow a certain plan in his interpretation of Husserl’s phenomenology, but the article develops only the first two items in his plan: being as a phenomenon and intentional analysis. Fink gives a specific interpretation of Husserl’s famous motto “to the things themselves:” according to Fink, this is a claim aiming to surpass habitual understandings and seeming clarity, and to find being in its given-ness. Only consciousness, under- stood in an intentional way, can o er access to being as to a phenomenon-giving-itself-by-itself. Intentional analysis is a method for researching consciousness, and it provides a way back to the beginnings of knowledge, i.e. to evidence. The latter is the genuine and immediate given-ness of being through vision. e aim of phenomenology is to come back from everyday evidence to the beginning through the constant questioning of mock-evidence.
Keywords:  Eugen Fink; Edmund Husserl; philosophical astonishment; evidence; intentional analysis
Critiquing Husserl: Elements / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 47-62
annotation:  In his work Critiquing Husserl: Elements, Eugen Fink reviews the main hurdles encountered by phenomenological research in philosophy. Among these hurdles he lists the interweaving between moments of description, analysis and speculation; the outer-philosophical presuppositions conicting with the claim of presuppositionlessness; the non-thought relation to the philosophical tradition; contradictions between the philosophical project and the practiced method; idols (or operative concepts) of phenomenological research, such as “immediate givenness,” “prepredicative experience,” “rigorous science,” “ultimate foundation.” Elements touched upon in this work include y-six aphorisms that are to serve as the foundation of a “Treatise on Phenomenological Research.” They mark a transition period in Fink’s thought (1939–1946). During this period he le behind collaboration (intellectual “symbiosis”) with Husserl (1928–1938), within the framework of which many original Finkian themes were developed (for example, ideas about the “meontic” nature of subjectivity, a speculative and constructive supplement to Husserl’s project), and moved towards his own project of philosophical cosmology (1947–1975). Of special interest is the fact that in 1940, Fink, while trying to overcome the limitations of phenomenological philosophy, began to rely not on his own philosophical project (which is yet to develop), but mainly on Heidegger’s (and sometimes also Hegel’s) critiques of Husserl. In this work, Fink is still engaged in the phenomenological project, yet he tries to move beyond the ideas of this tradition’s founding father. is stance explains the unexpected harshness of some of Fink’s formulations, such as “is not worth a dime philosophically,” “boring descriptions,” “flagrant presupposition of the phenomenological description,” etc. In addition, we should remember that this text is compiled from Fink’s private notes rather than from his speeches or published treatises.
Keywords:  phenomenology; critique; Eugen Fink; Edmund Husserl; presuppositionlessness; description; analysis; speculation
On the Phenomenological Language in Critiquing Husserl: Elements: “Naïve” Description and Conceptual Work / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 63-67
“Plexus”of Phenomenological Work and the Fundamental Act of Philosophy / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 68-73
Eugen Fink, Husserl’s Faithful Disciple / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 74-78
An Obsolete Critique of Phenomenology: Beyond “the Infinite Disentanglement of Consciousness” / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 79-88
Dificulties of Phenomenological Research: Fink and Husserl / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 89-93
On the Philosophical Prerequisites of Husserl’s Phenomenology / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 94-98
“Being taken for Granted,” or Critiquing Fink’s Critique of Husserl’s Phenomenology / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 99-103
Husserl or Phenomenology: Fink’s Dilemma / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 104-107
The Philosopher’s Position in Husserl’s Phenomenology and Fink’s Critique / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 108-117
“All at is New Emanates from Those Who Are Marginalized.” / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 129-141
Aesthetic Politics as an Alternative and Requiem for a Political Aestheticism / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 142-148
The Double Mirror of Romanticism / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 149-153
Body Contours as Disciplinary Boundaries / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 154-161
Deleuze’s Speech / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 162-168
A Tricky Puzzle / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 169-178
Hilary Putnam and “American Exceptionalism” / Logos. 2016. № 1 (110). P. 179-186
Towards an Archaeology of Current and Future Appropriation Practices of Philosophical Texts: Ancient Commentary / Logos. 2015. № 6 (108). P. 1-21
annotation:  In the history of philosophy, it is common to disregard how one philosopher works on another philosopher’s text. “Commentary” in the broadest sense is currently considered to be any activity the reader and / or interpreter conducts with regard to the “text-object”— from marginal work to a scholarly work. The predecessors to “commentaries” were Greek hupomnêmata, or notes on the margins of scrolls. This genre evolved from serving as an explanation of the most complex passages to being a continuous, line-byline commentary. Unlike monographs and other “secondary” works dedicated to analysing primary literature, commentaries focus on the text itself instead of its meaning (from here stems the centuries-old debate between philological and philosophical commentary). The commentary also aims to limit itself to the role of serving the text, leaving out all rhetoric. To become an object of commentary, a text should be difficult and unclear enough, but also authoritative. Commentary is thus both an effect and a cause of authority. Plato and Aristotle engaged in producing commentary, and this heightened the prestige of this genre. Philosophizing and philosophical teaching centered around their commentaries for many centuries. Aristotle’s “Poetics” became a methodological roadmap for scholars in Alexandria. While it is possible that the commentary is not in fact a universal genre or an eternal genre, the transition from paper texts to online texts has resulted in new opportunities for the enrichment and differentiation of the commentary. This, in turn, forces us to reconsider the aims, principles, and methods of commenting.
Keywords:  text appropriation; commentary; marginalia; teaching of philosophy; Platonism; Peripatetic tradition; Alexandrian philology
Virtuous Tyranny. Classical Political Philosophy in Search of a New Terminology / Logos. 2015. № 6 (108). P. 22-43
annotation:  In this article, the author proposes to examine classical tyranny as it was known in Ancient Greece alongside modern forms of tyranny as the main objects of political theory. Based on the Leo Strauss’s analysis of Xenophon’s dialogue Hiero or Tyrannicus, the author uses the straussian approach in examining texts by two other Ancient Greek philosophers—Plato and Aristotle. It is noted that Xenophon’s aspirations to improve tyranny at least on a theoretical level are not unique (though still the complete and clear), and are typical for other philosophers, whom Strauss called as “great.” The author argues that all three thinkers sought to imagine the situation in which the worst political regime — tyranny — could be improved, or they tried to describe a new and better type of tyranny which would stand in contrast to a worse tyranny. In theory, a better tyranny could be made possible through the activities of the best people who possess the virtue of wisdom (i. e., philosophers), or who are close to wisdom (i. e., poets). The author notes that for some reason, philosophers have not proposed any new term to denote the phenomenon which they tried to work out. This was done for them by Leo Strauss, who proposed to describe this regime as “virtuous tyranny.” In addition, the text indicates the important and demonstrative emptiness in those parts of Ancient Greek philosophers’ texts which concerned their views regarding virtuous tyranny. They almost did not touch upon questions about God and afterlife because even the improved type of tyranny, based on illegitimate acquisition of power, is still a bad political regime, and hence in the afterlife the souls of the tyrants will get what they deserve.
Keywords:  political theology; classical political philosophy; virtuous tyranny; Plato; Xenophon; Aristotle; Leo Strauss
The Secular Political Theology of Marsilius of Padua / Logos. 2015. № 6 (108). P. 44-67
annotation:  This article offers a brief introduction into the political philosophy of theologian and philosopher Marsilius of Padua, set out in his treatise Defender of Peace. The article also attempts to describe this philosophy as one of the first secular political theologies. The authors show that the thinker’s works have not been sufficiently studied and therefore they turn to the very foundations of his ideas, which are usually hidden in the shadow of his practical activities: Marsilius took part in the struggle between papal power and power of the emperor, taking the side of the latter. The authors believe that the political theory of Marsilius can be considered “secular political theology” because reasoning about the relationship between church and state lies at the heart of his philosophy. Thus, Marsilius not only recognizes the primacy of the state, but also denies the possibility for the church to have any power, assuming its key function (as in pagan religions) to be punishment and retribution in afterlife. Although Marsilius does not deny the existence of the transcendental world, he notes that nothing specific can be said about it, and therefore focuses on this world only. The authors point out that though Marsilius, in the spirit of medieval thinking, relies on the political philosophy of Aristotle, he strongly underestimates the standards of Ancient Greek thought, believing that the purpose of this-world life is peace, but not virtue. However, in his contemporary political situation, Marsilius ascertained the lack of peace and the presence of disease that came with the emergence of Christianity. The cause of the disease was a false understanding of the place of priesthood in political life. To show the radical break of Marsilius’s thought with the previous theologians, the authors compare his doctrine with the political theology of Thomas Aquinas. The authors specially focus on the category of law in the political theory of Marsilius of Padua.
Keywords:  Marsilius of Padua; medieval political philosophy; political theology; natural law; human law; Leo Strauss; Aristotle
Machiavelli and the Problem of Political Morality / Logos. 2015. № 6 (108). P. 68-104
annotation:  The idea of political morality arises as an attempt to overcome a theoretically sterile (or “cheap,” to use Niklas Luhmann’s idiom) opposition between political moralism as a projection of “universal morality” onto politics and so-called political realism, which denies any ethical dimension of politics. The paper explores different approaches to political morality. The author points out the deficiency of approaches that reduce political morality to the recognition of the necessity to use morally reprehensible means (in some “extraordinary situations”) and to the attendant moral qualms and scruples of those politicians who find it necessary to resort to them. An alternative approach to political morality unveils it as a set of ethical (as distinguished from “technical”) orientations and competencies, which emanate from the very practice of politics, from what Machiavelli referred to as “necessitá.” Such orientations and competencies are not necessarily related either to the virtuousness of the participants in politics or to its determinateness by any “higher objectives” that politics supposedly serves or is meant to serve. In the concluding section of this paper, three pivotal “principles” of political morality thus understood are adumbrated, namely, the economy of violence, perspectivism, and a quest for alternatives, that is, to use Machiavelli’s terms, for a method to “recast everything anew.”
Keywords:  political morality; moralism; political realism; violence; perspectivism; conflict; Machiavelli
When a Body Meets a Body: Jeremy Bentham’s Afterlife / Logos. 2015. № 6 (108). P. 105-113
annotation:  The author of this essay reflects on the question of death from an unexpected perspective. The author’s hobby, to visit tombs of philosophers, eventually led him to the “auto-icon,” or Jeremy Bentham’s preserved skeleton dressed in clothes and with a wax head, kept in London University College, What inspired a man to leave his corpse for future generations — narcissism, morbid exhibitionism or an inexplicable fascination with death? All of these questions inspired the author to find out why corpses, zombies, skeletons and other macabre artefacts have always sparked persistent interest among the living. We can trace this interest to so-called body-snatchers who would satisfy the mercantile interests of hospitals and medical colleges. Physicians needed dead bodies for their anatomic studies. But today’s organ-trafficking implies that body-snatching is still alive and well. A distinguishing characteristic of modern times is the unconscious taboo associated with certain topics, including death. But this ban has also triggered universal interest towards the undead. The author argues that our attitude towards the dead is a marker of dignity. The author does not believe in life after death and attempts to follow Bentham’s example and to leave his body to science. However, the author argues that the decision, to leave one’s body to science should be an act of free will.
Keywords:  death; corpse stealer; utilitarianism; plastination
Power of Will or Power of Circumstances? Louis Antoine de Saint-Just and an Archetypes of a Revolutionary’s Mindset / Logos. 2015. № 6 (108). P. 114-151
annotation:  The article focuses on the problem of archetypes of a revolutionary’s mind. The French Revolution became a phenomenon concerning not only socio-political structures, but also moral values and ideas. It formed a new type of individual and new ways of thinking. Louis Antoine Saint-Just, one of the most prominent revolutionary leaders, has been chosen as an example of such thinking. Neither Russian nor French histriography schools have considered him to be a revolutionary archetype, perferring instead to concentrate on his political ideas, which followed the general paradigm of the Enlightenment. The author argues that it would be much more fruitful to study the phenomenon of a revolutionary’s thought based on historical and philosophical analysis, and to analyze a revolutionary’s psychological «type» on the basis of the example of Saint-Just. Such an archetype may be applied to the revolutionaries of the following epochs. The author poiunts out that the ideas of Saint-Just can be compared to Sergey Nechaev’s famed “Revolutionary’s catechism.” His speeches and treatises reflect a revolutionary’s moral foundations, his views of individual and social virtues and ideals, his vision of a new society in which an individual’s moral characteristics play the leading role and where morality influences his political behaviour. The peculiarity of a revolutionary’s thinking is the polarization of reality, dividing it into an enemy and a devoted citizen, the denial of any compromise and looking towards the future. The author stresses that such stereotypes of a revolutionary’s logic are the creation of the image of a foe, the notion of the dictatorship of justice, a peculiar vision of indulgence not as an act of compassion, but as a crime aimed to excuse a traitor of the republic. Saint-Just formed a clear and pragmatic plan for the conversion of society and defined the behavioral and moral traits of the type of individual that should dominate this society.
Keywords:  French revolution; terror; montagnards; revolutionary thinking; dictatorship of justice
John Dewey and the Social State: Towards a History of the Development of American Democracy / Logos. 2015. № 6 (108). P. 152-162
annotation:  The article is devoted to analyzing the influence of the American philosopher John Dewey on the process of transformation from classical liberalism to social realism, postulating the interference of the state in the market and in the affairs of individuals. The author describes the reasons behind the need for such a transformation, recounts the origins of the argumentation used by supporters of the new interpretation of liberalism, and analyzes its relationships with the position of the “old liberals.” The influence of social liberalism philosophy on political systems is two-fold. European states adopted new forms relatively quickly, implementing principles of the welfare state as one of the mechanisms of post-war reconstruction. The USA implemented elements of this ideology even before World War II, within the framework of the “New Deal,” but only in a very limited fashion (despite the fact that Dewey himself tried to popularize these ideas in the USA). Despite this limited implementation, the influence of John Dewey and his ideas on American society is deeper than could be expected. He made a utopian idea of absolute equality discernible to large parts of the population in the USA, and subsequently saved the political system from social upheaval. In moments of crisis, Americans take “Dewey’s social liberalism pill,” but they never finish the full course of this treatment.
Keywords:  John Dewey; liberalism; social state; welfare state; the USA
Breaking with Carl Schmitt: the Concept of the Political in Chantal Mouffe’s Agonistic Pluralism / Logos. 2015. № 6 (108). P. 163-179
annotation:  The critique of the deliberative turn in political theory brought about a discussion of democratic theory with a special focus on value pluralism versus consensus. Chantal Mouffe provides one of the most sophisticated alternatives to deliberative democratic theory, calling her own project “agonistic pluralism.” When scrutinizing this theory, scholars have primarily focused on its internal controversies. The author argues that despite its problems, the project of agonistic pluralism should still be considered. This paper seeks to overcome the existing controversies of Mouffe’s proposed project and to offer ways in which it can be strengthened. Using Carl Schmitt’s theories is problematic in two ways. First, the hegemonic nature of conflictual consensus entails depoliticization of adversaries’ agonistic relations. Second, Schmitt’s interpretation of the political blurs all differences between agonism and antagonism. According to the principles of deconstruction, in this paper, I will re-conceptualize the political in Mouffe’s agonistic pluralism. Arendt’s concept of the political enables firstly to divorce antagonism (violence) from agonism (political relations), and seoncdly to undermine the hegemonic nature of conflictual consensus by aesthetizising politics. Finally, the integration of Arendt’s concept of the political in Mouffe’s agonistic pluralism reinforces this theory and allows it to overcome the binary opposition of pluralism-consensus.
Keywords:  Chantal Mouffe; Carl Schmitt; Hannah Arendt; agonistic pluralism; the political; antagonism; hegemony
Being “in Between”: Prolegomena to Eric Voegelin’s Political Theory / Logos. 2015. № 6 (108). P. 180-195
annotation:  This study examines Eric Voegelin’s political philosophy as political theology and describes it as a possibly way to reconceptualize modernity as philosophical category. In his works, Voegelin traces the relationship between religious and political spheres. This relationship is reflected through in historical continuity and in the transformation of symbols that modern political ideologies have generally utilized for self-interpretation. These symbols include hierarchy, ecclesia, the apocalypse, etc. Since these symbols have come under the influence of secularization and are embedded in human history, they have acquired sacred characteristics. Voegelin has developed a highly sophisticated conceptual framework for analyzing this process. He stresses the deep and permanent values which can be traced to both Christianity and classical philosophy, and can be identified as transcendent experience. When ignoring this experience, modern political theory empties itself of meaning. Voegelin describes this phenomenon as “gnosticism.” The gnostic worldview is characterized by a break with its origins. Within it, people did not create the world, but can partake in the mystery that is being (Voegelin called this “metaxy”). To Voegelin, reason itself needs to be recovered in order to revitalize the public realm. From this position, he engaged in today’s discourse concerning postmodernism and post-secularity. Moreover, the main point Voegelin insisted upon, the fact that reason (including political reason) is inseparable from orientation towards the transcendent. This perspective, labeled by the authors as “political theology,” could extend the epistemological horizon of post-secular and postmodern concepts.
Keywords:  Eric Voegelin; political philosophy; political theology; gnosticism; modern political ideologies; postmodernism; the post-secular
Auditory Democracy: Including Silenced Subjects in the Political Community / Logos. 2015. № 6 (108). P. 196-226
annotation:  Auditory democracy is a relatively new western political philosophical concept which is not yet known in Russia. The concept implies a shift from the subject of public speech to our ability to listen to each other. Listening is understood here not as a physical sensory capacity of the human organism, but as political practice and virtue. Whether or not we acknowledge our opponents as equal subjects of interaction depends on our predisposition to listen or not to listen to them. Our unwillingness to listen to each other is regarded as one of the most effective ways to exclude our interlocutor from the discourse and to uphold social and political injustice. John Dryzek, one of the theoreticians of auditory democracy, argues that “the most effective and insidious way to silence others in politics is a refusal to listen.” On the contrary, auditory attention attests acknowledgment and respect towards opponents regardless of substantial differences and motivates them to speak. The thematic set introduced by this article includes texts of British researchers who work with the concept of auditory democracy and similar fields. The authors show that listening as a value of political life and communicative skill has not garnered much academic or political attention. At the same time, the institutional development of listening practices could help contemporary society to be more inclusive and to better articulate differences. This article focuses on the central question of how listening could become one of the principles in constituting a new political community.
Keywords:  public communication; auditory attention; political listening; auditory democracy
Democracy and Listening / Logos. 2015. № 6 (108). P. 227-242
annotation:  Theories of democracy deal extensively with speech, e. g. with the inclusion of appropriate voices, and their inclusion in a just decision-making process. Yet analysis of the nature and role of listening is noticeably scarce in such discussions, and often altogether absent. This article considers possible sources of this deficit, and argues that it represents a serious shortcoming in mainstream political theory. This applies to all models of democracy, in so far as they are concerned with how different voices contribute to the making of decisions—especially in the case of deliberative accounts, prioritizing the value of reflexivity and participation. Drawing from the work of Alasdair MacIntyre and John Dryzek, among others, the author considers various aspects of the centrality of listening to democracy, and suggest that Dryzek’s “discursive democracy” is particularly well-placed among contemporary accounts both to accommodate the significance of listening and allow it due normative space. The first section of the article offers some preliminary reflections both on the absence of listening from such theory. The second section is dedicated to a discussion of why it is so curious that listening is neglected in democratic theory. In the third section, possible reasons for this neglect are outlined. The author then considers the relationship between participation, deliberation, and inclusion in democratic processes of those without “a voice of their own,” to use MacIntyre’s terms.
Keywords:  democracy; listening; speech; inclusion; participation; Alasdair MacIntyre; John Dryzek
Why Listening? / Logos. 2015. № 6 (108). P. 243-263
annotation:  Although valued in daily conversation, good listening has been almost completely ignored in the form of political conversation we know as «democracy», while speaking has been considered to play the main role since the time of Aristotle. Joining the recent perceptive democracy discussion in political philosophy (represented by Gideon Calder, Jeffrey Edward Green, and others), this article examines the reasons why so little attention has been paid to the listening aspect of democratic conversation. The author notes that the first of these reasons can be identified as power relations. The author draws on practical examples of how listening helped to solve serious conflicts (e. g. in restorative justice) or improve collective decision-making procedures (e. g. in activist communities) to offer an explanation of the role that listening might play in democracy. He assumes that listening should be at the heart or deliberative democracy rather than peripheral to it. Using multidisciplinary sources, with a special focus on feminist discussions, Aristotle’s Politics and its interpretation by Ranciere, the author also shows the extent to which listening is underrated. He argues that democracy’s promise will only be fulfilled when the right to speak and the right to be listened to are regarded as two sides of the same coin, when it is acknowledged that one is incomplete without the other, and when this aknowledgment is embedded in institutional practices.
In Defense of Future Generations / Logos. 2015. № 6 (108). P. 264-274
annotation:  The notion of ‘people’ used in modern democracies deals only with those living here and now. But if we think about the future, we have to consider future generations, which today have neither voice nor proxy. This article proposes a project of super-jury for future generations, which is to represent the people of the future in today’s political and legal structures. The legitimacy of this commission would be achieved through a selection method based on elections, but rather on a kind of «draft» similar to the mechanism used when forming a jury. The guardians’ main functions would be to protect the interests and the needs of the future generations by revising or putting a veto on the laws that threaten them. The guardians would be given a year-long preparation course. During their term they would be supported by a team of experts. Decisions of the super-jury would not be disputable by the courts, including the European Court of Human Rights. Implementation of this project would make the discussion on the consequences of today’s decisions in political discourse more lively and would help us to fulfill the potential of our power over the future. Without including future generations into modern political processes, no basic justice can be reached, and no proper democratic procedure can be completed.
Keywords:  ecology; future; democracy; electoral system
Piketty’s Inequality: Why r > g? / Logos. 2015. № 6 (108). P. 275-288
annotation:  Professor Thomas Piketty (Paris School of Economics) formulated the original conception of the historic development of economic inequality in his book “Capital in the 21 century.” Piketty’s inequality explains the long-term empirical observation that during the last 250 years, the capital rate (r) was consistently higher than the level of economic growth (g). Piketty’s inequality is considered in the context of the study of long-term development of capitalism in modern times. This article discusses the changes in the approach to the study of inequality after Karl Marx and Simon Kuznets. The mechanism of divergences and convergences of income are briefly reviewed. To determine the degree of concentration of capital in different countries, Piketty compares the upper decile (10%) and the top centile (1%) of wealthy families. It turns out that the “Rastignac’s dilemma” (what is more favorable — to study hard and to marry successfully) may be relevant today, when the level of return on capital comes back to that of “Belle Epoque” of the late 19th and early 20th centuries A brief description of the key criticisms of Piketty’s inequality is given, and the debate about the role of human capital in historical perspective and solidity of the fundamental laws of capitalism are examined. The desire to democratize the economic knowledge caused “pikettymania” that enabled millions to pay attention to the relevance of the problem of inequality. The breakthrough in understanding the problems of inequality at the beginning of the 21st century includes a new approach to political economy, combining economic theory, historical statistics and meritocratic imperative.
Keywords:  capitalism; capital; inequality; Thomas Piketty; Karl Marx; Rastignac’s dilemma
Vautrin’s Speech (excerpt from Capital in the Twenty-First Century) / Logos. 2015. № 6 (108). P. 288-310
Stalin’s Grand Style. Gesamtkunstwerk als Industriepalast / Logos. 2015. № 5 (107). P. 1-32
annotation:  This article addresses one of the most reputable interpretations of Soviet Stalinist culture as “total work of art” (Gesamtkunstwerk), which reflects the totalitarian pretensions of communism and at the same time covers the all-encompassing ambitions of Russian and Soviet avantgarde movements with their close involvement in shaping the cultural policy of the Bolsheviks and the Soviet regime. The author proposes to examine this interpretation (which was offered almost two decades ago by Boris Groys) in the context of the genesis of avantgarde and modernity, starting from the first doctrines of modern totality in Richard Wagner (the conception of “synthetic art”), in modern architecture and in the practices of industrialization. According to his hypothesis, Groys’ interpretation is based to a large extent on the works of Hans Sedlmayr, although it diverges from them in some crucial aspects (to which special attention is paid). Appealing to Sedlmayr’s theory of “the loss of the center,” the author attempts to give a historical (as opoosed to a publicist or a journalistic) dimension to the interpretation in his consideration. In this context, the Factory becomes primary image of totality, as a form of realisation in history of the cultural myth that concerns the Tower of Babel. This image helps us to understand the art of Stalin’s era and Stalinism en bloc as a particular case of industrialism and industrial totality in the West.
Keywords:  Boris Groys; Hans Sedlmayr; total art of Stalinism; Russian avantgarde; grand style; Soviet industrialization
Harald Szeemann, a Pioneer Like Us / Logos. 2015. № 5 (107). P. 33-52
annotation:  The article examines the emergence of curatorial methodology through professional practices of Harald Szeemann. Szeemann is one of the founders of the profession of independent curators as institutionalized, individual, conceptualist, and as authors of their own exhibition projects. This biographical article provides an overview of such fundamental projects as When Attitudes Become Form (1969), Documenta V (1972), Grandfather— A Pioneer Like Us (1974), Celibatory Machines (1975), which made curatorial practice into an artistic gesture. The activite of the curator as the author of an exhibition has much in common with practices of theater production: a curatorial project develops a dramatic composition inside and outside a physical space, utilizing artistic creations as characters and plotlines of narration. The Agency for Intellectual Guest Labor, an organization that consists of just one empoloyee, namely Harald Szeemann, is one example of the institutionalization of oneself and the emergence of the independent curator’s profession in opposition to a museum conservator. Along with that, the metaphorical use of the organizational form of an agency emphasizes the issue of the intellectual and cultural meanings of production. In other words, the rise of the agency confirms its one and only collaborator as the producer of meanings. The “agency” and another fundamental conception of Szeemann, the Museum of Obsessions (a project that was never completed) are tools of the mythologization and institutionalization of their author’s and founder’s figure. The latter affirms Szeemann’s ability to convert anything that is not considered as art into art, and non-artists into artists, as for instance in the exhibition of objects and documents Grandfather—A Pioneer Like Us (Bern, 1974), dedicated to curator’s grandfather, a hairdresser. Power, artistic gesture, self-institutionalization, creative and intellectual practice as production are the general characteristics of an independent curator, brought to the fore in this article using the example of Harald Szeemann’s professional biography.
Keywords:  curating; independent curator; Harald Szeemann; contemporary art; exhibition
Art as Occupation. Claims for an Autonomy of Life / Logos. 2015. № 5 (107). P. 53-70
annotation:  This article is an art manifesto, in which the theoretical conceptualization of the problem is combined with a creative narration characteristic of Hito Steyerl, an artist specializing in documentary films and visual arts. The author raises a question about the limit separating modern representations of work and occupation. She makes a clear distinction between work as labor having a beginning, a producer, and a result, and occupation as activity for which the result, completeness, and remuneration are not of consequence. According to Steyerl, in contemporary economic circumstances, we witness gradual transformation of work into occupation. At that, the exchange of work for occupation is represented as something much more important than the exchange of Fordist economy for post-Fordism, which is also a sign of a more complicated economic situation. Steyerl indicates the transition from economy aimed at production to economy based on waste; from execution of work within time to time-spending; from a strictly defined space to an intricately organized territory. She projects these new conditions to the situation of the artist’s labor being increasingly considered as an occupation, which leads to construction of an artistic system with mechanisms based on a poorly-paid or completely unpaid labor, factitious creation of new employment types, aestheticizing of politics, poverty, and deprivation of rights. Steyerl considers the existing situation of art-as-occupation as one of results of the failed avant-garde task to return art to life: instead of a revolutionary transformation, we get a routine. While redefining the problem of the artist’s independence, the author considers in a new light the historical opposition to division of labor. One of the consequences of this for her is that multitasking becomes a key characteristic of the occupation.
Keywords:  work and occupation; economy of art; aestheticizing of politics; division of labor; independency of the artist
Turning / Logos. 2015. № 5 (107). P. 71-87
annotation:  This article addresses education considered in the broadest sense of the word. The author provides an analysis of modern educational mechanisms in the context of curating practices. The article considers two large-scale art and research projects, the execution of which coincided with the heated discussion of the introduction of the Bologna system in Europe. Rogoff calls for the necessity of a “turn” that would considerably modify our idea of capacities of education. She sees the “academy” system as the model of “beingin-the-world” that would be a space for experiments and research, the principles of which should apply to all spheres of life. The main question the author raises concerns how the museum, the university, the art school can surpass their current functions. The key role within Rogoff’s speculations belongs to the museum as one of the spaces where the educational “turn” can be executed. She underlines, however, that the discontent of society caused by the introduction of the Bologna system led to appearance of multiple self-organized forums beyond the institutions as well as of independent initiatives within them. Rogoff defines two terms to be used for consideration of the new conditions of education. These are “potentiality,” the capacity to act that is not limited to an ability, and “actualization,” which implies that certain meanings and possibilities that are embedded within objects, situations, persons, and spaces carry a potentiality to be “liberated.” Therefore, education is considered as a platform able to recognize certain political convictions of the people involved therein and to provide a base for formation of a community.
Keywords:  education; curating; Bologna system; production of knowledge
The Collaborative Turn / Logos. 2015. № 5 (107). P. 88-121
annotation:  The article is a detailed description of existing forms of collaboration in the art sphere. The author concentrates on creative practices based on “cooperative work” that has become widespread since the mid‑1990s. Lind provides an analysis of their structure and gournds for them. She identifies different models of cooperative work, concentrating on nuances that seem insignificant at first, but are fundamental for understanding of the problem. She addresses, for instance, the differences between cooperation, collaboration, participation, and collective activity. Telling the story of collaborative practices from the mid‑1990s and until today, Lind addresses Hardt and Negri’s concept of “multitude,” Chantal Mouffe’s problem of intrinsic conflict, trying to connect modern practices of collaboration in art with political and public activity, the turn to activism, the emergence of “open sources,” and the expansion of interdisciplinarity. The author places special emphasis on five collaborative practices that include involvement in social relations: these are relational aesthetics by Nicolas Bourriaud, connective aesthetics by Suzy Gablik, new genre public art by Suzanne Lacy, “dialogical art” by Grant Kester, and Kontextkunst by Peter Weibel.
Keywords:  relational aesthetics; activism; Antonio Negri; Michael Hardt; Nicolas Bourriaud; collaborative work; self-organization
Documentary/Vérité. Biopolitics, Human Rights, and the Figure of “Truth” in Contemporary Art / Logos. 2015. № 5 (107). P. 122-167
annotation:  The article is dedicated to the penetration of the documentary genre into the space of modern art. The author addresses this topic through the spectacle of relations between ethics and aesthetics, politics and poetics. Okwui emphasizes fundamental changes in society, where the relations between different politicians and cultural figures are no longer defined by class struggle, but concentrate rather on human rights. The author demonstrates how the norms of biopolitics became established in the domain of contemporary art, where the key issues become the search for the meaning of life, and ethical and legal immunity of a man in the frame of global economic and political changes in the world system. This is “biopolitics,” the transformation of ethics into an important criterion of our relations with the world, defining the documentary genre as a new method of creative interpretation of reality. The article is based on an analysis of the exhibition Documenta 11, curated by the author; this exhibition provoked a mixed reaction from the critical society, namely because it marked the turning point in the development of contemporary art, where the documentary became the essential language of creation. Okwui addresses a whole range of hard-to-solve problems related to documentary photography, video, and cinema. The essential contrariety is the attitude towards Sontag’s idea of the “ethics of looking,” that is, the capacity of a spectator to decode a documentary image, to read its subjective characteristics and to relate them with representations of the image truthfulness and reality itself. The main concerns for the author are the reasons of interest that the artists and image-creators show in reality, and the depiction of everyday life, as well as the influence of reality on the conscience of a modern human.
Keywords:  biopolitics; vérité; documentary; photography; human rights; image of truth; Documenta 11; politics and poetics; ethics and aesthetics
“To live a contemporary art life today means going against the grain” / Logos. 2015. № 5 (107). P. 168-187
“The issue of art today is the issue of its limits” / Logos. 2015. № 5 (107). P. 188-197
“A craving for perfection, completeness and negotiation” / Logos. 2015. № 5 (107). P. 199-209
The Power of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction / Logos. 2015. № 5 (107). P. 211-213
To Be a Spectator / Logos. 2015. № 5 (107). P. 213-217
-the Invisible City. An analytical review / Logos. 2015. № 5 (107). P. 217-221
Fiction De-Fictionalized: Art and Literature Online / Logos. 2015. № 4 (106). P. 1-15
annotation:  The article offers an analysis of the contemporary status of literature and art, in light of the transfer of processes of their creation and distribution into the web space. The author claims that in their traditional representation, art and literature referred to the domain of fiction, while the actual use of the internet as a place of creation and demonstration of pieces of art and literary texts leads to the turning away from fiction and towards real life. The key role here belongs to the connection between the internet and offline reality: the internet is a place where authors create, demonstrate, and distribute their works while living their everyday life at the same time (shopping, communicating with friends, etc.). The internet provides transparency in the creative process, making this process available for the eyes of every user; consequently, the authors do not need to complete their pieces, as the work of the artist itself becomes an art project, demonstrating a difference between a modern creator and a traditional artist, as the creator of completed pieces of art. To conclude, the author addresses internet archives and their utopian potential capacity, allowing us to consider the pieces of art stored in these archives separately from their historical context.
Keywords:  internet; fiction; art; hermeneutics; archive
Pieter Bruegel. The Fall of the Blind / Logos. 2015. № 4 (106). P. 16-57
annotation:  Hans Sedlmayr’s text (1956) is an attempt at interpretating Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s “Parable of the Blind” (1568). For the Sedlemayr, the Dutch painter’s work becomes both a reason and a medium for modeling a specific hermeneutic situation. Structurally and semantically, this work of art reduces the position of the beholder, who might prove to be even blinder than the blind in picture, and, at the same time, reduces the position of the art historian, who faces a work that lies on the level of a religious sermon. In the process of modeling this situation, the traditional four-part exegetic scheme (which considers the literal, historical, allegoric and mystical meanings of a work of art) is transformed into a model of interpretation of the cognitive procedure itself. In other words, the stages of
interpretation characterizing the potential of hermeneutics are discussed: the semantics of the performative qualities of a representation, its literary content, criticism of the intended meaning, and the meaning of the act of contemplation. This results in multiple meanings of the act of sacral visualization, aimed at transcending the casual and the predictable. Sedlmayr’s text reveals the radical opportunities of phenomenological gestalt-structuralism, which “decomposes’ classic cognitive paradigms oriented towards
the material of art history. The author of the representation, Bruegel himself, is seen as the initiator of a purely experimental performative approach to both formal practices of classical painting and also traditional New Testament exegesis. This gives Sedlmayr, the author of the interpretation, the right to continue the transforming experimentation with
the consciousness and cognition of his reader, who is given the chance to evaluate the offered cognitive “poetics,” comment on it and reduce it, at least in the context of contra-transfer. Thus theoretic blindness can provoke and stimulate ethical insight. The exhaustion of art history implies the continuity of art and art theory.

Keywords:  Pieter Bruegel the Elder; interpretation as an experiment; stages of understanding; conceptual layers of artwork; content of cognition acts’; conscious; author; interpreter; spectator
Сlement Greenberg and Arnold Gehlen on the Contemporaneity of Art / Logos. 2015. № 4 (106). P. 58-74
annotation:  A central characteristic of the new art theory is that it, in its actual substance, is not a theory of art, but rather a theory of the aesthetic. Instead of art, other concepts like that of image or culture are moved to the forefront of consideration. The grounds of this tendency lie, howerve, primarily in a feature of the art itself—a feature which distinguishes art since the very beginning of modernity, namely “dislimitation” (Entgrenzung). The line between art and non-art is blurry, for art operates consistently at its limits so as not only to mix the art forms with one another, but to ultimately render it impossible to introduce any external criterion that would, with certainty, distinguish a certain object as a piece of art. The task of a theoretical definition of art is therefore not at all obsolete. Nevertheless, art ultimately forms a cultural factor sui generis despite all dislimitation. In the challenge to develop a concept of art, which determines art as art decidedly in the face of this tendency to dislimitation, we could carry out an examination of some classical positions of modern art theory. The definitions of art which the American art critic Clement Greenberg and the German philosopher Arnold Gehlen have brought forward in the mid‑20th century are examples of such positions.
Keywords:  dislimitation; concept of art; modernity; art theory; aesthetics
Towards a Newer Laocoon / Logos. 2015. № 4 (106). P. 75-92
annotation:  Greenberg, the apologist of abstract expressionism, had dominated the art discourse of the 1950s and 1960s in the USA with his exceedingly influential concept of the avant-garde. The development towards abstraction has, to him, constituted a historical necessity: since the cultural transformation of the French Revolution, artists are dismissed from the tested symbiosis between the church and the state, where a binding art language had guaranteed the agreement between producer and recipient. The artists are now confronted with diffuse expectations of an anonymous and an aesthetically clueless openness. Significant works, as per Greenberg, can only emerge today if all but artistic requirements and expectations are rejected, so that the art concentrates fully on its own autonomous potencies. Drawing an analogy with Kant’s critical philosophy, Greenberg understands modernity as an attempt to drive the “conditions of possibility” of one’s own profession before one’s eyes, i. e. to work towards one’s own medial self-knowledge. In his 1940 essay Towards a Newer Laocoon, Greenberg accordingly illustrates, like Lessing did with regard to poetry, that every kind of art gradually reflects on its genuine competencies, insofar as it tests which of its traditional qualities are dispensable. Perfect art therefore exhibits nothing but its own form and medium.
Keywords:  abstract expressionism; avant-garde; modernism; formalism; mediality
Between Yesterday and Tomorrow / Logos. 2015. № 4 (106). P. 93-134
annotation:  The definition of art, which Gehlen provided in his 1960 study Zeit-Bilder (revised in 1965), is based on the idea that the impetus of modernism has exhausted itself in the avant-garde. Gehlen develops the concept of “post-history” to describe the peculiarities of the resulting situation. With reference to Habermas, this concept could be identified as neoconservative, as it lines up with ideas of the “Ritter School,” especially with the work of Odo Marquard and Hermann Lübbe. The “post-history” concept points to a divergence between the history of scientific and technological progress on the one hand, and the stagnation of worldviews in the artistic-cultural field on the other hand. This loss at the level of art is in no way evaluated negatively. That is to say, modern, science driven society is comfortable, although extremely complicated and ultimately in a state of overload. Thus, for Gehlen, a need for “facilitation” follows, which emerges as the counterpart to the Ritter School’s discussion of the need for post-enlightened people to “compensate.” It is precisely this approach that identifies the current function of art for neoconservatives: art satisfies the need of people from the industrial age for nonconfirmism and helps them “unwind,” thus orienting itself towards “ordinary people” and no longer trying to change the world.
Keywords:  post-history; neoconservatism; facilitation/compensation; progress; worldview
Media Art. From Simulation to Stimulation / Logos. 2015. № 4 (106). P. 135-162
annotation:  The article describes three trends in contemporary art. Firstly, the art of the 20th century can be squeezed not only into the binary oppositions of figurative and abstract, material and non-material, representational and non-representational, but also into that of illusion and anti-illusion, in which the avant-garde defined itself as anti-illusionary. The younger generation of media artists of the 1990s no longer placed themselves in the anti-illusionary tradition of the media avant-garde, because they saw in this tradition the cause of the avant-garde’s failure, but rather in that of mainstream illusion, for example of Hollywood films or music videos, which these artists deconstructed with the techniques which they took from the media avant-garde of the 1960s and 1970s. Through the mixture of practices of narration and illusion, a new practice has arisen—“allusion.” Every viewer already has a library of visual experiences, fed by the mass media from films to billboards, stored in his head. The artists need only briefly suggest topics, places, subjects, and the viewer knows what is being spoken of. Secondly, this post-media condition is defined by two phases: (а) the equivalence of the media—old technological media (photography and film), new technological media (video and computers) and old nontechnological media (the arts of painting and sculpture); (b) the mixing of the media (sculpture can consist of a photo or a video tape; an event captured in a photograph can be a sculpture, a text or a picture; the behaviour of an object and of a person captured on a video or in a photograph can be a sculpture; language can be a sculpture, etc.). Lastly, through participatory practices, various art movements transformed the beholder into a user actively involved in the construction of the artwork, its design, content, and behavior. Artists no longer have a monopoly on creativity. With the help of the internet, the museum can develop to a communicative platform of creativity for all.
Keywords:  media avant-garde; anti-illusion; allusion; post-media; equivalence of the media; participatory practices
“A new time arrives, entirely empty, naked as a field, with no place for me to go” / Logos. 2015. № 4 (106). P. 163-179
“The main goal of art is freedom” / Logos. 2015. № 4 (106). P. 180-193
“Conceptualism as the third age of the avant-garde” / Logos. 2015. № 4 (106). P. 194-200
“It is interesting to do only the impossible, as the possible is not interesting” / Logos. 2015. № 4 (106). P. 201-210
Down with Art!: The Age of Manifestoes / Logos. 2015. № 4 (106). P. 211-216
The Art Market: Practicality or Spirituality / Logos. 2015. № 4 (106). P. 216-225
Performing Artistic Acts Using Words / Logos. 2015. № 4 (106). P. 225-234
From Clarkson to Heidegger / Logos. 2015. № 3 (105). P. 1-18
annotation:  This article presents an inquiry into the patterns and epistemic errors present in the ideology of media consumption: fundamental attribution error and the myth of Jones. The article brings up two recent scandalous examples, popular media personality Jeremy Clarkson being suspended by the BBC, and the publication of Martin Heidegger’s Black Notebooks. Using these examples, we attempt to demonstrate that they exemplify one and the same tendency dominant in Euro-American culture—the ideal of objectivity. Or, as John Law puts it, a culture dominated by literal representations. Here, a major shift is present in the very basic presuppositions of human communication, which opens up a vista on some of its basic value choices. The influence of these choices goes well beyond conventional mass media, affecting science and philosophy. Valorizing literal representations may seem beneficial for communication, but it results in a belief deeply rooted in the Euro-American worldview: a belief in the immediate link between what a person does and their mental dispositions, which may lead to disastrous consequences. Habermas’s ideal communicative situation is based on this, and it functions as a repressive structure, eradicating the public’s ability to recognize and switch communicative levels, employing metaphors, allegories, irony, and humor. As a result, problematic topics such as racism, homophobia, extremist ideologies, and Nazism are rendered impossible to discuss. This has a stifling effect on critical thinking. The dominance of literal representations does not enhance communication; instead, it simply closes off the discursive fields which do not fit the ideal of universal good will.
Keywords:  Jeremy Clarkson; Heidegger; Black notebooks; critical thinking; correspondence bias; attribution error; myth of Jones
Applied Hermeneutics of the Information Space: Worldviews, Theoretical Ontologies, and Fractal Matrix Tables / Logos. 2015. № 3 (105). P. 19-45
annotation:  The term ontology is used both in modern philosophy and in the sphere of IT, but the contexts and the matters of its meanings do not coincide or overlap. With few exceptions, professional philosophers are not interested in addressing the information space, or in investigating and comprehending it. At the same time, IT specialists ignore philosophical approaches to existential problems. They prefer to invent their own philosophies and to produce randomly ordered terms for phenomena which they naively regard as ontologies. In IT, the very existence of the reflected ontology solves many problems. In particular, it solves the issue of information noise which arises from differences in contexts and from synonymous terms in the domain of knowledge and the domain of practice. Therefore IT specialists focus on producing a common ontology and thinking of ways to standardize methods of presenting knowledge. In undertaking this task, they rely mostly on linguistic and statistical text analysis methods, as they believe that improving these methods will help to automatically establish meanings, The authors of the article argue that an integration of philosophical and IT methods and practices will lead to the establishment of a new subject called applied hermeneutics. This new subject will deal with hermeneutics, and its methods would be new both in philosophy and in IT. The technique of constructing theoretical ontologies by using matrix tables will be implemented using the text analysis system called Gitika.
Keywords:  ontology; information technology; hermeneutics; contexts; fractal matrix tables
Оtium for Nobody? / Logos. 2015. № 3 (105). P. 46-50
Transformation of Labor and its Temporalities: Chronological Disorientation and the Colonization of Non-working Time / Logos. 2015. № 3 (105). P. 51-71
annotation:  One hundred years ago, Еmil Lederer supposed that the transition from the condition of independence to the status of employee caused a change in temporal perception. After the war, Georges Friedmann realized that in Taylorism and Stakhanovism, work time and free time are closely connected: for an employee, leisure time is a time of escape from dissatisfaction due to split labor. In this article, the autho argues that we are facing yet another important change due to the transformation of the employee into a self-entrepreneur, signalling a transition from split labor to split employment. Two major aspects of this change are analyzed: а) temporal disorientation caused by the loss of the temporal horizon crucial for one’s existence; b) colonization of free time by the task of constant self-production (André Gorz). We can interpret such an anthropological change in two ways: 1) time control is no longer mediated by disciplinary practices, but is rather run by technologies of neoliberal governments whose aim is the submission of any social form to the managerial ethos (following ideas of Michel Foucault); 2) perceptions of existential time result in a global process of social acceleration, where the project of modernity turns against itself (following Hartmut Rosa). Now, the fundamental fear people have is to miss opportunities or crucial connections. The organization of free time also becomes the subject of such a fear. The semantics of free time are now filled by notions of duty and obligation: I must do sports, I have to read newspapers, and so on.
Keywords:  employment; salary relations; self-employed; split labor; temporal relations; production of self
Liberation from Work, Unconditional Income and Foolish Will / Logos. 2015. № 3 (105). P. 72-87
annotation:  The article approaches the issue of the Unconditional Basic Income ) from the point of view of the phenomenon of akrasia (or incontinentia in the Latin translation). Since at least the time of the Sophists, akrasia has attracted great attention from moral thinkers. We are dealing with an akratic behaviour when one knows of the fact that one particular action is preferable in a certain situation, and nevertheless one undertakes the opposite (or simply an alternative) action. Since antiquity, this situation has changed; e. g. the good is now understood in a greater variety of ways. In this article, the author tries to question the sociо-psychologically. How would a beneficiary conceive of this particular form of income? How would (s)he interpret the expectations of society in compensation for it? There are two essential theoretical versions of the: 1) something positive and constructive will be explicitly expected; 2) nothing will be expected, and the unconditional character will be stressed: the is neither a reward, nor an advance payment for future work or for readiness to accept any work. In the first case, the temptation of an akratic reaction will be great. In the second case, there is one condition that makes the whole thing look like a utopia—that is, the condition that your activity should not be based on the expectation or goal of a salary (André Gorz). The author supposes that for millions of people, work is still a “source of meaning.” An abrupt transition from “work” to “activity” could result simply in a confirmation of their immaturity.
Keywords:  akrasia; unconditional existential income; unemployment; labor work; free activity
Storytelling: from Scheherazade to Freud’s Nephew / Logos. 2015. № 3 (105). P. 177-178
The Leisure Factory: Production in the Digital Age / Logos. 2015. № 3 (105). P. 88-119
annotation:  This paper leverages on parallel pursuits in changes in organizational space and cultures and private-sector appropriation of social media spaces to frame the relationship between the architecture of work space and that of play. In the contemporary innovation-obsessed economy, a new corporate culture is needed, sensitized to workers’ larger well-being. Work spaces have undergone tremendous change, as employers’ understanding of what counts as productivity has evolved. Some companies are focusing on the very space within which such talent can be nurtured—the office. Pool tables, volleyball courts, video game parlours, pianos, ping-pong tables, and yoga stations are becoming a signature of these new labor landscapes. The less regulating, confining and spatially predictable a work environment is, the more likely it is to generate new ideas and enhance performance. These new labor geographies are not confined to the material sphere. A decade ago, corporations’instinctive response to social media within the work domain was to sue business-bashing employees to cease and desist. Today, corporations are realizing that these digital leisure terrains can benefit them. We see businesses extending their presence virtually on sites conventionally demarcated for online social and leisure purposes. The rise of digital labor posits a challenge in the design of work spaces better adapted to a temporal, diverse and sporadic global labor market. Furthermore, gamification has become a new buzzword for labor landscapes driven by the belief that by infusing game dynamics into the work culture, it enhances employee engagement and problem-solving efficacy
Keywords:  cognitive labor; leisure; technologies; internet collaboration; crowd-sourcing
The Aesthetic Stage of Production/Consumption and the Revolution of a Chosen Temporality / Logos. 2015. № 3 (105). P. 120-137
annotation:  The article follows the current evolution of culture into entertainment, which results in a loss of the political dimension of arts and culture (following Hannah Arendt). In his sharp critique of Society of consumption, Jean Baudrillard analyzes the paradox of the privileged place allocated to time in the organization of industrial society. He notes that the distribution of chances for free time is as skewed as the distribution of other types of welfare. The quality of free time is a distinguishing feature, a kind of distinction (Pierre Bourdieu). Contemporary myths about free time and leisure are based on an illusory desire to return use value to time. Yet this free time should be reinvested and dedicated to various tupes of consumer activities: tourism, culture, sports. Leisure becomes a field of dramatic contradictions, as individuals turn their hope towards freedom, and thus towards a system of compulsions. Thus, leisure also becomes a category of costs and production. Baudrillard later denounces the omnipresent nature of labor as a paradigm for all types of human activity, including leisure. In his theory of simulacrum, Baudrillard analyzed the transformation of cities into amusement parks. Gilles Lipovetsky and Jean Serroy built a theory about the growing world of aesthetics, produced by art capitalism. Production/consumption are increasingly taken to be the manifestations of leisure. The article will focus on a few key figures of art capitalism, especially those in the spheres of design and city-branding. Finally, André Gorz will help us to sketch a way out of the coalition of working and leisure time (where both are strained) through a revolution of chosen time.
Keywords:  culture; entertainment; temporality; capitalism; consumption; leisure
Branding the Self in the Age of Emotional Capitalism. The Exploitation of Prosumers, from the Rhetoric of “Double Bind” to the Hegemony of Confession / Logos. 2015. № 3 (105). P. 138-161
annotation:  This paper aims to study the differences between cognitive and emotional capitalism through a cultural analysis of consumption and communication. Today, much more than the worker as the interpreter of a neo-Marxian General Intellect, the prosumer (Alvin Toffler, Philip Jenkins) has become the core of a totalizing exploitation of his emotional and relational world. The moment of a full cognitive exploitation of consumers can be analyzed through adopting the Batesonian pattern of the double bind that considers schizophrenia as a lack of communication between the mother and the child. The double bind can be transferred to the relationship between the brand (the mother) and the consumer (the child). The consumer is at the same time the center of a universe peopled by global brands, and the victim of a sort of identity burglary. The dynamic of double bind has prepared the advent of the User as the protagonist of the digital era, involving him in a self-expression policy but also in a new hyper-exploitation. The new era of brand power passes trough the social web because all marketing today is integrated into this new totalizing environment. This is why the confession device (Michel Foucault) can be considered as the core of a new form of capitalism, based on the complex interaction between emotions, relations and experiences. We have moved from the hegemony of brands to the capacity of users to eternalize and use emotions as a competitive resource in the worldwide market of identities.
Keywords:  prosumer; brand-consumer relations; double-bind; identity burglary; emotional capitalism
Labor, Education, and the Social Function of Money in Popular Culture: the case of HBO’s Girls / Logos. 2015. № 3 (105). P. 162-176
annotation:  This article presents an analysis of the TV series Girls in the context of how current labor market conditions are perceived by the “Y-generation.” The article also examines the Y-generation’s attitude towards the institution of education to the social function of money. The HBO series Girls has been chosen for analysis because this show seems to address the most fundamental issues of our time, as it was created by “twenty-somethings” for their peers. The article focuses on the attitudes of today’s “twenty-somethings” towards labor, education, careers, success, money. Aiming to fill the gap in academia’s limited attention to the analysis of TV shows, the author examines Girls through a contemporary theoretical perspective of immaterial labor, looking at the themes of education, and salary. These perspectives are applied in a thorough analysis of lines from the characters on the TV show. On the basis of the show, the author also addresses the question of the relevance of the humanities in the 21st century. This article additionally draws parallels between Girls and other TV series, such as How to make it in America (HBO, 2010–2011) and Shameless (Showtime, 2011—ongoing) that touch upon similar themes. The suggested approach addresses themes beyond common debates on plot lines and acting.
Keywords:  post-industrial society; TV series studies; popular culture; social meaning of money; unconditional income; precariat; freelance
Twilight Imagination: Fiction, Myth, and Illusion / Logos. 2015. № 3 (105). P. 179-196
annotation:  Storytelling, like other fictions of capital, typically blocks out elements of the nighttime imagination which Hegel compared with “the night of the world.” Using German idealism as a starting point, the author uses the term “twilight imagination” to refer to everything that forms worlds, forms mythological creations, and also forms cinematographic works. Some elements of grand narratives never disappeared, in spite of Jean-François Lyotard’s assertions that they in fact collapsed. These narratives simply changed their places and their intensity. The imagination (and hence the subconscious, the negative) still plays a crucial role in any creation. Anticapitalist politics are not always awake or alive enough to explain or to stir up the creative imagination. We are gradually waking up, but we do not have to run from our dreams of freedom and emancipation. Slavoj Žižek, folowing Jacques Lacan and Sigmund Freud, reminds us that sometimes we wake up in order to sleep; to evade a confrontation with the pure desire that our dreams give us. The aim of this article is not to politicize the aesthetics of dreams, but rather to analyze the role of the imagination (myth) in politics. This role can take disastrous forms, like the Nazi myth (Philippe Lacou-Labarthe, Jean-Luc Nancy). But the question is whether it is possible or even desirable to purify politics of any imagination.
Keywords:  storytelling; fiction; the imaginary; advertisement; German Idealism; psychoanalysis
Transmedial Storytelling in Search for a “Russian National Idea” / Logos. 2015. № 3 (105). P. 197-223
annotation:  This article examines the potential of transmedial storytelling to analyze the national Imagination on the basis of deliberative public debates involving opinions, ideas, narratives and images of various social groups. The article is based on the presentation of Denis Saunin’s and George Mamin’s sculpture Russia. Try to kill! (СF Art Group) at the 2013 Venice Art Biennale. The author starts by looking at this art object, created on the basis of the All-Russian competition of art concepts on the topic of “the Russian National Idea.” The object of visual analysis contains a dynamic political representation: the unification of the images of a sovereign’s orb and a traditional tilting doll, creating a provocative effect alongside the slogan Try to kill!, resulting in an aggressive counter-game with the viewer. Textual analysis is conducted with 458 art ideas which were submitted to the contest and which have shown a significant range of substantial references for understanding the national idea of Russia. The next stage of the textual analysis focused on the selected of art concepts representing a storytelling or narrative description of the art object. The most widespread symbols are state symbols, family and children, Christian symbols, living images, anthroposentric images, reflecting a traditional and archaic complex of ideas. Thus, the national unifying idea is visually aggressive, and also substantially traditional, as if to say that it is better for Russians to live in the shadow of the state, of Christianity, in combination with elements of their pagan heritage, with their family and their children.
Keywords:  storytelling; transmedial; national idea; collective identity; textual analysis; visual analysis
History and Legitimation: the USA in the “War on Terror” (2001–2004) / Logos. 2015. № 3 (105). P. 224-240
annotation:  The geopolitical concept War on terror was created by the George W. Bush administration after 9/11. The White House has invented classic good-againstevil stories and has tried to transform the 2004 election into a moral drama. Storytelling can also divert voters’ attention away from the state of the war by evoking the great collective myths of the US imagination. The paper aims to prove this by analyzing four crucial speeches of President George W. Bush. History is used to legitimate both a political and a military program. The article shows by which means the President tries to reap political profit by treating history in this way. How do stories enchant political reality, and how does this ideological use of meaning serve the interests of a political destiny? To answer these questions, Greimas’s discourse analysis methods have been employed. The American citizen is the principal hero, or subject, of the story. His psychological and physical states were threatened and then damaged, and since then he has to fight to reestablish the world order and democracy to triumph over the Evil (object). For this purpose, he has to find terrorists (opponents) and to combat them to prevent them from commiting a bigger evil. The American Army (helper) will be directed by the U. S. President who is also a guarantor of the nation (sender), who will do his best to give the gift of democratic values to the world (receiver).
Keywords:  terrorism, America, storytelling, narrative politics, propaganda, Bush administration
Era of Writers: Text and Writing in New Media / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 1-11
annotation:  This paper discusses issues related to the practice of writing in new media. Despite predictions made by 20th century thinkers, text culture is not dying. Rather, it is experiencing a renaissance associated with the transition from content consumption in mass media to the practice of writing on the Internet. The age of writers is a decade of digital social networks, during which mankind has produced much more writing than in any of the previous eras. Writing is no longer the skill of a small group of professionals. It has become a regular everyday skill for all social classes, and teenager stand as the vanguard of the new culture of writing. School education has still not caught up with this trend, and official culture has failed to link texts teenagers produce with the great literary tradition in pedagogic efforts. In general, a conservative cultural atmosphere creates a situation where that the writer may only be the person who has published in the centralized professional press, although the real figure of the writer today is simply a social network user. The meaning of “graphomaniac” has gotten completely lost. Writing in new media is not so much an innovation as it is the overcoming of a legacy from an era of mass media, and a return to the text circulation model known before the invention of printing. The central thesis of this article is that the text remains a key aspect of the future of media as suitable for fast communication and anonymous messages. The author is not dead—the author has moved to Facebook.
Keywords:  writing, new media, Marshall McLuhan, printing press, Johannes Gutenberg, author, text
God Loves Digits / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 12-13
Keywords:  Digital Humanities
Digital Humanities: Is This Something New, Or Have We Been Doing It All Along? / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 14-36
Keywords:  Digital Humanities
The History of Humanities Computing / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 37-65
annotation:  The author traces the history of the Digital Humanities (humanities computing) from 1950 to 1990. She starts from Roberto Busa’s pioneering endeavour to render the works of Thomas Aquinas automatically treatable, and goes on to look at the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI). The article covers a variety of methods and a large range of topics, with a clear interdisciplinary inclination. By its very nature, humanities computing has had to embrace “the two cultures,” to bring in the rigour and the unambiguous, systematic, procedural methodologies characteristic of the sciences to address problems within the humanities that had hitherto been most often treated in an intuitive and serendipitous fashion. The pinnacle of achievement for this period has been the TEI, which has influenced the professional community as a whole. Humanities computing can contribute substantially to the growing interest in putting humanity’s cultural heritage on the internet, not only for academic users, but also for lifelong learners and the general public. Our tools and techniques can also assist researchers in facilitating the digitization and encoding processes, where ways to reduce the costs of data creation, without loss of scholarly value or functionality, have to be found. Throughout its history, humanities computing has shown a healthy appetite for imagination and innovation, while continuing to maintain high scholarly standards. Now that the internet is such a dominant feature of everyday life, the opportunity exists for humanities computing to reach out much further than has hitherto been possible.
Keywords:  computing; methodology; digitization; encoding; data
Media Visualization: Visual Techniques for Exploring Large Media Collections / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 66-91
annotation:  The digitization of historical visual collections and the emergence of user-generated visual content (Instagram, YouTube, and many other media sharing sites) create fascinating opportunities for cultural research, as well as a new problem. How can we work with sets of millions or billions of images and video? How can we discover interesting things in these collections, without prior knowledge of what we want to find? The article proposes visualization methods suitable for exploring massive collections of images and videos. It argues that existing mechanisms, such as search engines, are not effective for understanding patterns in a collection, since they only show items that match particular words or tags. It also critiques the exclusive use of verbal metadata, since it prevents us from seeing visual patterns not described by metadata. Instead, the author proposes to use the actual content of the collection—i. e., all images—and present them in various spatial layouts sorted in various ways. This allows us to see the patterns and the overall “shape” of a collection. To contrast this approach to the more familiar practice of data visualization, we have decided to call it “media visualization.” Typical information visualization involves translating the world into numbers and then visualizing relationships between these numbers. In contrast, media visualization involves translating a set of images into a new image that can reveal patterns in the set. In short, pictures are translated into pictures. Conceptually, media visualization is based on three operations: zooming out to see the whole collection (image montage), temporal and spatial sampling (using parts of a collection), and remapping (re-arranging the samples of media in new configurations).
Keywords:  media visualization; big data; media collections; software, patterns
Media, Media Science and Media Philosophy / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 92-105
Spiritual Man and Technology / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 106-121
annotation:  This essay, written by Max Bense in 1946, is now published in Russian for the first time. The work shows the author as a patriarch of media archaeology, and one of the first thinkers to develop a method of integrally analyzing and comparing religious, cultural and technical phenomena on the basis of those media technologies that dominate in a certain period. As a forerunner of the computer age, Bense thought about the technical counterparts of human existence; unlike many of his contemporaries, he considered machines as pure products of human intelligence, with algorithms at their base, but he soon posed ethical questions, which were not discussed in ethics of technology until decades later. In his research, he refers, among other things, to the principles of clock production in the 16th century, in order to demonstrate that the ideas offered by Pierre Simon Laplace and Jean Calvin were essentially close. Bense succeeds in reconstructing European intellectual history by dramatically colliding Laplace’s predictive demon with the Platonic creative spirit, but without the technophobia inherent to Heidegger. Although an existential contradiction always remains between Laplace’s demon and the Platonic spirit, it assists in working out a finer idea of what a real person, who plays the role of a correction to history and to any type of society, should be. According to Bense, Plato’s theory is not opposed to the theory of Laplace, but is, instead, quite compatible with it. Also, the way in which the “demon” is theologically founded does not contradict its physicalist interpretation, due to the universal mathematical theory created by Leibniz, which in its turn led to the elaboration of quantitative methods in the natural sciences, to calculating machines and, later, to modern electronic media. Bense traces the development of European culture, from possessing technology to a technological existence, thus anticipating the analogous but much later intuitions of contemporary media theorists.
Keywords:  spiritual man; technical apparatus; Laplace’s demon; Platonic spirit; Calvin’s doctrine of predestination; Leibniz; clocks; calculating machine
Machine Anthropology: a Belated Manifesto / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 122-141
annotation:  The task of this article consists of developing a sui generis machine logic, one that might become an alternative to the traditional onto-theo-logics. This new logic claims that the pre-predicative experience of human corporeality and sensibility, along with social models, could be expressed as a machine. And it provides justifications for the notions of “simple machine” or the artistic “toy-machine,” which are primary to the other types of machines, as well as the social megamachine (Lewis Mumford), and smart technologies. This article deals with the transcendental conditions of the emergence of such a machine, and the media preconditions of transcendence itself, which are treated as the machine’s a priori and as a symbolic language structure. A thesis regarding the nonexplicit machinic character of traditional human images is based on the history of media technologies, Lacan’s symbolic order, and the media theory of Gilbert Simondon and Friedrich Kittler. On the other hand, Heidegger’s theory of technology, the “desiring-machines” of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, and media theory by Gerald Raunig were thoroughly scrutinized. Heidegger’s key arguments, that “the essence of technology is itself nothing technological,” as well as his characterization of modern technology as Gestell (das Gestell), are criticized. These arguments provide an implicit assumption that the essence of “technology” is known in advance. Nevertheless, this essence is represented as no more than the ersatz of something technological, or as an anthropomorphous image of the machine. Thus, the machine cannot be placed into the hermeneutic circle without being replaced by its anthropological twin. It always slips away from any attempt to either to point to it or define it. The last part of the article considers mechanic images of the Russian Avantgarde, in comparison with western artistic projects of the time (surrealism, dadaism). However, such comparison does not lead to a simple demonstration of a common machine logic, but brings with it the crucial point of its problematic and autoreflexivity, which provides us with an understanding of the inadequate evaluation of Russian constructivism made by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari.
Keywords:  a machine notion; machine Utopias of the Avant-guard; Martin Heidegger’s philosophy of the technics; desiring machines by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari
Building Blocks for a Theory of the Media / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 142-161
annotation:  This classic text, by the well-known, leftwing media theorist and explicit media optimist Hans Magnus Enzensberger, which led to a famous debate with Jean Baudrillard on the political dimension of mass media, reveals the extent to which the author’s critique of quasi-Marxist media theory depends on the key statements of his own vis-a-vis. Enzensberger characterized classical mass media, foremost cinema and television, as oneway and closed, without possibility of feedback, so that any contact with the audience is minimal. However, in his opinion, media technology itself is not to blame. He examines how the universal capitalist media system, which combines classical and new electronic media, has come into being, and terms it “the consciousness industry,” similarly to the “culture industry” of Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer. The author considers the ideas of total control, censorship, and manipulation used by left-wing critics of bourgeois media to be extremely narrow, and indicates that there is immanent emancipating potential in new media. The problem of open media communication is raised, in the context of changing modes of production and forms of ownership, with the author developing ideas close to those of Bertolt Brecht and Walter Benjamin. Enzensberger writes about the mobilizing power of modern media and urges the socialist movements to develop their own media resources. Thus, he states that that it is possible to emancipate new media by changing the subject who owns them. This is the point to which Jean Baudrillard is mainly opposed. Enzensberger discerns a problem in the repressive use of media (by centrally guided programs, with one addresser and many addressees, which makes users passive and depoliticized). Experts produce content; however, it is controlled by the owner or by the bureaucracy. “The liberating use of media,” on the contrary, could make an addresser out of every addressee. Due to the elimination of technical barriers, masses could be mobilized toward political participation.
Keywords:  consciousness industry; electronic mass media; socialistic media theory; feedback; interactivity; manipulation; network forms of publicity; self-organization
Your Inside Is Out, Your Outside Is In: a Mythic World of Electronic Media / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 162-172
annotation:  This early text from Bolz introduces a key figure in the history of media science: Marshall McLuhan. Bolz reflects on why we are so obsessed with modern mass media. Like McLuhan, he believes that “your inside is out, your outside is in,” and refers to a famous statement by the Canadian media theorist, that all technologies are extensions of the body (Physis). Thus, new media should externalize our selves, producing collective surgery of the social body, as Walter Benjamin had already noted in his works. Bolz sees media as an extension of our central nervous system, with the latter itself as a network that synthesizes and coordinates our senses. Similar processes took place in the mythological consciousness of a different historical period. The world of modern media is similar to myth, in that the processes here are instantaneous (instantan) and simultaneous instead of being sequential (sequentiell). Moreover, the world of media is also predicated on configurations instead of linear relations, and implies pattern recognition instead of classifications. Electronic extensions of self have overcome the restrictions of space and time, thus making us throw away old forms of accommodation and acceleration; now the speed of cerebral signals paces electronic information processes. According to Bolz, media just transmit past experience onto new data carriers, but this is the very reason why new media are so attractive, as we are happy to recognize our own experience in a new material form. Like Friedrich Kittler, Bolz offers another reading for McLuhan’s statement that “the medium is the message,”which by itself seems “feuilleton-like”. In Bolz’s view, it actually means that the sense of past media opens in the media following. Bolz also offers that we think of our everyday life, in this mythic world of new media, as of making war using new means, or, better yet, as carrying on an electronic struggle through information and imagery. Starting from the electronic extension of the central nervous system in new media, it is a matter of “mental image-making-and-breaking” on the battlefields.
Keywords:  McLuhan; active metaphor; technological extensions of nervous system; tactility of omnipresence; technically Real; media mythology
Media of Philosophy / Philosophy of Media / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 173-188
annotation:  Friedrich Kittler is referred to as the most authoritative and celebrated contemporary European media theorist. This article is devoted to the problem of the scientific status of the media. The author, who always questioned the independent character of this discipline, looks for a way to prove that it is just an inversion of those changeable media conditions that made it possible. Kittler fundamentally criticizes traditional philosophy for its lack of attention to the technical conditions from which it originates. He states that the general notion of philosophy is more likely to be a homonym, while we should speak of many media philosophies of different periods and civilizations. In this manner, he compares two famous philosophical works, the Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas, and the Phenomenology of Spirit by Hegel, showing the way that their “pure” philosophical statements, related to the understanding of truth and the very philosophical structure of texts, are derived from the media of the time, and, what’s more, this does not depend on how they understand themselves. Kittler gives a variety of examples from the history of religion, philosophy, science, and language studies, in order to show how the history of writing, book-printing etc., makes philosophical knowledge change through the centuries. The question is not only about the genres and forms of philosophic texts, but also about their more essential features, such as their interpretative or mnemonic character. For example, he demonstrates how “Hegelian media technology had practiced the threefold literal sense of superseding (Aufheben), long before it was discovered in his philosophy.” The same logic may be seen in the way knowledge exists in the media conditions of the present day, in that it can be unconscious but “superseded.” In his view, this explains the great divide between media philosophy and the philosophy of the media themselves.
Keywords:  media philosophy; media history; media technical conditions of philosophy; books; Thomas Aquinas; Hegel; Turing machine
How to Follow Software Users / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 189-218
annotation:  Software has replaced a diverse array of physical, mechanical, electronic technologies used before the 21st century to create, store, distribute and interact with cultural artifacts. It has become our interface to the world, to others, to our memory and our imagination—a universal language through which the world speaks, and a universal engine that the world runs on. What electricity and the internal combustion engine were to the early 20th century, software is to the early 21st century. This article looks at the cutting edge of modern media research. It discusses the problems of analysing interactive, software-driven processes of media consumption and creation—in other words, the “space” between users and programs. It also asks how the new paradigm of “digital humanities” (quantitative analysis of cultural datasets) can be used to study these interactive processes. Three questions are considered in particular: 1) What is the “data” in interactive media? Software code as it executes, the records of user interactions (for example, clicks and cursor movements), the video recording of a user’s screen, a user’s brain activity as captured by an EEG or FMRI, or something else? 2) Can analysis of software system code give us a detailed understanding of interactive cultural experiences? 3) Who has access to detailed records of user interactions with cultural artifacts and services on the web, and what are the implications of being able to analyze these data?
Keywords:  software studies; media theory; big data; software; interactivity; open source; critical code studies; cultural patterns
The Future Isn’t Too Rosy / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 219-223
Heidegger’s Unexpected Journey in Russia / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 224-232
Dissolving in Everyday Life / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 232-237
Out of Frame / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 237-242
Inventing the Body: Between Sensuality and Pathology / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 243-249
Yesterday’s Lessons / Logos. 2015. № 2 (104). P. 249-256
Pleasure: A Political Issue / Logos. 2015. № 1 (103). P. 1-22
annotation:  The author of the article brings up the issue of the political function of pleasure, putting forward the problem of inclusion of the problematics of pleasure in the agenda of Left politics. Drawing attention to some puritanism, which has been traditionally attributed to the Left, the theorist acknowledges the weakness of pleasure as a political slogan. Yet, Jameson keeps looking for a niche for it in the politics of the Left, stressing the need for reformulation of the idea of pleasure in political terms. In doing so, he analyzes the concept of pleasure as such, in its different variations — from the theories of the Frankfurt School to French poststructuralism, — paying particular attention to Roland Barthes’ idea of jouissance described in his “The Pleasure of the Text.” Jameson comes to the conclusion that Barthes’ understanding of pleasure is too narrow and does not move beyond the bourgeois, culinary sense of pleasure, though, as he notices, his work did legitimize the overt discussion of pleasure on the Left. Answering the question on what might be a political use of pleasure, Jameson claims that the latter “must always be allegorical,” which means that any translation of a pleasure into a political issue requires a dual focus, in which the particular subject “is meaningful and desirable in and of itself,” but at the same time is “taken as the figure for Utopia in general, and for the systemic revolutionary transformation of society as a whole.”
Keywords:  pleasure; politics of pleasure; the Left; Roland Barthes; jouissance; allegory; Utopia
Service vs Client. Customer/Personnel Relationship as a Soviet Antagonism (on 1930s dining car complaint books) / Logos. 2015. № 1 (103). P. 23-40
annotation:  The author analyzes complaint books maintained in the dining cars run by Soviet Railroads in the early 1930s. A certain level of hostility had arisen between customers and the personnel following the emancipation of service employees, who started being viewed by consumers as an obstacle to be overcome rather than assistants in obtaining access to goods and services. Both sides armed themselves with numerous regulations, ordinances, instruction manuals, and booklets. While one side was mastering the art of composing complaints, the other was improving the phrasing of formal replies and runaround response patterns. The complaints reveal the problems of daily life, as well as the eating habits and gastronomic preferences of some categories of passengers, also indicating a tolerance level beyond which they considered the situation unacceptable. Mostly written by members of the middle class that was emerging in the cities, lower levels of Soviet civil servants, bosses of various scales, and servicemen, the complaints represent an important source for everyday life and social history studies. They allow for the reconstruction of a number of rules observed in communications between customers and staff, and reveal the improvised ideological grounding invoked in attempts to catch the attention of authorities. We claim that the widespread popularity of the genre of complaints was a side effect of mass literacy, and the ideological interpretations were the result of the ongoing struggle for justice. The paper is based on previously unpublished materials from the People’s Commissariat of Supplies, and the regulatory documents, manuals, and booklets of the 1930s‑1940s specifying rules for the provision of passenger services and for the writing of complaints.
Keywords:  complaint book; USSR in the 1930s; dining car; Soviet man; service industry; Homo Sovieticus
To Play Game Studies Press the START Button / Logos. 2015. № 1 (103). P. 41-60
annotation:  The article is dedicated to the origin and history of Game Studies. It starts with an analysis of the ludology/narratology debates. The author claims that these debates are one of the two myths underlying Game Studies. The second myth states that only Game Studies can investigate video games without reduction. The author demonstrates that even the ludological approach is a reductionist one. The author then demonstrates an important shift in Game Studies to a non-reductionist approach. From now on Game Studies are a post-discipline rather than a discipline. Video games have been studied by researchers from media studies, visual studies, cultural studies, etc. Regardless of institutional affiliation, the results of these investigations create an integral part of Game Studies and are easily assigned by it. It is because Game Studies is not about methods, but about an object. It is dealing with the intention to study video games in all their diversity, taking into account different research perspectives. The author discusses the role that game developers and game designers play in Game Studies. He claims that not just practice can produce or change theory, but the theory needs to be practical as well. Then the author proceeds to a current situation in the field and analyzes the most promising areas of contemporary research, e. g. procedural rhetoric and video games criticism.
Keywords:  Game Studies; narratology; ludology; non-reductionist approach; procedural rhetoric; notgames; video games criticism
Games Telling Stories? A Brief Note on Games and Narratives / Logos. 2015. № 1 (103). P. 61-78
annotation:  The main question of the article: Do games tell stories? Answering this should tell us both how to study games and who should study them. The affirmative answer suggests that games are easily studied from within existing paradigms. The negative implies that we must start afresh. The article presents a comparative analysis of the two major approaches to video games: narratology and ludology, in order to further the understanding of their differences and similarities, and lay bare hidden assumptions behind both approaches. The article begins by examining some standard arguments for games being narrative. There are at least three common arguments: 1) we use narratives for everything; 2) most games feature narrative introductions and back-stories; 3) games share some traits with narratives. The article then explores three important reasons for describing games as being non-narrative: 1) games are not part of the narrative media ecology formed by movies, novels, and theatre; 2) time in games works differently than in narratives; 3) the relationship between the reader/viewer and the story world is different than the relationship between the player and the game world. As a final point, it explores the question of whether various experimental narratives of the 20th century can in some way reconcile games and narratives.
Keywords:  Game Studies; video games; narratology; ludology; narrative; player; game world
Video Games are a Mess / Logos. 2015. № 1 (103). P. 79-99
annotation:  What follows is the text of author’s keynote address at the 2009 Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) conference, held in Uxbridge, UK September 1–4, 2009. The author returns to the question “What is a game?,” which has become perceived as a formalist scourge that drew, or perhaps still draws, our attention away from more important matters. But the question is rather unavoidable. It is not a strategic, rhetorical, or political question, at least not primarily so. Rather, it is an ontological question. The author distinguishes four approaches in the ontology of video games. The first one is ontology of forms, i. e. the study of the structures and systems that undergird games overall, which is common both to ludology and narratology, whose conflict has been central to game studies since the very origin of the field. The second approach supposes that video games exist on multiple levels, but some are more real than others. At least some of these levels are mental constructions while others have a material basis. Games are real at their formal levels, but this reality is more transcendental than genuinely real. According to the third approach, games are really just inanimate shells that may exist, but only in lesser form, until they are filled out and activated by players. As for Bogost himself, he defends the forth approach that absorbs all those mentioned above. This approach proposes a symmetrical, or flat ontology, which results in a plane of indiscriminate differences with all aspects of a game’s existence having the same potential to matter.
Keywords:  ontology of video games; Game Studies; mess; ludology vs narratology; flat ontologies; correlationism; platform
A Contribution to the Critique of the Gamification Project / Logos. 2015. № 1 (103). P. 100-129
annotation:  There is no well-defined attitude to the project of gamification in contemporary game studies. This paper aims to critically examine the gamification project in order to shape the attitude that this project would deserve. In order to achieve this aim, the following steps will be made in this paper: first, the technological aspects of gamification will be considered. The example of different alternate reality games (ARG) will be used to demonstrate how gameplay might intermediate the practices of everyday life. In the course of this consideration, a classification of ARG according to the level of the player’s immersion in these games will also be proposed. Secondly, this paper will raise the question oft how appropriate it is to talk about the deletion of the game/reality boundary in relation to the project of gamification. Considering this problem will allow us to clearly formulate that which defines the action of trying to gamify something. Thirdly, different perspectives on the goals of the project of gamification will be juxtaposed in this paper, namely those of the leftist gamification theorists on the one hand and those of the liberal gamification the orists on the other hand. This juxtaposition will show the extent to which gamification can be used to maintain capitalism or critique it and build an alternative economy. This will become the key point in forming a critical position on the project of gamification.
Keywords:  gamification; alternate reality games; performing belief; capitalism; alternative economy
A Real Little Game: The Pinocchio Effect in Pervasive Play / Logos. 2015. № 1 (103). P. 130-156
annotation:  Ubiquitous computing and mobile network technologies have fueled a recent proliferation of opportunities for digitallyenabled play in everyday spaces. In this paper, I examine how players negotiate the boundary between these pervasive games and real life by comparing them with the first film viewers, who allegedly could not distinct cinema from reality and feared the Lumières’ film The Arrival of a Train at the Station as much as they would fear a real train that could smash them up. I juxtapose the experience of the first film viewers with that of the first pervasive gamers and conclude that they have much in common. By giving various examples of puppet masters’ exposure in pervasive games and of pervasive gamers’ conscious rejection to admit this exposure, I affirm that gamers do not naively believe in deletion of the game-reality boundary, but do consciously desire this deletion while realizing its stubbornness. I trace the emergence of what I call the Pinocchio effect — the desire for a game to be transformed into real life, or conversely, for everyday life to be transformed into a real little game. Focusing on two examples of pervasive play — the 2001 immersive game known as the Beast, and the Go Game, an ongoing urban superhero game — I argue that gamers maximize their play experience by performing belief, rather than actually believing, in the permeability of the game-reality boundary.
Keywords:  pervasive play; immersive games; the Pinocchio effect; gaming reality; performance studies
A Traitor’s Luck: Debates on Video Games / Logos. 2015. № 1 (103). P. 157-179
annotation:  The article analyzes the ways people talk about video games, e. g. common places, figures of speech and categories which are used to (dis)qualify the game and the players. Part one deals with “grotesque discourse” and the construction of “childhood.” Journalists, politicians, priests, and psychologists talk about the danger of the illusionary worlds of video games, that suck children’s souls in and destroy them. Discussions about video games, usually based on sensational stories, religious tradition, or “scientific research,” reproduce the double gesture of protection against the dangers threatening childhood and coming from it. Analyzing psychological discourse, as exemplified in 13 PhD theses on “gaming addiction,” we observe a combination of moral, political, and medical reasons for pathologization and corrective action. In the second part, the author problematizes the “internal” discourse of game developers, which can be described as both behaviorist and sexist. In order to attract customers, game developers tend to oversimplify their games. They describe gameplay in terms of popular psychology, and consider the player (referring to experiments with rats or monkeys) as someone trying to avoid anything unfamiliar and uncomfortable, very scattered and in need of positive reinforcement. Sexist attitudes of game developers are also specifically addressed. Female players are often automatically treated as those who would like some pink, short, simple simulations of motherhood. Our analysis of flash games for young children detects the same logic: game developers impose on girls goals both pragmatic and unambitious — building up bodily capital, housekeeping, childcare, and animal care. And even these goals are to be learned passively, beyond the discourse of competition and achievement. In conclusion, we describe the success of independent projects on Kickstarter. We describe the transformations of certain segments of the gaming industry (digital distribution, crowdfunding, “early access,” etc.) and gaming community. The question we raise is whether or not these transformations are the future of cultural production.
Keywords:  video games; critical discourse analysis; grotesque discourse; gaming industry; gaming communities; sexism
Gamification in the Sciences / Logos. 2015. № 1 (103). P. 180-213
annotation:  The paper focuses on the peculiar modes of existence of scientific objects that have been gamified (extended by computer game; examples of EteRNA, Foldit, Phylo projects are used). An introduction to the history of the subject lets the author describe present situations in terms of trilateral processes of involvement between scientists, game and players — wherein two stages are indicated: 1)“[Scientists ↔ Game] ← Players” in which a gamified object appears, constructed with some level of resemblance to its laboratorial analogue but simple enough for gamers to interact with it as a primary given (problem of “acting on a distance”); 2)“Scientists → [Game ↔ Players]” in which the aim is for the game to sustain player interest in itself (since the developers can’t sustain it for the entire time). There are specific changes mentioned in regimes of player experience / thought for both stages. After that, the model of Centers of Calculation is proposed to describe the relationship between scientists and players; it leads to questions about the just use of player resources. The question raises the problem of interchanges of agent identities by each other’s actions. Diversity of player entities and ambivalence of changeable/unchangeable characteristics of Centers of Calculation are considered. The relationship of “use” is reversed by taking Crowds into account (crowdsourcing context). Finally, the author proposes a new conceptual approach — “thinking in spectrum”: different forms of experience here correspond with alterations in networks of identification (that of phenomenally different objects into an integral identity).
Keywords:  gamification in sciences; intuitions of object; phenomenology of interestment; centers of calculation; identification of actors; “thinking in spectrum” approach; EteRNA; Foldit; Phylo
Game Rules as a Normative System, or What Do Law and Game Design Have in Common? / Logos. 2015. № 1 (103). P. 214-225
annotation:  The article suggests an original view on the correlation between game design and jurisprudence, connected with the fact of increasing attention paid to the legal aspects of computer games in modern social sciences and humanities. First of all, law may be understood as a factor which affects game design from the standpoint of intellectual property regulation. That said, a non-trivial aspect is stressed: the process of playing is a creative process. Second, law may be viewed as a factor which determines the design content. Specific legal institutes allow including new elements of game mechanics, e. g. virtual property being traded for real money. Third (which is the most interesting), law itself can be viewed as a specific incarnation of game design (and vice versa). Both the legal system and game rules are, in essence, based on the same logic of formalized algorithms. It may be interesting to interpret game rules (above all, computer game rules) in light of the classic structure of the legal norm, which includes “hypothesis,” “disposition” and “sanction,” i. e. conditions whereupon the norm “fires,” the behavior rule itself, and the consequences for non-compliance. The “legal norms” of a virtual world can be expressed at the level of “open” rules, which are up to players to abide by or not to abide by, and at the level of code. Each time, the designer faces the choice between leaving the rules at the level of code or bringing them up to the level of virtual social interactions. The fact of similarity between legal systems and game rules also signifies a vast creative potential, which implies that game design may borrow ideas not only from economic system, but therefore from legal systems as well.
Keywords:  law; computer games; virtual law; game design; Game Studies
Conversation with Irina Savelieva. Andrei Poletayev: Interview as a Frame for Scientific Biography / Logos. 2015. № 1 (103). P. 226-288
In Defence of the Author (Steven Pinker. The Sense of Style) / Logos. 2015. № 1 (103). P. 289-298
How to Study Humans, and to Remain One (Guy Thuillier. Introduction au métier de l’historien) / Logos. 2015. № 1 (103). P. 298-310
Dreamcatcher (Vadim Rudnev. A New Model of Dreams) / Logos. 2015. № 1 (103). P. 311-313
Disturber of the Peace: Two Historical Philosophical Works of Jaakko Hintikka (Jaakko Hintikka. On Wittgenstein; On Gödel) / Logos. 2015. № 1 (103). P. 313-322
Her Body, Himself: Gender in the Slasher Film / Logos. 2014. № 6 (102). P. 1-60
annotation:  This essay investigates the appeal of horror cinema, in particular the phenomenal popularity of “low” genres that feature female heroes and are supposed to play to male audiences. The question addressed in this essay is why, in these films, which are supposedly principally aimed at male spectators, are the surviving heroes often female characters. The author argues that these films are designed to align spectators not with the male tormentor, but with the female tormented—with the suffering, pain, and anguish that the “final girl,” as Clover calls the victim-hero, endures before rising to finally vanquish her oppressor. The essay demonstrates that throughout the course of the film spectators have an ironic shift in gender affinity.
Keywords:  horror cinema, gender identification, final girl, victim-hero
Film Bodies: Gender, Genre, and Excess / Logos. 2014. № 6 (102). P. 61-84
annotation:  The author examines three body genres: horror, pornography and melodrama (weepie), in which there are seemingly gratuitous «excesses’—sex, terror, tears, which have a direct (mimic) impact on the senses and the bodies of spectators. In contrast to the classic movie, which is characterized by a linear narrative, body genres are characterized by repetition, parallelism, unmotivated events due to which these genres are considered as «gross’ and “low.” However, they have their own logic, structure and system of “excess,” their own attitude to important human problems. Corporal genres correspond to the three major enigmas confronting the child: the enigma of the origin of sexual desire, “solved” by the fantasy of seduction; the enigma of sexual difference, “solved” by the fantasy of castration; and the enigma of the origin of self, “solved” by the fantasy of family romance or return to origins. Pornography, horror and melodrama present us with their own solutions of these enigmas.
Keywords:  body genres, horror, melodrama, pornography, gender, perversions
Lustmord. The History of a Fantasm / Logos. 2014. № 6 (102). P. 85-106
annotation:  Sexual murder, or Lustmord is a discursive fantasm in no small part produced by cinema itself. While this term is no longer in use in criminology, its popularity in cinema has grown. This subject matter is successfully exploited in Hollywood today. Thus the enjoyment contained in the concept of Lustmord is driven by media logic. A murder and its enjoyment are possible only in the form of a visual construction which emerges dialectically from a voyeuristic atmosphere on one hand, and from estrangement made possible by film equipment and self-reflection on the other hand. The article looks at the development of Lustmord discourse since the late 19th century and analyzes the gender aspects of its current forms through examples of Hollywood movies like Psycho, The Cell, The Silence of the Lambs, and Surveillance.
Keywords:  sexual murder, Lustmord, criminal anthropology, gender identification, popular culture
Second-rate Category 5 Kaiju / Logos. 2014. № 6 (102). P. 107-122
annotation:  The article tries to analyze Kaiju in the context of the postwar transformation of the liberal structure of the sciences. The emergence of “great” inventions disrupts the logic of the fallibilist development of knowledge mirrored by open liberal society. That logic is substituted within the redundancy system: one bomb brings about the other. The first Gojira (or Godzilla) depicts one possibility of breaking the system, using a countermeasure which interrupts the series of big discoveries, or the Kaju. Yet the latest Gojira (or Godzilla), from 2014, demonstrates the ambiguity of political boundaries. The imaginary solution consists in turning the Kaiju into a media ally which would guarantee society’s welfare.
Keywords:  Godjira, Kaiju, knowledge, catastrophe, media
Exploitation Cinema within the Limits of the Internet / Logos. 2014. № 6 (102). P. 123-134
annotation:  Keywords: exploitation cinema, trash, Russian segment of the Internet, videoboom. Exploitation movies were generated by Western popular culture under the influence of a number of factors: ideological, social, economic, esthetic considerations. Over time, these marginal branches of cinema have turned into a well-performing industry, as well as an object of academic study and a cult. The wave of “exploitation” approached the Russian audience in the second half of the 1980s and were part of the “videoboom.” The progress of the internet has opened up access to foreign websites dedicated to genre cinema, and later to file-sharing platforms. Resources related to the exploitation appeared in the Russian segment of the internet. The information vacuum was filled by enthusiasts who created websites and thematic forums, and audience demand was satisfied by video bootleggers with their online shops.
Keywords:  exploitation cinema, trash, Russian segment of the Internet, videoboom
Genre Unchained. Western d’Auteur on the Future of Humankind / Logos. 2014. № 6 (102). P. 135-148
annotation:  This paper analyzes the Quentin Tarantino feature Django Unchained (2012) and treats it as the result of the evolution of the Western as an initial genre of American cinema. This “spaghetti Western,” which is ironic, full of famous quotes, and devoid of nostalgia, reflects a changing conceptualization of political correctness. The end of white man hegemony is realized in the film as a rejection of the usual ethical inversion in favor of the oppressed. The romantic project of educating one’s Other is completed, and the West can retreat. The struggle for supremacy unfolds again, but victory is meant for the hero whose name translates to “I awake” from the Romani language.
Keywords:  Genre cinema, Spaghetti Western, Construction of the Other, Evolution of Political Correctness
Passive Passionarity: the Spectator and the Media in Russian Movies on Hockey / Logos. 2014. № 6 (102). P. 149-178
annotation:  The article deals with the question of images of the sports fan (mostly hockey) in connection with media space in Soviet and post-Soviet cinema. Beginning with the postwar period, in such movies as The Hockey Players, You and me, Legend № 17, Champions, etc., we can discern the evolution of the way spectator-fans are represented on the screen in the sports and media hierarchy. Issues like the demonstration of mediatized national unity, multi-stage evolution of the sportsmedia community, and the special status of hockey in Soviet media are discussed.
Keywords:  Soviet hockey, media, passivity, audience, telehockey
Doctor Who: Genocide for Dummies / Logos. 2014. № 6 (102). P. 179-192
annotation:  Doctor Who, the longest-running sci-fi TV show in history, is made of crackpot stories, low-cost design and kindergarten-level rubber monsters. Nevertheless, its imagery, characters and catchphrases have become iconic in contemporary culture. Several generations interpret the history of humankind through this mythology. The protagonist, an antropomorphic extraterrestrial super-clever near-immortal geek, travels trough time and space with his time machine, takes occasional humans on board and fights evil. An unconventional superhero, Doctor is a pacifist and a war criminal— the personification of the post-WWII guilt complex. The show can be read as a series of ethical case studies trying to justify genocide. Absurdist quasi-children-oriented writing, sketchy logic, and basic design create the perfect setting for the most extreme ethical and philosophical questioning.
Keywords:  Doctor Who, sci-fi, superhero, time travel, sexuality, pacifism, guilt, genocide, ethics, humanism
Telemedievalism: “Medieval” TV Series in the Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries / Logos. 2014. № 6 (102). P. 193-208
annotation:  This article presents a brief overview of TV series set in the Middle Ages and aims to show how this kind of medievalism evolves to the present day. The author introduces the term “telemedievalism” to describe the phenomenon in question, pointing out its peculiarities and differences from cinemedievalism, or the cinematic representation of the Middle Ages. The focus lies on American and Western European TV series of the early 21st century, as this is the most representative period of this theme. The author mentions typical quasi-medieval characters, themes and subjects in telemedievalism. Special attention is paid to the specific title sequences of “medieval” TV series. The series Cadfael, Vikings, Game of Thrones, Borgia are examined in detail as examples of similar or drastically different approaches to the representation of the Middle Ages in popular culture.
Keywords:  Middle Ages, medievalism, TV series, popular culture, fantasy
The Series Starts and Wins: The TV Show Between Amusement and Drama / Logos. 2014. № 6 (102). P. 10
annotation:  This article focuses on the connection between the development of modern-day technologies and the delivery of video content, in addition to the change in the mode of consumption of this content by the audience. The analysis based on a comparison of the role of television series in today’s culture with feature films. The author presumes that television series have acquired a number of key functions in modern-day culture, above all, the apprehension of and reflection on activities from large screen pictures. More gifted and socially oriented playwrights have been focused specifically on television series. Thus, television series should be seen as another way of codifying humanity’s current knowledge of the contemporary world.
Keywords:  video content technology, structure of knowledge, movies, series (soap opera), self-reflection of mankind
The Bruce Lee of Postmodern Thought / Logos. 2014. № 6 (102). P. 218-223
From a Critique of Exploitation to the Exploitation of Critique / Logos. 2014. № 6 (102). P. 223-231
Storming the Public Space: a Commentary on the Heterotopia of Bad Taste / Logos. 2014. № 5 (101). P. 1-26
annotation:  In this article, the author addresses the topic of bad cinema, referring to the basic concepts of aesthetic theory: the power and grounds of judgment. He comments on the need for researchers to investigate alternative cinema, beyond mainstream and art-house. The author aims to attract the attention of young humanitarians to bad cinema. The text discusses the following questions: When and how did discourse on alternative (bad) cinema appear in the Western public and academic spaces, within which themes in cinema studies are “bad films” typically studied, the grounds on which the subject makes a judgment of taste, according to which a particular film is good or bad. Borrowing the concept of “heterotopia” from Michel Foucault, the author points out that although “heterotopias of bad taste” supposedly let “utopia of good taste” to remain “a measure of quality,” in fact they they imply that good taste is impossible.
Keywords:  bad cinema, cult cinema, the judgment of taste, heterotopia, Camp
Para-Paracinema: The Friday the 13th Film Series as Other to Trash and Legitimate Film Cultures / Logos. 2014. № 5 (101). P. 27-50
annotation:  Hills problematizes the opposition between “trash” and “legitimate” film cultures, a dichotomy which is standard for academia. In contrast to what is often believed, the concept of “trash” film is not founded on the inclusion of everything rejected or ignored by legitimate culture, but is constructed through the exclusion of certain kinds of film sleaze from the frame of two cultures. Hills uses the example of Friday the 13th to demonstrate how this exclusion is performed. The author employs criteria such as aesthetic recurrence in relation to the trash “canon,” mainstream character, commercial success, sexism, lack of an author-function. He notes that fans belonging to the field of academia, such as Hills himself, are the main source of trash revalorization and rehabilitation of excluded films.
Keywords:  legitimate/trash film culture, slasher, academic account, franchise, sleazy artistry
Postmodernism with Sam Raimi (or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying About Theory and Love Evil Dead) / Logos. 2014. № 5 (101). P. 51-78
annotation:  According to the author, the trilogy The Evil Dead says more about postmodernity than many of the key texts devoted to this phenomenon, whether it is the paradigmatic text Condition of Postmodern or the wellknown text Cyborg Manifest. This article seeks to operationalize the methods of the humanities, implemented with respect to the three parts of the franchise The Evil Dead. Using the scenes, shots and storylines as examples, the author seeks to explain the main elements related to postmodernity— irony, distrust of metanarratives, allusion, intertextuality, parody, camp, etc. The article is didactic in terms of the way the author shows how the humanities can work with phenomena of popular culture. Thus, referring to specific places in the trilogy The Evil Dead, the author makes it clear even to an untrained reader what postmodernity is and how it can be characterized.
Keywords:  horror, postmodernity, irony, intertextuality, heterotopia
Beaver Las Vegas! A Fan’s Defense of Showgirls / Logos. 2014. № 5 (101). P. 79-96
annotation:  The text is a case study of Paul Verhoeven’s Showgirls. At the time the picture was released it was immediately recognized by viewers as a “bad movie” and eventually was promoted as a “bad movie,” which should be treated with irony, but not seriously. As a result, the tape was interpreted as camp and became entertainment for homosexuals, securing its status as a “gay movie.” The author carefully challenges this interpretation in hopes of proving that the film can be interpreted as a “good” one. The author does not deny Paul Verhoeven’s conscious irony, and therefore considers that the target audience of the film might be white heterosexual men, as the tape is a deliberate statement of the director about the body, sex and consumption.
Keywords:  interpretation, Camp, irony, cult film, sexuality
The Excluded: Logic of Social Stigmatization in Popular Cinema / Logos. 2014. № 5 (101). P. 97-130
annotation:  This article presents a comparative analysis of two phenomena: the most popular contemporary pop culture image of the zombie, and the political and legal status of those excluded from society, namely of migrants and guest workers., broadly interpreted as an ontological, social, and anthropological entity. The closest to this is the status of the homo sacer, as analyzed by Giorgio Agamben—a being, which is not worth sacrifying, but may be killed by everybody without any consequences. The life of the living dead (as a life of every contemporary excluded being) is also realized in the conditions of the state of exclusion, which has become a norm and which is understood as an initial relation of exclusion.
Keywords:  exception, victim signs, fear, guilt, zombies, popular culture, homo sacer
The Religion of Star Wars / Logos. 2014. № 5 (101). P. 131-140
annotation:  This article is a chapter of the book On Religion by John Caputo. The author analyzes the contemporary form of religiosity in Western societies through the example of George Lucas’s Star Wars saga. According to Caputo, these exclusive pieces of popular culture which are based on archetypes and initial cultural narratives are able to become a substitute for bygone forms of traditional religiosity. The author characterizes the Star Wars movie and pieces of work of similar scale as an effective means of remytholizing religious tradition.
Keywords:  religion, Annunciation, Star Wars, hi-tech, archetype, mythology
John Carpenter’s Social Critique: Conspiracy in They Live / Logos. 2014. № 5 (101). P. 141-162
annotation:  The text presents an analysis of the cult American film director John Carpenter’s They Live (1988) in the context of the critique of ideology. Its initial methodological settings are the following: to pay attention to the ideological content of the films, which usually do not involve such content; to look for the ideological content in popular including small budget genre films; to see director as a carrier of a particular ideology or as the author, who with the help of the film carries a socio-political statement; detail and at different levels of analysis of the entire movie, not only his promise or his key scenes. The author answers the questions of how the ideology functions in the space of the film, and how dirrector’s statement can be related to the concepts of leftist theorists; What are the conspiracy theories in the movies and what is his contribution to the development of contemporary conspiracy discourse.
Keywords:  critique of ideology, conspiracy theories, cognitive mapping, propaganda, mass culture
Enemy at the Gates. Soviet Goalkeeper: Cinema, Culture, Politics / Logos. 2014. № 5 (101). P. 163-192
annotation:  This article is an attempt to reconstruct the metaphorphosis of the image of the goalkeeper in Soviet and post-Soviet culture. The author develops the following aspects of the theme: 1) historical and political reasons for the emphasis on the goal-keeper in the sports hierarchy, 2) connectivity of the cultural pragmatics of representation in art and sport realities, 3) the striking features of the Soviet sports comedy, 4) militaristic connotations of sports drama, 5) the transformation of goal-keeper topics in the context of cyclic change of culture one and two. The starting point of analysis is the classical image of the “cold goalkeeper” by Anton Kandidov from the movie Goalkeeper and the novel Goalkeeper of the Republic.
Keywords:  goalkeeper, border, war, sports culture, Kandidov, Yashin
Serial Cruiser / Logos. 2014. № 5 (101). P. 193-212
annotation:  The article provides a critical consideration of the claim that the rise of TV series marks the return of narratives and overcoming of post-modern fragmentation. The fragmentation is negotiated through focusing of the narrative on place or, rather, ambiance and its potential of developing possibilities. There is no particular non-teleological temporality in the series. Frequent lack of closure undermines the narrative: the events become haphazard and not motivated by necessity. Another peculiarity of the series narrative is compulsory linearity without confused temporalities, ellipses and twists of the narrative time. The article also suggests other important differences between TV series and cinema: role of knowledge and consumption of information in them, the relation of the series to individual forms of consumer’s time, return to a human-oriented vision after the search for an “inhuman” vision in cinema.
Keywords:  series and cinema, return of narrative, linear narrative, temporality, human and inhuman vision
Daria among the Tribes / Logos. 2014. № 5 (101). P. 213-230
annotation:  The article is focused on the schematism of the informal distribution of schoolchildren, which is featured in many American high school series. The names of different groups and cliques function as references to the positions and the distortions on the coordinate map of capitals (or abilities) and success. All the groups—preps, jocks, nerds, geeks, freaks—withdraw in some way from united communicative space, reacting by this evasion to the double bind of the school system. This is the background for the solutions developed in two extraordinary examples— John Hughes’s cult movie Breakfast Club and the MTV series Daria. If Hughes suggests that fictional borders can be overcome and fusion into united communication is possible, Daria can delimit the intellectual position only in a purely negative way, i. e. by constant undermining of all social relations and by the use of a prefabricated critical dictionary. All that is left to the intellectual in this situation is literature and creative writing.
Keywords:  high school series, informal groups, John Hughes, Daria series, communication
Conspiracy Series / Logos. 2014. № 5 (101). P. 231-250
annotation:  The article examines the genre of conspiracy crime as one of the most popular types of popular fiction and serial production. Conspiracy discourse engenders a plethora of series and novels that endeavor to represent the age of globalization. The balance between facts and fiction is significant for the conspiracy theory since there occurs an illusion of eliminating boundaries between the fictional world and everyday reality. It is through creating the so-called “reality effect” that conspiracy theory is successfully placed within the general process of forging a historical past and delegitimizing the status of scientific knowledge. Each new reconstruction of History starts from a point where there is a crack in the chain of knowledge and where memory is erased. The genre of conspiracy embeds certain “seriality” and possible continuity similar to a paranoiac’s narrative that can be endless and contenting conspiracy continually.
Keywords:  conspiracy discourse, detective series, reality effect, narrative and amnesia, and conspiracy theory
“In the title Logos lies the idea of searching for the new — a new voice, a new language, a new word” / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 2-11
“Nobody could ever think that the journal was run by young boys — there was so much boldness, confidence in them” / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 12-20
“There never were any philosophers here in Russia — this is not a country of philosophers” / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 21-31
“The main lesson to be learned from Logos is the art of practical drive” / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 32-44
“Logos brings together several completely different epochs, diametrical in their aspirations, hopes, styles” / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 45-55
“Right In front of our eyes the country was collapsing, we saw a tectonic wreck of epochs, and here people were sitting and studying phenomenology…” / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 56-64
“In Russia a journal is something bigger than just journal” / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 65-72
The Selfie: Between Democratization of Media and Self-Commodification / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 73-86
annotation:  The article discusses the ambivalent phenomenon of the selfie—a self portrait taken with a digital camera and published on the web. It is argued that the selfie is a new language of selfdescription in society which can be interpreted through the ideological background of the authors. The selfie is presented as a factor in the democratization of media, but also as a possible tool for depersonalization and commodification of internet users. This is discussed in the context of feminist discussions on the role of selfies.
Keywords:  selfie, internet, gender, feminism, media, commodification, critical theory
Critique of Filter-Reason. Each Selfie Divides Itself in Two / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 87-94
annotation:  The paper deals with what is characterized by Eli Pariser as filter bubble: the new way in which the internet functions in the age of social networks and personalization. Contrary to Pariser’s emphasis on the potential threats of the new internet, this paper sees it as essentially ambivalent phenomena, in which oppressive and liberating tendencies are indistinguishably intertwined; the selfie serves as a central point for analyzing and clarifying this duality.
Keywords:  selfie, internet, filter bubble, Eli Parisser, the new spirit of capitalism
Selfie ergo sum / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 95-104
annotation:  The article considers the phenomenon of the selfie through the lens of classic art and some philosophical ideas. It focuses particularly on the image as a sign system and also on the similarity and difference between a selfie and a classical self-portrait. Some certain events in the lives of such artists as Joseph Beuys, Andy Warhol, Hippolyte Bayard, Leonardo da Vinci, Kazimir Malevich, Marcel Duchamp, Salvador Dali, and also Rene Descartes and Immanuel Kant served as the illustrative material for the article. The author claims that selfie characterizes the contemporary condition of culture.
Keywords:  selfie, photography, fine art, self portrait, visual semiotics, universal satisfaction (Allgemeines Wohlgefallen)
Debates among Professionals: Competitiveness and Rejection of Research Programmes within Contemporary Philosophy / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 105-146
annotation:  This paper focuses on debates in contemporary philosophy and on the productiveness of these debates. The article brings forth two main theses: firstly, debates in philosophy quickly lead to the elimination of poorly substantiated positions and unfounded research programs; secondly, the coexistence of fundamentally incompatible philosophical programs stimulates their development—that is, incompatibility brings about productive professional competition in philosophy. To substantiate these claims the author analyzes two notorious debates of the late 19th and early 20th century: Hermann Ebbinghaus’s critique of Wilhelm Dilthey’s descriptive psychology, and Moritz Schlick’s one-way discussion of the phenomenological project and Edmund Husserl’s works.
Keywords:  debates in philosophy, descriptive psychology, phenomenology, logical positivism, Dilthey, Ebbinghaus, Husserl, Schlick
Bibliography for all years / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 319-368
On Explanatory and Descriptive Psychology / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 147-186
An Introduction to the Lectures on Phenomenological Psychology / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 187-214
Does an Intuitive Cognition Exists? / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 215-228
Prince of Networks: Bruno Latour and Metaphysics / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 229-248
annotation:  In this excerpts from the book Prince of Networks Graham Harman shows the work of French sociologist of science and anthropologist Bruno Latour in the light of metaphysics. The author gives a sketch of situation which could place the figure of Latour in the panorama of contemporary speculative philosophy. Special attention is paid to relations between Latour and contemporary scientific materialism, which can be called the default common sense philosophy of our time. The author concludes that the point of contention here is the difference in their attitudes towards the human/world gap, established in early modern period. The doctrine of local occasionalism, which is described by the author as “Latour’s greatest achievement in philosophy”, is also analyzed.
Keywords:  Bruno Latour, actor-network theory, metaphysics, materialism, occasionalism, empiricism, vicarious causation
Graham Harman’s Four Positional Wars / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 249-264
annotation:  This article addresses several themes from Graham Harman’s book Prince of Networks: Bruno Latour and Metaphysics, excerpts from which were translated into Russian. The author aims to uncover the reasons behind Harman’s interpretation of readiness-to-hand and presenceat-hand in Heidegger. The confrontation between object-oriented philosophy and materialistic tendencies in contemporary philosophy (including the so-called “philosophy of the virtual” of Gilles Deleuze and his successors) is reviewed and analyzed. The dilemma of occasionalism and skepticism (empiricism), which is one of the most recurrent themes in Harman’s texts, is also looked at. At first glance, these topics have little to do with each other. However, the author supposes that there are hidden common problems underlying these topics.
Keywords:  Graham Harman, Henri Bergson, Gilles Deleuze, object-oriented ontology, relationism, materialism, occasionalism
Can We Get Our Materialism Back, Please? / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 265-274
annotation:  Technology is epistemology’s poor relative. It still carries the baggage of a definition of matter handed down to it by another odd definition of scientific activity. The consequence is that many descriptions of “things” have nothing “thingly” about them. They are simply “objects” mistaken for things. Hence the necessity of a new descriptive style that circumvents the limits of the materialist (in effect idealist) definition of material existence. This is what has been achieved in the group of essays Thick Things for which this note serves as an afterword.
Keywords:  ontology of artifacts, philosophy of technology, materialism, idealism, definition of matter, primary and secondary qualities
Towards a Finally Subjectless Object / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 275-292
annotation:  The article addresses the basic mapping of modern epistemology and ontology, and blueprints the project of “onticology” as a version of object-oriented ontology. The author points to the fact that realists as well antirealists both share the assumption of the epistemological privilege of subject, and take as a premise different interpretations of the access to the reality. But the fundamental subject-object difference has its blind spots conditioned by the structure of distinction itself. This structure is treated by the author as a relation between “marked” and “unmarked.” Traditionally, objects were being assigned to the void sphere of “unmarked.” On the contrary, onticology with its “flat ontology” supposes that there is nothing except objects, and subjects are included to the multitude of “objects.”
Keywords:  onticology, flat ontology, objects, marked and unmarked, realism, antirealism, Latour, collectives
Of Sealing Wax and Cabbages / Logos. 2014. № 4 (100). P. 293-318
annotation:  The article analyzes critically the main theoretical premises of Graham Harman’s quadruple ontology of objects and his method of “productionism.” Although the assumptions of this ontology are removed from each other, they nonetheless have implicit links between them. The author shows that the main thesis of the theory of “vicarious causation” (that is, that the real Me directly encounters the sensual object) can be challenged, which challenges the entire conceptual framework at large. Harman’s framework hides the fact that the problem he aims to solve is not a causal problem, but rather a problem of defining “reality” itself after we have discarded the Kantian disposition of the conditions of experience being equal to the conditions of objects. The article suggests that Harman’s construction intends to solve the problem of non-predicative being by combining the ontological question about being with the ontic question about the composition of beings.
Keywords:  Graham Harman, object-oriented ontology, Descartes, quadruple object, productionism, real Me
Alexander Vvedensky’s Antinomy of Time / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 67-94
annotation:  The problem of time is an essential topic in Vvedensky’s work. The uniqueness of the poet’s approach to the problem of time follows the tradition of learned ignorance (docta ignorantia). Time appears as a fundamental ontological characteristic, and misunderstanding of time becomes the key to misunderstanding all that exists. The modern language created by OBERIU poets can and has to open up the essence of time, but its disclosure becomes its final misunderstanding. Seeking to leave the essence of time undefined, the poet exhibits opposite approaches to it, formulating antinomy. Time is fluid and fractional, real and illusory, finite and infinite. Vvedensky offers several different “ladders” to the concept of time in order to finally reject all theses and antithesises and to come closer to “broad misunderstanding.” Thus, connecting antinomy does not bring about an understanding of time, and time remains essentially incomprehensible.
Keywords:  time, eternity, consciousness, duration, antinomy
On Žižek’s Method / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 21-32
annotation:  In the philosophical tradition at academic institutions there is a distinct division between original texts and secondary sources which one can use to improve their understanding of the “classics.” In contemporary philosophy such a division proves problematic. Separating “creators” from “lectors” masks a deep latent connection between two fields as far as philosophical interpretations have already been anticipated in original conceptions. Slavoj Žižek’s unusual style accomplishes a task of preventing this ticklish situation. But his method is not a perfect solution to this question. In many respects, his last works failed to avoid ambiguity. This concerns the book Less than nothing especially.
Keywords:  texts of Slavoj Žižek, university discourse, primary source analysis, the problem of representation, utterance act
Hegel on Marriage / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 1-20
annotation:  The scandalous theory of marriage in Hegel’s Philosophy of Right ethically prefers prearranged marriage over marriages out of attraction and love. Mozart’s opera Così fan tutte seems to be a good example in defense of this point of view—the object of sexual passion is replaceable. At first, the Rousseau novel New Heloise also has the same claim. But an unexpected return of love passion for the story’s main character in the end does not seem to fit into Hegel’s account. Even so, it is enough to turn the perspective around to see how after passing through the painful “sublation” destined to cure one of love passion, that this passion emerges “as such” in its pure form. After sacrificing everything for passion, there is a need to renounce passion itself—and yet the passion persists.
Keywords:  Hegel, Rousseau, Freud, Mozart, Philosophy of Right, Così fan tutte, New Heloise, marriage, love, sex, communism
Three Most Notorious Suicides in History: Socrates—Kirillov—Malevich / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 33-40
annotation:  The author deconstructs three rhyming plots in world history: the death of Socrates—the suicide of Alexey Kirillov in The Possessed—The Black Square of Malevich. She claims that in all the three episodes a “logical suicide” has taken place. An act became a notorious statement. An act of self-sacrifice found its subject matter. The Death of the Author became part of its logic. The author also argues that Socrates moved towards death deliberately, and we are thus able to call his execution a suicide
Keywords:  Socrates, Kirillov, Kasimir Malevich, Dostoevsky, Kharms, suicide, The Black Square
Thematization of Time in Soviet Mass Song / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 41-66
annotation:  The ideal type of “Soviet man,” presented in popular musical genres, is characterized by radical novelty and constitutive universalism, which is illustrated using the material of Soviet “songs about time,” understood not simply as a thematically distinct genre. The history of the “Soviet” as such can be read as the story of the rise and intensification of reflection of collective engagement into temporal cognition. In the period under review, from the late twenties to the mid-sixties, you receive a lot of songs, somehow fixing the course of time: here we thematize not just subjective experience of immersion into an unordered medium of temporality, but the presence of a sustainable and rational order, to which this medium is submitted.
Keywords:  soviet mass song, temporality, universalism, memory models
The Mirror, the Clock and Philosophy (of Technology) / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 95-144
annotation:  This article is devoted to the role of technology in European culture and philosophy, namely an application of mirror and clock (automaton) images and operating principles in the capacity of interpretation, reflection and ontology schemata. The scope of the analysis covers a wide range of cultural history from antiquity to the early 20th century, from daily life to great philosophical doctrines. The origin of the philosophy of technology is considered in detail, especially Ernst Kapp’s conception of “organ projections.” This conception combines both fundamental schemata: mechanical (clock) and catoptric (mirror). On the one hand, the conception has produced an important effect on modern culture, but on the other hand it hid some socially significant issues which need to be considered carefully.
Keywords:  philosophy of technology, ontology, schema, Neo-Platonism, magic of things, power, organ projections, analytical psychology
Art and Science Discourses of the 1920s. Tynyanov and the Image of Man of Letters within the Artistic Universe of Konstantin Vaginov / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 145-164
annotation:  The article is dedicated to the mutual influence of scientific and artistic discourses of the 1920s on each other, using the example of the works of K. Vaginov and Y. Tynyanov. Vaginov’s participation in forming Tynyanov’s theory of unity and narrowness of the rhyme’s line and of rhythm as a constructive factor are emphasized in this article. The ideas of this theory were stated in Tynyanov’s Problems of Poetical Language of 1924 and were anticipated by the poetical conception of the main hero of Vaginov’s story The Cloister of Apollo, Our God. The article compares formal characteristics of these authors’ understandings of the images of a “man of letters” (Blok’s subtext), of literature, of a “thing,” and of the motives behind philological and literary work.
Keywords:  Vaginov, Tynyanov, Shklovsky, Luntz, Mandelstam, Blok, Russian formalism, man of letters, discourse, thing
Didro’s Philosophical and Artistic Mystification in “Jacques the Fatalist” / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 165-180
annotation:  This article deals with the notion and the function of mystification in philosophy and in literature. The author analyzes the novel-dialogue Jacques the Fatalist by Diderot, in which different types of mystification are represented. We examine narrative mystification, fable mystification, philosophical mystification, among others. We look at the similarities and differences between the poetics of Diderot’s novel with Don Quixote by Cervantes, Cleveland by Prevost, Marianna’s Life by Marivaux and Tristram Shandy by Stern in the aspect of literary game. We have concluded that Diderot’s ambiguous text is at once philosophical and fictional and combines seriousness with play, realism with illusion, and integrity with fragmentarity.
Keywords:  Diderot, mystification, illusion, play, ambiguity, infinity, fragmentarity, irony
The Concept of Sports / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 181-190
annotation:  The article is dedicated to the analysis of the definition of contemporary sports, introduced by Allen Guttmann in his book From Ritual To Record: The Nature Of Modern Sports. Guttman’s definition tends to be the basis for the development of a wider concept of post-sports, which is based on the principle of family resemblance. The article also looks at the problem of forming a corpus of literature dedicated to the topic of the philosophy of sports.
Keywords:  sociology of philosophy, philosophy of sports, post-sports, Allen Guttmann
Play, Games, Contests, Sports / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 191-208
annotation:  The text is the first and also the most fundamental chapter of Allen Guttmann’s work From Ritual To Record: The Nature Of Modern Sports, in which the author develops the research optics for the Modern sports study. It is compared with both the corporal and the contest practices of the past. Guttmann offers an original paradigm, describing the logical relationship between the concepts of play, games, contests, sports. His research aims to answer the basic questions of ontology of sport.
Keywords:  play, games. contests, sports, Modern sports, philosophy of sports, Homo Ludens
The Ethos of Football: Galahad vs Odysseus / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 209-222
annotation:  The article discusses the principles of fair play in contemporary sports and seeks to define the concept of “cheating.” The author points out two moral positions, the “Odyssian attitude” and the “Galahadian attitude.” The first assumes that sport is not possible without a certain amount of cheating, as athletes and coaches only care about results, and not about how they are achieved. The second, in contrast, insists on strict observance of the rules of fair play. Based on examples from the history of various championships and on discussions of the most famous cases of cheating and judicial errors, the author insists that sports would become much more attractive to viewers the Galahadian position characterized the dominant mode of action. However, the author does not believe that the “Galahadian attitude” should be extended to other areas of life.
Keywords:  ethics, sport, sportsmanship, fair play, honour code, fouls, cheating
Doping in Sports: History, Limits, Perspectives / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 223-230
annotation:  Doping in sports is a serious challenge for modern medicine. New kinds of doping, as a result of current advances in the area of human molecular biology, poses a new set of questions to scientists. To understand the possible future development of doping practices, we must address history of the issue and imagine how humanity might face the new challenges of the age.
Keywords:  doping, chemical doping, muscle growth stimulation, biological doping
Political Religion in Russia. The Constitution of 1993 as a Holy Scripture / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 231-242
annotation:  The article examines the discursive status of the constitution in the Russian political system. Starting from Ernst-Wolfgang Böckenförde’s affirmation that the liberal state is not able to guarantee its own premises, it is argued that many contemporary states use political ceremonies in order to veil this paradox. A case in point is the inaugurational oath of office in the USA, which usually is taken on the bible. In Russia, the president takes his oath on a special copy of the Russian constitution which functions as a kind of a Holy Scripture. Generally, the constitution plays an important role in Russia not only in the legal system, but also in the political religion that reassures the social legitimacy of Putin’s power.
Keywords:  consitution, political religion, inauguration, law, culture
The Russian Constitution: From Crisis to Development / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 243-264
annotation:  The article is devoted to new approaches to understanding the role of the Basic Law as a tool for managing large-scale social transformations. The author, who was one of the architects of the 1993 Constitution of Russia, reveals the aspects of functional organization and goals of this document, evaluates the results of the practical implementation of constitutional models and demonstrates yet unrevealed creative possibilities of the current Basic Law.
Keywords:  Constitution of Russia, state and law, transformation processes, change management, contemporary Russian history
The Garden of Russian Culture: a Historiographical Analysis of Contemporary Utopia / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 265-278
annotation:  The author examines recent events in the cultural life in Moscow from a historian’s point of view. He draws his analysis from three sources which have become “historical” over the course of the past few months. The sources describe an imaginary picture of an accurate, proper reality as seen by a group of proponents of civilization theories. This picture, in turn, fits into an invariant pattern of the etatist utopia that implies the boundedness of the zone in which a social project is realized, the existence of a special world within an isolated historical moment, the urge for quantitative certainty and total mental control over being. However, the inability of proponents of such discourses to create leads them to the idea of eliminating unwanted elements in order to let “proper” culture blossom.
Keywords:  utopia, Russia not Europe, sovereignty of culture, negative creativity, the end of postmodernism
How Many Bodies Does the King Have? / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 279-288
Immanence, Conflict and History: Italian Thought of Roberto Esposito / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 289-294
There’s Russia’s spirit… Russian scent! / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 295-299
The Union of Anti-Psychiatrists / Logos. 2014. № 3 (99). P. 299-303
The Monk of Culture. In Memory of Roman Gromov / Logos. 2014. № 2 (98). P. 261-263
The Social State. Its Essence, Criteria, Indicators / Logos. 2014. № 2 (98). P. 215-234
annotation:  This article is dedicated to the problem of scientific identification of the social state. The author defines the social state as a social-institutional system based on redistribution of material benefits which aims to achieve a decent life for each citizen, evening out social inequality and supporting underprivileged parts of the population. The social state represents simultaneously a historical period of social development (the beginning of the European industrial epoch), and a compromise settlement of class conflict. The study offers a set of scientific indicators and criteria which allow to assess national policy from the point of view of its accordance with the definition of the social state.
Keywords:  social policy, welfare state, active and warning effect, indicators of social wellbeing of society, criteria of the social state
The New Welfare State as the Model of Post-Crisis Development / Logos. 2014. № 2 (98). P. 181-214
annotation:  The economic crisis that began in 2008 can truly be called a systemic crisis. The social, economic and political institutions that capitalism created for its own stability today not only impede the free movement of capital and thus are destroyed by the bourgeois state, but they themselves can no longer grow in the old social, economic and legal framework. The welfare state is now experiencing its own crisis. The only alternative to the current situation is the transformation of the social sphere without subordination to the purposes of production. Meanwhile, the most radical global revolution will not stop the unfolding global crisis and will not bring relief if it cannot develop and implement a strategy of social modernization.
Keywords:  economic crisis, neoliberalism, Welfare State, social modernization
Paternalism and Liberalism / Logos. 2014. № 2 (98). P. 167-180
annotation:  Liberal economists and spin doctors present the welfare state as a factor of slowing down economic growth and decreasing efficiency, advising to replace it by specific programs addressing the needs of concrete groups identified as “weak” and deserving support. It is this approach exactly which cultivates paternalist dependency of such groups on the state and demotivates people. The welfare state is needed not only to guarantee equal rights and equal access to public goods for all, but also to work as an engine of social reproduction which in modern societies cannot be spontaneously generated by the market or produced as a summarizing effect of individual activities. In that respect, the social sphere can be seen in Marxist terms as an element of the “basis” of modern society. But to achieve the tasks of the welfare state in the 21st century we have to go beyond its initial model that was oriented towards stimulating individual consumption.
Keywords:  liberalism, neoliberalism, paternalism, Welfare state, social protest
Soviet Music as an Object of Stalinist Cultural Policy / Logos. 2014. № 2 (98). P. 123-155
annotation:  The article analyzes the formation of the language of Stalinist cultural policy using the material of musical-ideological discourse of the 1920s–1950s. The author attempts to disassociate herself from Zhdanov’s narrative about the struggle of two schools in Soviet music. This narrative still dominates historical-musicological research. The author interprets ideological definitions used to characterize the composer’s work, such as “formalism”, “naturalism”, “reactionary character,” “cosmopolitism”, “truthfulness”, “sincerity”, “simplicity”, “nationality”, and “partisanship”, in a new, ethical perspective. The author demonstrates that the accusations of formalism, put forward by some musical ideologists from RAPM to Zhdanov and his followers, were in fact an appeal to a paradoxical ethical norm.
Keywords:  soviet music, Stalinist cultural policy, musical ethos, formalism in music, partisanship in art
Manifesting Soviet Everyday Life by Estrangement / Logos. 2014. № 2 (98). P. 156-166
annotation:  Analysis of various approaches to the study of everyday life shows the importance of literary texts as a source of not only facts from daily life of the past, but also of the views of the author’s contemporaries on a variety of events. “Starik Khottabych,” a tale by Soviet children’s story writer L. Laguin, is discussed as an unconventional example of how changes in everyday life are reflected in the literature of the time. Similarities are also revealed between “Starik Khottabych” and the highly acclaimed satirical novels by Ilf and Petrov, “Twelve Chairs” and “The Little Golden Calf.” In both cases, a protagonist disconnected from Soviet realities serves to create an estrangement effect, which highlights some problems inherent in that reality and not necessarily articulated by the contemporaries.
Keywords:  soviet everyday life, literature, L. Laguin, I. Ilf, E. Petrov, estrangement
How Steel was Melted / Logos. 2014. № 2 (98). P. 89-122
annotation:  This article examines the representation of the Stalinist hero in socialist realist novels of the 1930s–1950s. Using Nikolai Ostrovsky’s novel “How the Steel Was Tempered,” the author analyzes the figure of the wounded and broken male body in socialist realist texts, in the context of gender theory, theories of masculinity, the body, and disability studies. The pages of socialist realist novels are filled with mutilated male bodies. These excessive symbols can be read as the manifestation of an ideological and cultural phantasy of Stalinism: the production of a dismembered male subject. Korchagin is the best example of the “positive hero” as a heroic invalid, and Ostrovsky’s novel serves as a precursor to all socialist realist novels and films.
Keywords:  stalinism, socialist realism, Pavka Korchagin, gender theory, body theory, disability studies, masculinity, mangled bodies
The Academic Community: Politics and Boundaries. The Case of Merab Mamardashvili / Logos. 2014. № 2 (98). P. 65-88
annotation:  The article deals with the professional life stages of the soviet philosopher Merab Mamardashvili (1930–1990). The article argues that his understanding of philosophy, methods of work, as well as his exclusive reputation in a particular segment of the academic community can be explained by reference to his extraordinary career (moving towards, and then away from the center of the philosophical field), and his position on the borderline of the acceptable, which he occupied in the latter half of 1970s — early 1980s. Our specific point of view allows us to objectify the boundaries that separate the “professionals” from the “outsiders” and those that divide the community into different factions. This point of view also allows us to document the ethical and political sensitivity shared by the scholars of Mamardashvili’s circle.
Keywords:  sociology of philosophy, academic community, mechanisms of recognition, Merab Mamardashvili
From Social State to World Crisis. And Back? / Logos. 2014. № 2 (98). P. 235-260
annotation:  The paper maintains that in reality overaccumulation of capital in the real sector underlies destabilization of the world economy. American capitalism started the “Revolution of shareholders” in response to a decline of profits in the course of stagflation during the 1970s. Maximization of shareholder value supplanted maximization of growth as the prime aim of American corporations. In such conditions, a mass shift of production from the North to the South was initiated. Exploitation of cheap labor of the developing world became the prime factor making up for the decline of profits in the real sector. As a result, world productive capacities greatly increase while the world wage fund falls behind as it is determined by regions with low labor compensation. Shortage of aggregate demand vis a vis aggregate supply in the world economy leads to a crisis of the global economy.
Keywords:  crisis of the world economy, overaccumulation of capital
Descartes and an Indifferent Deceiver / Logos. 2014. № 2 (98). P. 15-42
annotation:  The author shows how and why the method of radical interpretation proposed by D. Davidson can solve the problems that are formulated in a variety of skeptical scenarios. In particular, the method of radical interpretation renders the Cartesian skeptical scenario (both in its traditional and recent versions) obscure and even deprives it of its status of a philosophical problem as such. Appealing to the difference between intended and unintended lies, one can see how the global skeptical scenario gets solved in both cases. This paper also extends Willard Van Orman Quine’s argument for an expanded version of a naturalized epistemology by introducing social factors to this approach. In addition, there are always at least two necessary limitations imposed by communication on our hypotheses about knowledge and delusion.
Keywords:  epistemology, skepticism, radical interpretation, externalism, communication
Cognitive Machinery and the Phenomenal Flow of Consciousness / Logos. 2014. № 2 (98). P. 1-14
annotation:  One of the most important problems in contemporary philosophy is the topic of the stream of consciousness. This article deals with the so-called “overflow argument,” according to which the phenomenal flow of consciousness exceeds the cognitive machinery of consciousness. The author divides the stream of consciousness into two flows, the phenomenal flow (a-flow) and the cognitive flow (c-flow) and uses the concept of the Sperling test to demonstrate that the structure of the stream of consciousness cannot be determined solely on the basis of selfobservation and behavioral observation. The additional neural level of observation, namely the so-called neural correlates of consciousness, provides us with a new perspective in considering this problem.
Keywords:  stream of consciousness, overflow argument, the Sperling test
Philosophy as an Object of Legal Regulation. Ways of Professionalizing Philosophical Education in the USSR / Logos. 2014. № 2 (98). P. 43-64
annotation:  The article deals with the Soviet experience of professional development of professors of the Higher school, in particular in the fields of philosophy and social studies. The object of analysis is legal documents which regulated organization of academic activities, work of social studies chairs, staff policy, and improvement of qualification in Soviet universities. The article shows that the Soviet system of professional development can explain many forms of organization of activity in universities today and can shed light on the current condition of philosophical professional society.
Keywords:  Soviet university, Soviet philosophy, professional development
Problems, Heuristics, Insight and Other Strange Things / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 97-108
annotation:  This article is dedicated to a theoretical description of the psychological mechanisms responsible for problem solving by humans. We discuss the structure of a problem and basic psychological processes associated with finding a solution: the construction of a secondary system of meanings on basis of the problem conditions which appear to be integrated in a single structure and which are defined in terms of each other (secondary modeling system, according to V. A. Uspenskiy). In this context, we analyze the most notable point of problem solving — insight and heuristics (heuristic strategies) which fulfill service functions and help the problemsolver to manage the problem and their own thinking.
Keywords:  problem, problem solving, secondary modeling system (metasystem), insight, heuristic, strange things
“Prior to any Learning Acquired Their Traits…” Human Brain Results from Language / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 79-96
annotation:  The paper discusses language as an interface between brain, mind, memory and the world, addresses language evolution and development, and calls attention to the cross-cultural foundations of these spheres and their brain correlates. The paper also discusses the subsensory, synesthetic and irrational basis of creativity in philosophical and semiotic contexts.
Keywords:  language, mind, brain, memory, types of mentality
Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion? / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 61-78
annotation:  The author explores a brand of scepticism about perceptual experience that takes its start from recent work in psychology and philosophy of mind on change blindness and related phenomena. He argues that the new scepticism rests on a problematic phenomenology of perceptual experience. He then consider a strengthened version of the sceptical challenge that seems to be immune to this criticism. This strengthened sceptical challenge formulates what he calls the problem of perceptual presence. The author shows how this problem can be addressed by drawing on an enactive or sensorimotor approach to perceptual consciousness. Our experience of environmental detail consists in our access to that detail thanks to our possession of practical knowledge of the way in which what we do and sensory stimulation depend on each other.
Keywords:  consciousness, phenomenology, visual perception, enactive approach
A and B Were Sitting on a Pipe, or Interdisciplinarity of Cognitive Studies / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 19-34
annotation:  The paper discusses the typology of interdisciplinarity which consists of crossdisciplinarity, multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity. The second part of the paper describes interdisciplinarity of cognitive science with respect to current collaboration of different cognitive sciences—philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, anthropology, and neuroscience.
Keywords:  cognitive science, cognition, interdisciplinarity
Being Interdisciplinary: Trading Zones in Cognitive Science / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 35-60
annotation:  The paper analyzes factors contributing to the emergence of cognitive science as a new interdisciplinary research field. The analysis is based on the metaphor of «trading zones» described by anthropologists. The author lists five conditions for a successful interdisciplinary field to evolve: people with pronounced interdisciplinary interests; places providing opportunities for investigations (universities, research centers, etc); specialized organizations (societies, journals, etc.); ideas that intersect established disciplines; methods applicable at their intersection. As an example, the author discusses interdisciplinary studies of analogical reasoning in cognitive science.
Keywords:  cognitive science, interdisciplinarity, metaphor, trading zones
Cognitive science: its Foundations and Challenges / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 1-18
annotation:  The paper provides a definition of cognitive science, outlines the basic domains of cognitive studies beginning with the original ones and finishing with the newest research areas such as neuropoetics and neuromagic, and describes the rise of cognitive science and its prerequisites. The main approaches towards cognition (the symbolic approach, modularity and neural networks) are analyzed, the scope and challenges of new neuroimaging methods in the study of cognition are discussed; finally, modern trends in cognitive studies are addressed.
Keywords:  cognitive science, cognition, interdisciplinarity, neuroimaging
Egocentrism and Intersubjectivity in Human Beings’ Relationship with the Environment / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 171-186
annotation:  The article is devoted to the problem of anthropocentrism in contemporary deep ecology. Anthropocentrism enables a human being to project his or her image and consumerist views onto the environment as well as to take a superior position over the animal and natural world. The author challenges the assumption that we could easily reject or overcome the anthropocentric paradigm and shows what epistemological traps such a rejection may entail. On the other hand, the article questions the anthropomorphized attitude toward nature as an “available” and “comprehensible” object of human care and love, and proposes to regard nature as an alien, unpredictable and not always explainable world. The author aims to explore the resources which modern philosophy provides for us in order to treat nature as an inherently worthy subject of an intersubjective relationship.
Keywords:  anthropocentrism, intersubjectivity, responsitive rationality, narrative imagination
From Genes to Behavior: What Can Cognitive Genetics Tell Us? / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 155-170
annotation:  The last years have seen a rapid increase in genetic studies. Cognitive genetics in particular tries to understand the role of various genes in the development and functioning of the human brain and mind. While the gap between genes and behavior seems too great to bridge, many studies have successfully identified genes that are linked to brain function and behavior. This article gives a brief introduction to the various methods used in cognitive genetics and some of the main findings with respect to individual differences, psychiatric disorders, and even speech and language.
Keywords:  cognitive genetics, individual differences, psychiatric disorders, GWAS, twin studies
From Homo Economicus to Homo Sapiens / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 141-154
annotation:  In responding to a request for predictions about the future of economics, I predict that Homo Economicus will evolve into Homo Sapiens, or, more simply put, economics will become more related to human behavior. My specific predictions are that Homo Economicus will start to lose IQ, will become a slower learner, will start interacting with other species, and that economists will start to study human cognition, human emotion, and will distinguish more clearly between normative and descriptive theories.
Keywords:  cognitive economics, economic models, normative and descriptive theories, cognitive biases, emotions
Modeling of Cognitive Evolution: View from Artificial Intelligence / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 109-140
annotation:  This paper discusses the modeling of cognitive evolution. Modeling of cognitive evolution is the study of evolution of animal cognitive abilities by means of mathematical and computer models. The goal of these investigations is to analyze evolutionary roots of human thinking. In this paper, the background of models of cognitive evolution are characterized and a proposal for a future program of cognitive evolution investigations is proposed. Biological experiments on cognitive features of animals are also considered. Finally, the paper discusses perspectives for cognitive evolution modeling.
Keywords:  modeling of cognitive evolution, animal cognitive abilities, autonomous agents
Common Sense Strikes Back / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 242-247
History in Spaces of Mikhail Yampolsky / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 247-255
Underground and Schizophrenia / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 237-239
Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Rules for Living / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 239-242
Discovering the New Middle Ages: Postmodernism versus the Scientific Method / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 208-237
Ideology of Compassion and Animal Rights in Shaun Monson’s Documentary Film “Earthlings” / Logos. 2014. № 1 (97). P. 187-207
annotation:  This paper offers a reading of Shaun Monson’s documentary Earthlings that allows us to reveal ideological assumptions and philosophical contradictions in arguments for vegetarianism. The author approaches the documentary using the concept of the social contract between the film and the viewer. The contract includes the following: firstly, the process of film perception leads to a particular emotional reaction; secondly, this reaction implies that the viewer takes on a particular ethical stance; thirdly, this ethical stance becomes a precondition for action. The film’s authors naturalize the connection between these three positions. In addition, the author analyses the philosophical assumptions that form the basis of the argument for vegetarianism, demonstrating shortcomings of those arguments.
Keywords:  animal studies, animal ethics, animal rights, speciesism, representation of suffering
Antiphilosophy, or Philosophical Ready-Mades / Logos. 2013. № 6 (96). P. 1-6
annotation:  The author draws parallels between socalled “anti-art”, which utilizes readymades, and what he has called by analogy “antiphilosophy”. To define and start a ready-made philosophical practice one needs to demonstrate that certain ordinary, everyday practices do not conform to the frameworks of individual cultural identities, and in this sense transcend any cultural relativism. In this way, it becomes possible to open a universal, transcendent meta-perspective without having to overcome one’s natural attitude through the heroic act of philosophical metanoia. The antiphilosopher does not have to search beyond the world in order to take on a meta position; instead, he looks for existing innerworldly practices that already have a universal dimension which transcends any particular worldview. This can be technique (Junger), war, error and illusion, laughter, tears, opera (Wagner), media (McLuhan), etc. Here the philosopher interprets a certain ordinary practice as a universal practice, which subsequently becomes philosophically relevant.
Keywords:  anti-philosophy, ready-made, metanoia, natural attitude, meta-position
La Condition Humaine: the View of Jean-Jacques Rousseau / Logos. 2013. № 6 (96). P. 7-66
annotation:  The article focuses on the problem of the human condition (la condition humaine) in the works of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. It is divided into four chapters which deal with alternatives to the human condition in Rousseau’s thought, including a critique of modern civil society, the idea of a return to the classical city, the state of nature, and the ideals of the happy family and lonely thinker. Rousseau is depicted in the article not only as a social critic or a man of letters, but also as a great thinker whose views on man, society and nature still shed light on the human condition with a profoundness which has not yet been surpassed.
Keywords:  modern political philosophy, civil society, classical city, the state of nature, family as a social and moral unit
Europe: the New Idea of the Late 18th Century / Logos. 2013. № 6 (96). P. 147-174
annotation:  The 18th century sees the apparition of numerous political treatises where the construction of Europe is put at the heart of new sciences about the art of governing. Thoughts on organizing the continent go side by side with the growing necessity to find peace between countries, most often monarchies, taking into account people’s rights. Coming from the top, the Revolution puts that utopia into the form of a Declaration of peace in the world; coming from the bottom, it brings a project of a municipalization of the continent. The Europe of revolutions progressively defines itself and takes the place of the Europe of crowns. The war which breaks out at the end of the century divides Europe in a different way between Coalition and Republic, monarchies and sister republics, and soon after that, quite unexpectedly, between north and south, where the Mediterranean appears in the spirit of many democrats as the place of the future republican revolutions.
Keywords:  Europe, France, revolution, rights, war and peace, Brissot, 18th century, sister republics, the Mediterranean
“One should think what to understand”. About A. Appolonov’s Review / Logos. 2013. № 6 (96). P. 175-180
Panikovsky’s Argument / Logos. 2013. № 6 (96). P. 181-186
A Defence of Constitutional Rights in an Unconventional Manner. A Reply to Mr. N. S. Plotnikov / Logos. 2013. № 6 (96). P. 187-189
Rousseau: Anthropologist of Domination / Logos. 2013. № 6 (96). P. 123-146
annotation:  The author argues that Social Contract Theory reflects an intention of Jean-Jacques Rousseau to overcome history and to change the direction of human development dramatically. For Rousseau, history was associated with a vigorous spread of domination, i. e. of the pursuit personal interests. His exceptional originality consists in an attempt to conceptualize politics by breaking away from the scheme of domination proclaimed by all previous history. The power of the “Social Contract” utopian projection manifests itself in a radical shift in the perception of domination: it is no longer regarded as an indispensable “fact,” nor as a political norm of history, but rather as a tendency towards degeneracy and towards a state of illegality. The genealogy of dominance elaborated by Rousseau represents resistance to finalism and to historical teleology. The society of the future is not the outcome of continuous progress, but rather a lucky side-effect.
Keywords:  domination, politics, passion, social contract, state of nature, freedom, will, authority, Rousseau
The Skull of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Scientific Evidences / Logos. 2013. № 6 (96). P. 115-122
annotation:  In his article the author tries to analyze critically the role of evidence in the scientific knowledge of the Enlightenment. The author presumes that some scientific problems can be understood much better if we understand them in their own historical contexts rather than according to their logic. This hypothesis is demonstrated using the case of Rousseau’s mortal remains, their identification and the assignment of cause of death by numerous experts and famous scientists over the course of several decades.
Keywords:  Rousseau, critical method, forensic medical expert examination Science Academy, forensic anthropology, scientific knowledge, evidence
Speech as the First Institution of Society: Rousseau and the Language Policy of Revolution / Logos. 2013. № 6 (96). P. 67-96
annotation:  The goal of this article is to analyze the theories of the origin of society set forth in Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Second Discourse and in his Essay on the Origin of Language. The article focuses on the role of speech in the proto-genesis of social connections, as Rousseau refers to speech as the “first institution of society”. The author also addresses a vast range of problems concerning the impact of Rousseau’s theoretical legacy on various aspects of the revolutionary government’s legislative activities during the Jacobin dictatorship. The main aim of the article is to expand upon the use of Rousseauist concepts in the development of new language policy. Additionally, the article reveals its immediate relation to essential topics of Rousseau’s works, such as the establishment of a new system of education and direct democracy.
Keywords:  Jean-Jacques Rousseau, origin of language, direct democracy, French Revolution, language policy, regeneration of classical virtues
Jean-Jacques Recommends, or How “Robinson Crusoe” Became a Children’s Book / Logos. 2013. № 6 (96). P. 97-114
annotation:  The article focuses on Rousseau’s views on the problem of women’s and children’s reading, in particular his interpretation of Daniel Defoe’s “Robinson Crusoe” as the one and only book which can be useful and must be recommended for children. Exactly Rousseau’s interpretation turned Defoe’s novel into a children’s book and brought about a series of pedagogical adaptations of Robinson’s life story. Rousseau considers the “desert island” as a specific kind of plot and adapts it as an educational game, which a child must play through reading Defoe’s novel. A mimetic and instrumental reading of Defoe’s novel, described in detail by Rousseau, served as a model for the kind of fiction reading which became typical for Modernity on the whole.
Keywords:  women’s reading, children’s literature, (home) private library, bourgeois reader, mass literature
Editorial Note / Logos. 2013. № 6 (96). P. 190-191
Soviet Sport Corporality as Viewed by American Cultural Theory / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 264-272
Saving private Jünger / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 272-274
Hockey vs Soccer / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 274-281
“Sport” in Antiquity / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 159-170
annotation:  This article examines the phenomenon of “sport” in its ancient sense, with reference to the Greek cultural situation on one side, and the Roman situation on the other. Particular attention is paid to the sacred and profane dimensions of the ancient “sport”. The question of the origin of all-Greek sports in ancient Greece, primarily the Olympic and Pythian Games, is seen here in the context of so-called Panhellenism, which was prominent in Hellas in the 8th–7th centuries BC. The article also describes the most general principles of all-Greek sports games, rules of honoring champions, and the changes in champions’ social status throughout the classical era.
Keywords:  Antiquity, Greek and Roman sport, Panhellenism, Olympic Games, champion social status
Soviet football during the pre-war five-year plan / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 171-212
annotation:  The article tackles the history of the preparation for and organization of the first Soviet football championships. Having become a part of new Soviet mass culture in the second half of the 1930s, football acquired a propagandistic image. This “amateur” sport based on “collectivist” principles with its own play technique was “Soviet” at its core. Why did football have to look this way from an ideological point of view, and why was it never like that? The article seeks to answer these questions and to pose the question of whether it is possible to create this kind of football “in one particular country”.
Keywords:  cultural history of football, soviet doublethink, amateur, professional, collective, individuality, tactics, improvisation
The crisis of sport / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 213-216
The new aim / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 217-222
Is sport culture? / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 223-240
annotation:  Set off against common discourses about “sport and culture”, the article suggests a concept of culture and of sport which links them in a new way. Culture is conceived of as the general knowledge people have, what to do and how to do it under which social circumstances. Sport is conceived of as deliberate physical activity that requires strength, speed, skill and endurance, and is evaluated and carried through in the context of limiting rules. “Sport is culture” therefore means that (1) sport is a culture besides others, and (2) only culture, as a precondition of the human existence, makes sport “sport”.
Keywords:  sport, culture, game, living space, interaction and communication structures
A field of hazard: the first invasion / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 241-263
annotation:  The article is dedicated to the role of hazard in the existential dimension. A field of hazard is treated as a general condition which is older than Nature as such, which allows us to consider this field as a set of chances (or so-called possible worlds). This is what the Greeks called “Physis” or “Cosmos”— the only world which was chosen. After the appearance of man in the world, new chances emerged in Nature, which was the main condition for human conscience, or cogito. A game is the main source of chances, and at the same it is the source of the existential human Time itself. This exact time becomes the pulse of History.
Keywords:  hazard, cosmos, time, the production of time, game, bet, chance
Capitalism, protestantism and modern sport / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 1-42
annotation:  The article explores the main approaches of marxist and neo-marxist critique of the existing sport institutions. The article goes on to present facts, evidence and rational arguments that argue against these critiques. Particularly, the author questions the accusation that Western sports are militarized (Marxism) or that modern sports suppress revolutionary sexual energy (neo-Marxism). The author also rejects the Weberian sport development conception that links it to the Protestant ethic. The author takes under consideration sport practices and competitions and makes an assertion that the golden age of modern sport, which began in the 18th century England, resulted under the impulse of the scientific revolution from the one side, and from the influence the Romanticists ideas from the other. This made possible the combination of romantic aspiration and scientific precision in sport.
Keywords:  golden age of sports, Marxism, neo-Marxism, weberianism, protestant ethic, scientific revolution, German romanticism
Sport as a question of philosophy: on the heuristic value of a new analitic view / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 43-60
annotation:  This article focuses on issues of the philosophy of sport institutionalization in Russia, viewed as a separate field of socio-scientific knowledge. In the beginning of the article the author reports, on the basis of several cases of first-hand experience, the rejection of sport as a “legitimate” object of theoretical reflection by a larger part of the Russian intellectual community. In the main part of the paper the author discusses various prospects for the approval of philosophy of sports as an academic discipline, first of all in the institutional and heuristic aspects. The author draws conclusions about the heuristic value of philosophical sports analysis as a unique socio-theoretical vision which is also relevant to the general theory of modernity.
Keywords:  philosophy, sport, heuristics, institutionalization, high culture, bodily practices, modernity
Pugs at work: bodily capital and bodily labor among professional boxers / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 61-96
annotation:  The article analyzes the social space around American boxing gyms. The research is based upon rich field material consisting of interviews and private conversations with dozens of professional boxers, amateur boxers and coachers which the author met during his visits boxing gyms as a sparring partner, teammate or student. The author analyzes boxers’ and coachers’ work with and on their bodies as investment and risk management, i. e. treating their body as a capital (in the sense of Pierre Bourdieu’s concept). The author also outlines the main characteristics of professional boxers, including a high degree of self-sacrifice combined with a careless attitude to their own health.
Keywords:  boxing, bodily capital, gym, self-sacrifice
Body made by machines and body-making machine / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 97-107
annotation:  The article analyzes human body formation through technical means as a characteristic process of modernity. Elaborating upon Walter Benjamin’s thesis, the author explores the mechanism of producing visual images which replace the body itself. The author also challenges the naive notion of the “naturalness” of body image in both sports and advertising. The technological nature of corporality depicted by media is emphasized alongside a discussion of the principles of the functions body-making machines, touching upon the topics of the “modelness” of an image, its seriation, etc. Imposed through the media, the concept of the image of a unique personality different from the “average” is treated in the article as a matter of manipulating people’s minds for marketing purposes.
Keywords:  body, machine, image, visual media, image production, representation, naturalness, language, commercial, concept of personality, sportification
Workout body / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 108-118
annotation:  This article explores specific post-Soviet bodily practices that are commonly combined in the concept of “workout center”. Various approaches of philosophy and sociology of sports are used in the analysis, and special attention is paid to the concepts of such authors as Pierre Bourdieu, Allen Guttmann, Loic Wacquant, Hans Gumbreht, Thomas Alkemeyer. “Working out” is juxtaposed with contemporary classic sports (weightlifting, bodybuilding). Unlike sports, which require continuous communication between the athlete, his partners and coaches, during “working out” this dense social field is absent. If we compare those who “work out” with those who “do sports”, the former phenomenon can be described as “post-sport”, — that is, a type of sports which, unlike the sports of modernity, are not accompanied by a fixation of social differences on the body of the athlete (as described by Alkemeyer) or by the accumulation of “body capital” (Wacquant).
Keywords:  philosophy of sports, sociology of sports, corporeity, post-sports
The economic prediction for sports results: from the Beijing Olympics to the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 119-138
annotation:  This article addresses the following research question: would a model based on population and GDP per capita as determinants perform as well in explaining the football World Cup outcomes as it performed with medal wins at Olympic Games? What has been observed with the prediction of the football World Cup semi-finalists paves the way for a new avenue for research which would consist in defining and explaining more carefully so-called surprising sporting outcomes.
Keywords:  prediction of sports performances, socioeconomic determinants, FIFA World Cup, surprising sporting outcomes
A pyramid or an iceberg? Various sports models and their economic implications / Logos. 2013. № 5 (95). P. 139-158
annotation:  To review the problem of mass participation in sports we use the case of the triathlon. We demonstrate two models—the “post-Soviet model” and the “developed countries model”. We argue that Russia inherited from the USSR the unprofitable sports development model, whose sole purpose is the production of elite athletes. But in the developed countries in recent years an alternative model is being actively developed, which implements a more cost-effective Sports-for-All approach. Further, we discuss the motivations to participate in sport. We compare the Sports-as-participation and Sports-as-winning in terms of their competing internal motives. We argue that various understandings of sports are a consequence of their balance. We conclude with the analysis of the political background of this problem and propose solutions.
Keywords:  sports, sport for all, triathlon, comparative economic systems, economic sociology, sports studies, sports policy
Capital city relocation on the agenda of modern states / Logos. 2013. № 4 (94). P. 1-14
annotation:  The article discusses the contexts and global issues involved in capital city relocation debates in different countries, the various concepts of a capital city and the peculiar patterns of these debates. The article also discusses the stakes and points of contention in these debates, their motives and hidden agendas and introduces the plan of the current issue of Logos. Capital cities’ relocations are viewed not as singular and unique experiments in urban planning and development but as social and political strategies evolving in more or less universal fashion and governed by certain laws. The author highlights the importance of capital cities as catalysts and instruments of nation-building. The article mentions different methodologies currently employed by academics and politicians proposing specific locations for new capital cities and looks at the criteria of capital cities’ effi ciency.
Keywords:  capitals, capital relocation, national and state building, federalism, primate city
Capital city / Logos. 2013. № 4 (94). P. 15-38
annotation:  The article discusses the concept of a capital city and the formation of capital cities, mostly in European countries. Gottmann emphasizes three factors that define the role of a capital city: the size of its territory, external features of a state, character of its international connections and a level of government control. The author also discusses the volume of capital cities’ functions, motivations and consistent patterns of capital city relocations in different countries, the peculiar features of new capital cities as well as factors that determine their geographical location, type of architecture and iconography. Gottmann develops the concept of capital cities as hinges to link various ethnic and other groups within the state, different periods of national history and to connect the country with the world outside. The author also turns to an issue of the character of conflicts between major cities and the state power in different historical periods and discusses the role of former capitals within the inner dynamics of cultures and states.
Keywords:  former capitals, capital relocation, capital functions, peripheral and central capitals, multiple hinge, urbanization, metropolisation, megapolices, projectes cities
Capital cities and their contested roles in life of nations / Logos. 2013. № 4 (94). P. 39-56
annotation:  Th e article discusses the status of capital in the modern globalized world. Sociologists focus on the experience of Asian countries, states of the Southeast Asia primarily. Examples how major issues of political authority and political strife manifest themselves in a life of capital cities. As a main places of implementing the national politics capitals appear to be points of permanent confrontation and development of a state as a whole. Regardless of expectations of most of the globalism and marxist theoreticians, cultural, ethnic and religious diversity that states use to strengthen and support embodу in capital cities. Global capitalism was unable to assimilate nation states capitals that keep playing extremely important role as a centers of international and interregional relations.
Keywords:  capitals, global cities, Southeast Asia
The changing role and identity of capital cities in global era / Logos. 2013. № 4 (94). P. 57-108
annotation:  This paper reports on the early results of a longer comparative project on capital cities. Specifi cally, it examines the changing role of national capital cities in this apparent global era. Globalization theory suggests that threats to the monopoly power of nation-states and the rise of a transnational network of global economic cities are challenging the traditional centrality of national capital cities. Indeed, both the changing status of nationstates and the restructuring world economy will reshuffl e the current hierarchy of world cities, shift the balance of public and private power in capitals, and alter the current dominance of capitals as the commercial and governmental gateway between domestic and international spheres. However, claims in globalization theory that a new transnational system of global cities will make national boundaries, national governments and national capitals superfl uous, albeit theoretically provocative, are arguably both ahistorical and improvident.
Keywords:  capitals, global cities, nation state, Berlin
When capital cites move: the political geography of nation and state building / Logos. 2013. № 4 (94). P. 109-142
annotation:  Capital relocation (i. e., the physical move of the central state apparatus from one location to another) is an unusual tool for nation and state building. Yet, it is used more frequently than we might expect. Thus, when Kazakhstan shift edits capital city in 1997 from Almaty to Astana the move was unique in that post-Soviet region, but not as uncommon in other post-colonial cases. This paper examines the move of the capital in Kazakhstan suggests that this move was designed to address particularly acute nation-and state-building challenges. If the Kazakhstan experience seems strange in de-Sovietization, this tells us much about the diff erent nature of post Soviet space versus other post-colonial contexts. The relative in frequency of capital moves implies that the challenges of nation and state building in the ex-USSR—as daunting as they have proved to be—are generally not as acute as in those of other post-colonial contexts.
Keywords:  capital, nation and state building, Th e Westphalian system, Astana, Kazakhstan
Capital relocation in Africa: the case of Lilongwe in Malawi / Logos. 2013. № 4 (94). P. 143-167
annotation:  Several developing countries have initiated relocation programmes over the past 30 years. Certain common issues can be shown to have contributed to these decisions: the peripheral location of the capital; its colonial connotations; and the need to spread regional development, allay regional or ethnic jealousies, and provide a focus for national pride. An examination of the transferral of Malawi’s capital shows how these issues aff ected the decision to move from Zomba to Lilongwe. The development of Lilongwe as the new capital is facing many problems in the fi elds of fi nance, planning, population growth, service and housing provision, and employment. Moreover, Lilongwe’s limited ability to provide a real counterattraction to the major urban centre of Blantyre has been partly due to a lack of strong government commitment to enforcing appropriate policies.
Keywords:  capitals, capital relocation, nation building, post-colonial Africa
Planning and implementing capital cities. Lessons from the past and prospects for intelligent development in the future: the case of Korea / Logos. 2013. № 4 (94). P. 168-190
annotation:  Focusing on the case study of South Korea, the author argues that engineering megaprojects associated with capital city shift s require systematic strategic planning, meticulous research, construction and discussion of the alternative development scenarios and preparation of wide public debate of the topic. The article argues that even the projects that are not very popular could be relatively effective in achieving their goals povided that they are well planned in advance. Th e author argues that the choice of a new capital should take into account the prospect of the future political reunification of the Korean peninsula. The establishment of separate administrative, legislative and cultural capitals might be a viable option for new Korea.
Keywords:  capital relocation, intelligent development, multifunctional administravite city, strategic planning, Corea, Seul
Moving the capital of Argentina: a further example of utopian planning? / Logos. 2013. № 4 (94). P. 191-206
annotation:  Argentina is the latest in a long line of countries to establish a new national capital. Established in 1987 in the vicincity of two small provincial towns on the fringe of Patagonia, the new city could hardly be more different from cosmopolitan Buenos Aires. The aim of the transfer is to stimulate development in Patagonia, to slow the growth of Buenos Aires, and to break with years of inefficient government bureaucracy by establishing a new elite civil service in the new city. This article examines the main features of the new programme and provides a critique based on the experiences of other countries in establishing a new capital city.
Keywords:  capitals, capital relocation, city environment, Argentina, Buenos Aires, Brasilia
Abuja / Logos. 2013. № 4 (94). P. 207-236
annotation:  The author discusses the historical background and political circumstances that motivated capital city relocation in Nigeria and its official and hidden agenda of. He describes the outcome and execution of this decision and its impact upon the ethnic and religious cleavages in the country. While the new capital was geared to alleviate the ethnic and religious conflicts within the country and help to reconcile Christian and Muslim communities, in reality it has escalated many of the existing conflicts. The author reflects upon the reasons why the new capital city failed to deliver on its promises and noble goals and exacerbated the problems that it was meant to solve—balanced regional development, national unity, resolution of the congestion and poverty issues of the old capital. The article argues that the project also failed to achieve many other critically important goals and that corruption and authoritarian agenda of the Nigerian leadership determined its ultimate failure.
Keywords:  post-colonial nation building, eccentric capitals, alites, national unity, parasitic city, Abuja, civil war in Nigeria, post-colonial Africa
Center and pereiphery: between growth and development / Logos. 2013. № 4 (94). P. 237-266
annotation:  In her article the author draws a parallel between some globalization theories that blurs over the inevitability of uneven development of world regions and Russian discursive output, i.e. those narratives that legitimate the extension of uneven development within the country. The non-proportional share in growth of capital–center comparing to other regions should be somehow explained to people or suppressed. As a result those arguments to explain the uneven world development are used for interpretation of proccesses within Russia. Based on publications of 2010–2012 years the author shows the infiltration of uneven development topics to online media and social networks debates combined with age-old aspirations of cultural unity of the country. Discussing the political details of the center–periphery relations connects with capitalness/provinciality discourse. Those discussions include some elements of neoliberal logic—accusing the victims of structural contradictions in their own problems.
Keywords:  center–periphery relations, regional inequality, capital and province, globalization theory, cultural entrepreneurship, uneven development
Lessons from around the world for Moscow governance in a global metropolitan age / Logos. 2013. № 4 (94). P. 267-287
annotation:  The author analyzes different city management models for accommodating metropolitan growth that have emerged in various global regions and argues that there are lessons to be learned from each. He notes that the rapid growth of (mega)cities means that developing new management strategies for metropolitan regions is imperative for sustaining healthy, liveable, and productive metropolitan regions in the future. Among the most important lessons learned from this experience have been the need (a) to distinguish among levels of government in allocating urban management tasks; (b) to appropriate adequate financial resources to support assigned duties and responsibilities; and (c) to empower citizens and promote civic participation in decision-making. Ultimately, international experience has demonstrated that the successful metropolitan management depends on the legitimacy of institutions.
Keywords:  urban inequality, decentralization, metropolisation, capitals, Moscow, megapolises, capital government, city management
Public Declaration: Epistemic Filters and Ecology of Mind / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93). P. 1-8
annotation:  Testing true public presentation is difficult both due to the non-convertibility of community knowledge, and to the broad associative field, after the use of new models of knowledge codification. In today’s world, increased production of knowledge leads to the fact that the performance itself, rather than the traditional practice of the differences, become the criterion of authenticity. The old practice of differences becomes private utterances, while the general statement of authentically knowable will derive from ‘environmental’ type, systematically providing a balance between ‘permissible error’ and ‘restitutable certainty’. In the article we give the description of epistemic filters, releasing the concept of ‘authenticity’ and ‘falsity’ from the inertia of ordinary understanding. The truth of the public presentation can be established through the creation of communities of knowledge, and new poetics of knowledge.
Keywords:  social epistemology, truth, environmental thought, publicity
How We Were Schooled to TV Series / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93).
annotation:  The article considers the emergence of new television shows in the mid 90s and so-called ‘quality television’. The key issue is whether it is the television production itself that has changed or the frame within which this production is perceived, and the interplay of different factors—technological, economic and cultural—is considered to answer the question. Facing new technological challenges, especially new habits of watching, television foregrounded quality and authorial products which are distinct for their narrative complexity (new relations between episodes and overarching plot, stronger narrative reflexivity). The article also considers the role of new quality TV series in establishing new relations between television and Internet. New TV series are important media cross-platform phenomenon and, therefore, require the revision of conventional methods of TV ratings measuring.
Keywords:  TV series, quality television, TV ratings, narrative complexity
The Logic of TV series / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93).
annotation:  The article focuses on the analysis of modern western drama TV series that are described as a mass culture phenomenon and an important tool of socialization. TV series are compared with Hollywood blockbusters according to the ideas of Mikhail Bakhtin’s studies on the ‘Epic and novel’. Bakhtin considers the novel to be the only emerging genre. Novels are younger than books, than writing, as well as TV series are younger than cinema. Novels are the only literary form adapted to silent perception (reading) in the same way as TV series are originally designed for personal, home entertainment unlike movies that are supposed to be a collective experience for the theatre. In addition, the article provides an overview of the most remarkable story drivers, and a closer look at Trickster characters, which are common to numerous TV series. Shows running during the second half of 2000s and early 2010s are used for the examples (House M. D. that was filmed since 2004 as the only exception).
Keywords:  TV series, mass culture, M. Bakhtin, Machiavelli, novel, epic, literature
Realism and Utopia in ‘The Wire’ / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93).
annotation:  The article treats the form of TV series as based on repetition so that it, on the one hand, provides a sense of security and, on the other, might become a source of neurotic denial and paralysis. The notions of ‘art’, ‘quality’ or ‘cultural capital’ are used on TV as ideological alibi. The series ‘The Wire’ stands out here as an epistemological investigation that combines realistic elements, in particular realistic typology of characters, with elements of Utopianism which transcends traditional mimetic realism. ‘The Wire’s’ Utopianism is due to the fact that it provides the representation of collective dynamics as well as productivity and praxis. The article also considers the issues of plot construction in detective stories in relation to historical changes that made many traditional plot formulas impossible. The repetition of old melodramatic plots becomes ever more boring. On the other hand, evil in social dimension disappears and money becomes the only psychological motivation of crime available. This ineluctably politicizes the mass culture.
Keywords:  TV series, realism, Utopia, detective story, plot construction, postracial
The Clash of Civilizations in a Single Country (‘The Wire’) / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93).
annotation:  Žižek suggests that the Weltgeist in mass culture has moved from cinema to television series. ‘The Wire’ stands out against this background for its realism because in it the community provides representation of itself. Indeed, in this aspect the series is similar to Greek tragedy to which it is so often compared. But its realism is rather a subjective than objective one, it is not limited to bare reality but also presents a Utopian dimension. Yet this dimension is ultimately embedded into the system itself and reinforces its smooth functioning. Therefore ‘The Wire’ is deeply pessimistic and devoid of catharsis. Žižek argues that the limits of the ‘The Wire’ come from the fact that the abstract capitalist society as well as the totalitarian one, cannot be reconstructed within realistic psychological framework as this covers the fundamental gap between social objectivity and subjective self-knowledge.
Keywords:  series boom, ‘The Wire’, kinds of realism, representation of community, Utopia, limits of psychological realism
The Durp Subst ance and Delivering Lulzes. ‘The Big Bang Theory’ and a Culture of Research University / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93).
annotation:  The article analyses three issues. Firstly, how the culture of research universities in the series ‘The Big Bang Theory’ is designed based on the Honor Code Handbook of the California Institute of Technology. Secondly, the author observes the culture of pranks and jokes as an element of the tradition of American research universities— in comparison to cultural traditions of Russian universities. Third, he demonstrates, that one of the main patterns of constructing comic situations in the series is explaining the incommensurability of conceptual frameworks—he common language and the language of science.
Keywords:  TV series, ‘The Big Bang Theory’, honor code of university, prank culture of university, incompatibility of frameworks
Dostoevsky Goes to Albuquerque. Walter White and the End of American Superhero / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93).
annotation:  The article focuses on the analysis of the TV drama series ‘Breaking Bad’ from the point of contemporary popular culture studies. The crisis of big screen cinema, which is oriented towards teenagers and competition with new digital entertainments, forces television to look for new ways of attracting the public’s attention. One way of doing it is via an experiment of creating more complex narrative for TV-show, with a structure and content similar to some texts of European existentialism. Walter White becomes a new kind of American superhero, who uses his superabilities for a moral suicide. Albuquerque becomes a place, where within the frame of the economic crisis, the real drama unfolds. Its actors are ambitious losers, drug lords, unscrupulous lawyers and greedy businessmen. Why such kind of show is so popular in the world, which is accustomed to simple stories of Hollywood blockbusters?
Keywords:  popular culture, superheroes, television, ‘Breaking Bad’, films, drama, existentialism, critical theory
Reification of romantic love and new patterns of intimacy in the contemporary sitcom (‘How I Met Your Mother’) / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93).
annotation:  The article studies the representations of intimacy in modern American television situation comedy. On the example of the series ‘How I Met Your Mother’, the author analyzes the interaction and coalescence of motives of romantic love and monogamy with postmodern patterns of intimacy, for instance, the so-called serial monogamy. The sitcom is interpreted in terms of the sociology of emotions. Among the features of representation of new romantic love patterns the implantation of the confession discourse in the sitcom is named (closely related by appropriation of the media of many psychoanalytic and psychotherapy discourses functions in their pop version), in which romantic love, as well as any other less complex emotions are subject to fragmentation, standardization, quantification and assessment, which, eventually, not only homologically reflects general changes in emotional style of late capitalism, but also constructs new role models and patterns of intimacy.
Keywords:  sociology of emotions, situational comedy, the commodification of ‘romantic love’, reification of emotions, serial monogamy
Matthew Weiner’s ‘Mad Men’ and the Arbitrariness of Social Norms / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93).
annotation:  In this paper, I propose a theoretical model of the audience reaction to Matthew Weiner’s TV show Mad Men. It specifies four kinds of visual pleasure and offers two testable implications. Firstly, via a progressist approach, the viewer takes the show as a source of criticism of certain social norms specific to the American society of the 60s overcome by the 2000s. Secondly, in a critical approach, the viewer interprets the show as the attack on both norms of the 60s and of the 2000s. The author tests these approaches by analyzing a number of scenes that involve issues of gender, class, and environment. He finds that the second approach is more plausible because both the filmmaker and the viewer belong to the same era.
Keywords:  social norms, melodrama, gender, class, ecology, ‘Mad Men’, Matthew Weiner
Videodead: The Emergence of Zombie TV series / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93).
annotation:  The author tries to show how the zombie— one of the most iconic characters of modern popular culture—after big cinema screens, music platforms and comic strip pages, eventually appeared on small TV-screens consolidating its glory. The article gives a brief history of zombies in American cinema, the evolution of the monster image and its key features. The author deals with different political, social and philosophical interpretations of the zombie phenomenon and concludes that if earlier the living dead was a metaphor which helped to reveal certain social problems, today zombies just represent themselves. A lot of attention is paid to George Romero, one of the pioneers of the genre. Through Romero’s mythology the author tries to look at ‘The Walking Dead’, ‘In the flesh’ and ‘Zombieland’ TV series.
Keywords:  zombies, living dead, popular culture, American cinema, TV series, George Romero
Higher education in Russia: education razdatok / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93).
annotation:  he article is dedicated to the Russian higher education according to Olga Bessonova’s razdatok theory. According to this theory there is a domination of the state distribution of necessary resources in Russia assuming the delivery from society to the state in the form of compulsory labour service. In Russia the higher education, legal status and knowledge necessary for its receiving are distributed resources, educational work of students and pedagogical work of teachers is the delivery. The educational razdatok supposes the planned organization of work as well as the practice of written complaints as feedback between students and administration.
Keywords:  higher education, education razdatok, curriculum, institute of complaints, service academic and pedagogical work
Reason and Stupidity in the Digital Age / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93). P. 178-187
«The Unity of Nature» and the Transcendentality of Fantasy / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93). P. 187-193
Fetishism Now / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93). P. 193-200
Philosophy in Lists / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93). P. 200-207
Between Leviathan and Behemoth: Global Sovereign Delirium / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93). P. 207-216
Citizenship: Political Practice or Legal Status? / Logos. 2013. № 3 (93). P. 216-218
Plato: the New Beginning/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 2-4
Reality of Plato’s Philosophy/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 5-15
annotation:  On the basis of Foucault’s concept of ‘reality of philosophy’ the paper presents an anti-utopian interpretation of Plato’s attempt to solve a key political problem which reemerged in the 20th century aft er philosophy had split in two dominant languages of thinking.
Keywords:  Plato, reality of philosophy, political thinking, metaphysics.
Socrates Behind a Spartan Camoufl Age/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 16-28
annotation:  The article judges biographical evidence of Socrates, describing some particularities of his visage and behavioral manner. On the basis of evidence by Aristophanes, Xenophontes, Plato and others the author comes to the conclusion that Socrates’ behavior and image are stylized to the Spartans character. ‘Le Mirage Spartiate’ and Socrates’ biographical testimony are compared. The parallels
drawn allow to discuss nonverbal determination of the philosophic temper as a subject of the History of Philosophy.

Keywords:  ancient philosophy, Socrates, Sparta, nonverbal aspect of philosophy.
On the History of the Plato’s Denazifi cation in Germany / Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 29-41
annotation:  Th e article deals with various types of post-Nazi Plato reception in Germany. The author argues that Plato’s ‘denazifi cation’ was perturbed and complicated by K. Popper’s book ‘The Spell of Plato’, 1st volume of his famous ‘The Open Society and Its Enemies’. His liberal interpetation of Plato coincides, ex negativo, with the Nazist one. The article analyses diff erent denazifi cation
programms: the total refutation of any Nazi/totalitarian reading of Plato; the interpretation of Plato’s criticism of democracy as an endeavour to improve it; the comparison of ‘Politeia’ with totalitarian regimes of the 20th century (in favour of the former); charge against liberal criticism for, under Plato’s name, attacking the contemporary meritocratic (= aristocratic) society. The currently dominant interpretation of Plato commits a hermeneutical violence inverse to that of totalitarian reading: Plato is presented as the pleader of dialogue and persuasion, the forerunner of parliamentary democracy.

Keywords:  reception, denazifi cation, hermeneutical violence, utopy, rehabilitation.
Archaism and Innovation in the Practice of the First Russian Translations of Plato / Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 42-57
annotation:  The article deals with the first translations of Plato’s dialogues into Russian (and partially into Church Slavonic) made in the Masonic milieu in the 18th century. The author shows that in their practice and in their translation approaches the translators were foreshadowing the archaists-innovators debate in the beginning of the 19th century (described by Yu. Tynianov). In spite of a number of misunderstandings and failures, these translations played a very important role in the formation of the Russian philosophical and even semiotic terminology.
Keywords:  Plato, translation, dialogue, linguistic archaism, linguistic innovation, Church Slavonic Language.
Plato and His Teaching in Sigizmund Krzhizhanovsky (1887–1950)/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 58-84
annotation:  The article discusses Krzizhanovsky’s peculiar handling of the quoted sources. His knowledge of doxographical testimonia concerning Plato is observed including the use of evidence going back to Diogenes Laërtius. Krzhizhanovsky’s direct use of Plato, his dialogues and theories is discussed. The treatment of Plato’s main theories in Krzizhanovsky’s prose and theoretical essays is studied
in detail. Krzhizhanovsky’s use of Plato’s collected works in 6 volumes translated and commented by Vladimir Karpov (1798–1867) is explored, particularly the use of Karpov’s comments to ‘Phaedrus’ and ‘Symposium’ in his essay ‘Love as Method of Knowledge’.

Keywords:  Sigizmund Krzhizhanovsky, Plato, Vladimir Karpov, Plato in Russia in 19th and 20th centuries
Th e Jumping Swan: on the Dramatic Approach to Plato’s Dialogues/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 85-100
annotation:  The article focuses on the question why Plato adopts the dramatic form for his philosophical works. The author suggests that this fact can be explained by Plato’s philosophical views on the relation between ‘pure thinking’ and ‘imagery’. These views are expressed, in particular, in the Republic and the Sophist. By examining relevant fragments featuring various methods of presentation the author concludes that dialogues as such have a performative nature. In other words, philosophical propositions are implemented by the form of the works themselves. It is due to this performativity, presumably, that Plato’s works were presented in the dramatic form.
Keywords:  Plato, dialogues, dramatic form, thinking, image, structure.
Metaphysics within the Limits of the Ordinary/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 101-122
annotation:  The purpose of this essay is to explore the prospects for the use and development of Thompson Clarke’s ideas from his well-known paper, ‘The Legacy of Skepticism’. The paper is particularly concerned with Clarke’s criticism of the so-called ‘standard human-conceptual constitution’, which provides a ground for the distinction between plain questions of ordinary life and a philosophical
intellectual quest. In support of Clarke’s criticism, it is compared to Donald Davidson’s criticism of scheme-content dualism. Moreover, the paper provides an assessment of G. E. Moore’s arguments against philosophical skepticism, which can be applied to a critical study of metaphysical preconditions in contemporary epistemology and for elaborating on the extended conception
of the ‘ordinary’. The main conclusion of the paper is that skepticism, being the logical result of these preconditions, mostly depends on the distinction between pure logical and epistemological possibilities, which is presupposed by the very idea of a conceptual scheme. This distinction is the basis for drawing radical and intuitive skeptical conclusions.

Keywords:  metaphysics, epistemology, philosophical skepticism, conceptual scheme, inductive inference.
The Legacy of Skepticism/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 123-140
annotation:  Thompson Clarke’s paper marked the beginning of the revival of the interest to the problems of philosophical skepticism in the early 70’s. In his paper Clarke raises the issue of skepticism’s relevance to the philosophical inquiry and provides a new interpretation of the traditional skeptical problems. Also Clarke points out the signifi cance of G. E. Moore’s defense of common sense. Particularly, he shows that the lack of ordinary contexts does not make skeptical questions and Moore’s attempts to answer these questions are meaningless, as philosophers of ordinary language claimed. However, skeptics and their opponents usually share a theoretical presupposition—the idea of a standard human-conceptual constitution. As Clarke points out, this constitution supposedly determines the limits and content of the human knowledge about the world. The notion of objective knowledge and the conception of philosophy itself are based on the idea of such a constitution. However, Clarke, by applying the concepts of dream and hallucination, illustrates that this idea contradicts the functioning of the concepts we use to learn about and understand the world.
Keywords:  objective knowledge, philosophical skepticism, common sense, standard human- conceptual constitution.
Porn as an Art of Violence/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 141-156
annotation:  The article explores the phenomenon of pornography at its prephenomenological and prediscursive level, hence in the initial context of religious taboo, moral prohibition, and laws. Pornography is considered not through its phenomenological obviousnesses (of copulating bodies), but on the layer of invisible and repressed violence, which is crucial for sexual arousal. Noteworthy is the fact that the law does not prosecute this violence, because it is precisely it, that appears the subject of law and its justifi cation.
Keywords:  pornography, violence, law, taboo, arousal, seduction, Franz Kafka, Giorgio Agamben, Walter Benjamin.
Культовое кино и сексуальное насилие/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 157-179
Porno Chic: Between Cult and Oblivion/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 180-195
annotation:  In his article Alexander Pavlov investigates a phenomenon of the porno-industry called ‘porno chic’, emphasizing American cinema of the 1970s. His hypothesis is that porno chic is an attempt to present pornography as high art, and analyzes crucial fi lms of this movement, pointing out changes that occurred to the notion in time, and, by pointing out its weaknesses he shows why this genre didn’t take a signifi cant place among other phenomena of high and mass culture.
Keywords:  porno chic, American cinema, New Hollywood, art-porno, mainstream, pornography, underground, 1970s culture, parody, blockbuster, transgression, inherent transgression
Th e Mirror of Desire: Woman as Visual Object/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 196-203
annotation:  The article analyses the fundamental ambivalence at the heart of the implied spectator’s interaction with female images in very diff erent contexts, from classical cinema or opera to BDSM pornography. Th e author argues against the received opinion that women are objectivized in a male-dominated visual culture and claims that the dynamic of male desire, even in the most misogynistic genres, is predicated on the oscillation between the sadistic objectifi cation and the masochistic subjectifi cation of female heroines. This oscillation is only halted at the moment of transgressing the boundaries of the imaginary towards the unsymbolizable object of desire, associated with the Lacanian model of love.
Keywords:  voyeurism, fetishism, identifi cation, sadism, masochism, pornography, love.
Genres for Prosecution: Pornography and Gothics/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 204-227
Warhol"s "Blowjob"/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 228-259
Калибр революции: 16-миллиметровая пленка и подъем порнофильмов/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 260-290
Pornography, Porno, Porn: Thoughts on a Weedy Field/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90). P. 291-309
annotation:  Academic research on pornography is a new fi eld of academic knowledge and its the legitimacy is not suffi ciently understood by scholars working in it. In this article there is an overview of the most important anthology for the field, it contains texts about the whole spectrum of moving-image pornography—from hardcore to erotics. Alsoterminology issues in this specifi c fi eld of studies
is considered and at the end, the author proceeds to the issue of borders in the sphere of knowledge, where the subject is claimed to be in a permanent transgression of limits.

Keywords:  Pornography, hardcore, soft core, academic fi eld, participant observation, feminism, homosexuality, queer, racism, obscene.
Summaries/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90).
Authors/ Logos. 2012. № 6 (90).
Decisions and Indecisions. Political and Intellectual Receptions of Carl Schmitt/ Logos. 2012. № 5 (89). P. 3-43
annotation:  Where liberal thought has tried to quarantine the ‘dangerous mind’ of Carl Schmitt, recent revisions have found portents of contemporary imperial hubris in his analysis of the victor’s justice. Warning against such ‘rehabilitations’, Benno Teschke detects a unifying set of preoccupations that make the thinker’s transition from hyper-authoritarianism to fascism logical. Teschke demonstrates the failures and defects of Schmitt’s geopolitical project which is viewed as ‘flawed construct’. Schmittean concepts of ‘sovereign’, ‘political’, and ‘great spaces’ cannot offer a coherent sociological framework for the interpretation of international relations.
Keywords:  Carl Schmitt, international relations, great spaces, geopolitics
Benjamin is no match for Schmitt, or the Agamben’s Mistake/ Logos. 2012. № 5 (89). P. 44-67
annotation:  ‘Dangerous liaisons’ of the left and right-conservative discourse have been discussed widely by different thinkers of the 20th century. Most sharply this issue rung in the context of long standing debates between the left esoteric Walter Benjamin and the conservative utopist Carl Schmitt. Based on the texts of Benjamin and Schmitt of the 20s and 30s focused on a range of issues such as sovereignty, state of emergency or violence and language, the author exposes the irreducibility of the positions of these two thinkers and their fundamental political, metaphysical and ethical alternativeness. The article critically analyses the approaches of famous modern day researchers to the theme referred to (Agamben), conditioned by their preconceived political. theological and metaphysical convictions.
Keywords:  origins of law, sovereignty, state of emergency, affect, violence
The use and abuse of Leo Strauss in the Schmitt revival by the German right-wing — the case of Heinrich Meier/ Logos. 2012. № 5 (89). P. 68-86
annotation:  The article reviews Heinrich Meier’s book ‘Carl Schmitt, Leo Strauss und “Der Begriff des Politischen”. Zu einem Dialog unter Abwesenden’ and analyses the reasoning and motivation behind Meier’s claim about the ‘hidden’ dialogue between Carl Schmitt and Leo Strauss and their shared opposition to liberalism and cosmopolitism. Meier’s central arguments are based on a misunderstanding in the interpretation of Strauss’s essay and its influence on Schmitt’s ‘Concept of the Political’ as well as on the distortion of Strauss’s views. Howse also attacks the thesis about an insuperable rupture between political theology based on faith (Schmitt) and political philosophy based on reasoning (Strauss). Schmitt’s project turns out to be based on modern biblical criticism, which informs a variety of modern philosophical liberalism.
Keywords:  Carl Schmitt, Leo Strauss, Karl Löwith, political theology, political philosophy, enmity, antisemitism, Nazism, liberalism, cosmopolitanism
Political Decisionism / Logos. 2012. № 5 (89). P. 115-142
annotation:  The article critically analyses Carl Schmitt’s concept of decisionism. On a number of examples it demonstrates the ‘polemic’ nature of his main concepts, which are the result of the deliberate opportunism of this ‘crown lawyer’ of The Third Reich, who repeatedly changed his positions during the short history of the Weimar republic. The author concludes on the fundamental occasionalism of Schmitt’s the thought, whose decisions always hung on political circumstances and who eventually disqualified himself as a credible scientist by his intellectual serving of the Nazi regime.
Keywords:  occasionalism, decisionism, neutralization, romanticism, theology, nihilism, dictatorship, friend-enemy distinction, political being, forms of existence, war
Carl Schmitt Taken Liberally / Logos. 2012. № 5 (89). P. 143-157
annotation:  The article makes an attempt to reconstruct a little known subject from the European history of ideas of the 20th century related to Carl Schmitt’s intellectual impact on the formation of the post-war generation of the German conservatives, to which the author of this article himself belongs. On the basis of his personal memories, the author discusses Carl Schmitt’s membership in Joachim Ritter’s Collegium Philosophicum in Münster and the impact of Schmitt’s works on the members of this intellectual circle. At the same time the ambivalent nature of the reception of Schmitt’s ideas is exposed. It manifests itself either in a direct adoption, or in a noticeable distancing from some Schmittean intentions (antiparlamentarism etc.)
Keywords:  history of ideas, liberal reception of Carl Schmitt, intellectual impact, left schmitteanism, young conservatives, genesis of liberalism, political decision, decisionism, eclecticism
The Concept of the Political as a Key to the State-Legal Works of Carl Schmitt/